Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

  • csk
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toilet types in India

I know that 111 million toilets would be constructed during the five-year "Clean India" campaign, but what type of toilets are these toilets? For instance, six types of sanitary toilets are promoted in rural China, how about India?

Is there anyone who can answer me?

Thanks in advance.

Shikun CHENG, Ph. D
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I am a lecturer in the University of Science and Technology Beijing and work on environmental sanitation. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
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Re: Toilet types promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

I hope our Indian colleagues will jump into this discussion thread as it should be easy to answer for anyone involved in the SBM.

The Clean India Drive is split up into rural and urban. I am guessing for the rural part it's twin pit pour flush pit latrines. For the urban part my guess is: flush toilets connected to septic tanks plus fecal sludge treatment plants or sewers and wastewater treatment plants. Am I right?

We have some documents about the SMB in the SuSanA library. I put "swachh" into the search field and found these 29:
www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resource...title=&author=&year=

For example this one looks promising:
Jacob, N., Saxena, S., Shahpuri, A., Nath, V. (2017). Swachh Bharat: Vision to Mission. India Sanitation Coalition and Sustainable Sanitation Alliance
www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resource...library/details/2777

I hope this helps to prompt further replies in this thread!

Regards,
Elisabeth

P.S. I still have this dream to get a better Wikipedia article about SBM. So far it looks like this: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swachh_Bharat_mission

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Re: Toilet types promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

Hi Shikun,

Actually this book might help with your question about which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM):

Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of India (2015). Technological Options for Solid and Liquid Waste Management in Rural Areas - Swachh Bharat Mission (GRAMIN). Government of India
www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resource...library/details/2322

Does it?
Elisabeth

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  • joshiss
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Re: toilet types in India

I do not believe there is any type specifically promoted.

1. Mostly after a lot of deliberation, most of the NGO and social sector organisations recommend the twin pit toilets
2. Dry type no flush toilets etc are not much actively promoted as local woater sources are good most of the places
3. the biodigester type toilets are also popular in hilly areas but the maintenance in terms of dosing of bacteria etc is not well managed.

If you can elaborate on "type" of the toilet I can help with more local user research
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  • DavidAlan
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Re: toilet types in India

With respect to your item 2, last year the Indian Government came out with a water report that stated currently 600 million Indians are suffering from some form of water stress. By 2030 they are predicting that millions of Indians will be without water, period.

Here is the report: niti.gov.in/writereaddata/files/document...t_vS8-compressed.pdf

With few piped systems working as efficiently as hoped, it means that pour/flush toilets are having an increased work load on, particularly, women and girls, as they have to collect the water from communal standpipes. During summer droughts this means there is often no water to use in the toilets and this causes some to return to OD. With 92 million new toilets constructed, and assuming that the average usage is four persons and they use a minimum of 500 ml to flush, that is an extra 184 million litres of water needed daily. More consideration should have been given to dry toilets.

Forgive me, those that know me are aware that this is a thorny issue for me!
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  • muench
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Re: Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

I spotted a presentation about India at the FSM5 Conference and think it fits into this discussion thread:

Faecal Sludge & Septage Management in India: Journey towards SDG 6.2
Prof. V. Srinivas Chary
fsm5.susana.org/images/FSM_Conference_Ma...---19-2-2019-3pm.pdf

It says in there:

The national government has identified
treatment as the next big challenge, post ODF,
as evidenced by key sub-missions under flagship
government schemes.


That's good (and should have been obvious from the start...).

I have two questions:
(1)
About this statement: "Eight States have been certified as 100% ODF". How reliable is this kind of data, given that e.g. a city like Mumbai has been declared as 100% ODF simply by ignoring all the people living in slums (??). See e.g. here: forum.susana.org/india/23031-un-ihe-delf...tion-in-mumbai#27156

(2)
Could someone tell us more about the practical workings of the NFSSM Alliance (National Faecal Sludge and Septage Management Alliance)? For example, do they also have a website and discussion forum?

Regards,
Elisabeth

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