Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

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  • csk
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Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

I know that 111 million toilets would be constructed during the five-year "Clean India" campaign, but what type of toilets are these toilets? For instance, six types of sanitary toilets are promoted in rural China, how about India?

Is there anyone who can answer me?

Thanks in advance.

Shikun CHENG, Ph. D
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Shikun Cheng,
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Center for Sustainable Environmental Sanitation (CSES)
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  • Elisabeth
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Re: Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

I hope our Indian colleagues will jump into this discussion thread as it should be easy to answer for anyone involved in the SBM.

The Clean India Drive is split up into rural and urban. I am guessing for the rural part it's twin pit pour flush pit latrines. For the urban part my guess is: flush toilets connected to septic tanks plus fecal sludge treatment plants or sewers and wastewater treatment plants. Am I right?

We have some documents about the SMB in the SuSanA library. I put "swachh" into the search field and found these 29:
www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resource...title=&author=&year=

For example this one looks promising:
Jacob, N., Saxena, S., Shahpuri, A., Nath, V. (2017). Swachh Bharat: Vision to Mission. India Sanitation Coalition and Sustainable Sanitation Alliance
www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resource...library/details/2777

I hope this helps to prompt further replies in this thread!

Regards,
Elisabeth

P.S. I still have this dream to get a better Wikipedia article about SBM. So far it looks like this: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swachh_Bharat_mission
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  • Elisabeth
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Re: Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

Hi Shikun,

Actually this book might help with your question about which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM):

Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of India (2015). Technological Options for Solid and Liquid Waste Management in Rural Areas - Swachh Bharat Mission (GRAMIN). Government of India
www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resource...library/details/2322

Does it?
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  • joshiss
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Re: Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

I do not believe there is any type specifically promoted.

1. Mostly after a lot of deliberation, most of the NGO and social sector organisations recommend the twin pit toilets
2. Dry type no flush toilets etc are not much actively promoted as local woater sources are good most of the places
3. the biodigester type toilets are also popular in hilly areas but the maintenance in terms of dosing of bacteria etc is not well managed.

If you can elaborate on "type" of the toilet I can help with more local user research
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  • DavidAlan
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Re: Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

With respect to your item 2, last year the Indian Government came out with a water report that stated currently 600 million Indians are suffering from some form of water stress. By 2030 they are predicting that millions of Indians will be without water, period.

Here is the report: niti.gov.in/writereaddata/files/document...t_vS8-compressed.pdf

With few piped systems working as efficiently as hoped, it means that pour/flush toilets are having an increased work load on, particularly, women and girls, as they have to collect the water from communal standpipes. During summer droughts this means there is often no water to use in the toilets and this causes some to return to OD. With 92 million new toilets constructed, and assuming that the average usage is four persons and they use a minimum of 500 ml to flush, that is an extra 184 million litres of water needed daily. More consideration should have been given to dry toilets.

Forgive me, those that know me are aware that this is a thorny issue for me!
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  • Elisabeth
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Re: Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

I spotted a presentation about India at the FSM5 Conference and think it fits into this discussion thread:

Faecal Sludge & Septage Management in India: Journey towards SDG 6.2
Prof. V. Srinivas Chary
fsm5.susana.org/images/FSM_Conference_Ma...---19-2-2019-3pm.pdf

It says in there:

The national government has identified
treatment as the next big challenge, post ODF,
as evidenced by key sub-missions under flagship
government schemes.


That's good (and should have been obvious from the start...).

I have two questions:
(1)
About this statement: "Eight States have been certified as 100% ODF". How reliable is this kind of data, given that e.g. a city like Mumbai has been declared as 100% ODF simply by ignoring all the people living in slums (??). See e.g. here: forum.susana.org/india/23031-un-ihe-delf...tion-in-mumbai#27156

(2)
Could someone tell us more about the practical workings of the NFSSM Alliance (National Faecal Sludge and Septage Management Alliance)? For example, do they also have a website and discussion forum?

Regards,
Elisabeth
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  • csk
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  • I work on the toilet, sanitation, biogas, FSM, environmental science and engineering, and I hope to contribute to the toilet revolution in China and in the global. I am happy to share Chinese WASH story.
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Re: Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

thanks for sharing, Elisabeth.

I just read the PPT, and I have some questions. Do you have email of Prof. V. Srinivas Chary?

I can't find on internet. I am interested in National Urban Sanitation Policy-2030 (Draft).  I hope to know more. 

Kind regards

Cheng
Shikun Cheng,
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  • nityajacob
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Re: Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

Hi Cheng,

Chary's email is This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

The government has been agnostic to toilet technology but has backed the twin leach pit mostly. However, more than a third of rural toilets use some sort of storage, misnamed as septic tanks. The rest are twin leach pits, single leach pits or some other variation. Ecosan has been a non-starter.

Hope this helps.

Regards
Nitya
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  • csk
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  • I work on the toilet, sanitation, biogas, FSM, environmental science and engineering, and I hope to contribute to the toilet revolution in China and in the global. I am happy to share Chinese WASH story.
  • Posts: 31
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Re: Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

Hi, Nitya

Thanks for your reply. I appreciate it so much. 

Regards

Cheng
Shikun Cheng,
Associate professor, Ph.D
Center for Sustainable Environmental Sanitation (CSES)
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering
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  • paresh
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Re: Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

Hey Elisabeth,
I'll try to answer your two questions: 

(1) About this statement: "Eight States have been certified as 100% ODF". How reliable is this kind of data, given that e.g. a city like Mumbai has been declared as 100% ODF simply by ignoring all the people living in slums (??). See e.g. here:  forum.susana.org/india/23031-un-ihe-delf...tion-in-mumbai#27156

I think there is a broad agreement that none of the states is ODF. The local governments declared themselves ODF once they achieved their construction  targets. The states declared themselves ODF once all the LGs declared themselves ODF. The Prime Minister in his speech on 2nd Oct 2019 didn't declare India ODF instead said (very strategic selection of words)

“Today, rural India has declared itself open defecation-free. ” (Source: The Hindu ) 

Hopefully the next Census will reveal the true picture. That said, there is no denying that India accelerated access to toilets through SBM. 

(2) Could someone tell us more about the practical workings of the NFSSM Alliance (National Faecal Sludge and Septage Management Alliance)? For example, do they also have a website and discussion forum?

My understanding is that the Alliance has been formed by the BMGF with all their grantees and other donor and international organisations. It does have a website  and the Secretariat is hosted by Dasra. I am not sure if they have an online discussion forum, but certainly have internal communication channels. BMGF grantees also come together annually. Recordings of 2019 meeting are available on Dasra's YT channel here: 
  

I'll also try to get somebody to tell us more about NFSSM Alliance and its working.

Regards
paresh
Paresh Chhajed-Picha
Researcher at Indian Institute of Technology - Bombay, India
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  • NatalieAliceBoydWilliams
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  • Ph.D student researching the role of toilet-linked anaerobic digestion in creating sustainable rural livelihoods. I am working on an interdisiplinary project applying socio-technical methods of data collection and analyis.
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Re: Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

Hello,

Are the biodigester toilets funder under the SBM? I have been looking to see if there are any known subsidisation/funding links between the domestic biogas programme (and the subsidies provided if toilets are connected 164.100.94.214/biogas ) and the SBM subsidies? I can't find any information that biogas toilets are subsidised under SBM?

If you have any knowledge of this and could pass it on that would be great.

Thank you so much!

Natalie
Ph.D student researching the role of toilet-linked anaerobic digestion in creating sustainable rural livelihoods.

Investigating the social and cultural barriers that affect the acceptance of human excreta as a source of biogas and agricultural fertiliser and how pathways to acceptance can be forged.

Interested in the intersection of energy and sanitation : )
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  • NatalieAliceBoydWilliams
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Re: Which toilet types are promoted in India under Clean India Mission (SBM)?

Sorry meant to reply to Sachin Joshi. But if anyone else on this thread can answer my question that would be great :-).

On the document here ( mnre.gov.in/img/documents/uploads/77e0a4...974a0429d1e39001.pdf ) it says that the NNBOMP can be co-implemented alongside the SBM but not what that entails?

Thank you!
Natalie
Ph.D student researching the role of toilet-linked anaerobic digestion in creating sustainable rural livelihoods.

Investigating the social and cultural barriers that affect the acceptance of human excreta as a source of biogas and agricultural fertiliser and how pathways to acceptance can be forged.

Interested in the intersection of energy and sanitation : )
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