Key documents for the sub-category on urine diversion systems


Page selection:
  • Elisabeth
  • Elisabeth's Avatar
    Topic Author
  • Moderator
  • Freelance consultant since 2012 (former roles: program manager at GIZ and SuSanA secretariat, lecturer, process engineer for wastewater treatment plants)
  • Posts: 3372
  • Karma: 54
  • Likes received: 931

Key documents for the sub-category on urine diversion systems

For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category.
It contains a recommendation for new people regarding the most important five documents in the thematic area of "urine diversion systems".

The initial selection was done by me, but this is open for discussion and can be adjusted regularly.

Recommended top five documents in the thematic area of "urine diversion systems" in reverse chronological order:

Mitchell, C., Fam, D., Abeysuriya, K. (2013). Transitioning to sustainable sanitation - A transdisciplinary project of urine diversion. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology Sydney, Australia

This is an example document for urine diversion flush systems. This research project was initiated and delivered by the Institute for Sustainable Futures (ISF) at the University of Technology, Sydney (UTS). ISF’s mission is to create change toward sustainable futures that protect and enhance the environment, human well-being and social equity. For further information visit

The goal of the UTS Sustainable Sanitation project was to open up the space for urine diversion to become a viable concept in the urban environment.

Rieck, C., von Münch, E., Hoffmann, H. (2012). Technology review of urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) - Overview on design, management, maintenance and costs. Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Eschborn, Germany

This technology review deals with a type of toilet designed specifically for dry excreta management called the urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT). It is a sanitation system for households and public facilities as well. The functional design elements of the UDDT are: source separation of urine and faeces; waterless operation; and ventilated vaults or containers for faeces storage and treatment. UDDTs may be constructed with two adjacent dehydration vaults or one single vault with interchangeable containers.

This publication offers a complete overview of UDDT functions, design considerations, common operation and maintenance issues and generalised installation costs. Its focus is on applications in developing countries and countries in transition, although UDDTs are also applicable in developed countries.

Hoffmann, H. (2012). Construction of bench style double vault urine diversion toilet and alternatives. Rotaria del Peru SAC, Lima, Peru

This is an excellent construction manual for bench style UDDTs. The use of Urine Diversion (UD) in dry toilets allows faeces dehydration. Urine can be reused as urea, while faeces are dried in a double vault system of alternate use. The moisture comes out using ventilation pipes. After 2 years the end product can be emptied and reused without having any health risk. Water from washing can be treated in a constructed wetland and reused for instance for irrigation.

von Münch, E., Winker, M. (2011). Technology review of urine diversion components - Overview on urine diversion components such as waterless urinals, urine diversion toilets, urine storage and reuse systems. Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Eschborn, Germany

The publication explains the purposes of urine diversion, its benefits and challenges, urine precipitation, urine treatment and reuse in agriculture. Further, it provides an overview on design and operational aspects for equipment needed, such as waterless urinals and urine diversion toilets including supplier information and indicative costs. Overall, it pulls together scattered knowledge around the topic of urine diversion in a concise manner.
The target audience for this publication are people who are new to the topic of urine diversion or new to the topic of ecological sanitation (ecosan), and who:
- need to obtain an overview of the main issues for urine diversion and the main technical components
- want to know which are the main important documents for further reading
- have a particular interest in developing countries, with a pro-poor perspective
- need information on available suppliers worldwide and on costs for waterless urinals and urine diversion toilet pedestals and squatting pans.
This technology review is designed to help and inspire people working on sustainable solutions for excreta management.

Canaday, C. (2011). Simple urine-diverting dry toilets built with recycled or readily available materials. Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) Issue 6, Article 1, pp. 4-9, Ecosan Club Austria

Three different models of simple and inexpensive Urine-diverting Dry Toilets (UDDTs) are described: a portable one for squatting made from a barrel, another portable one made from wood and linoleum, and a permanent one for squatting made with palm wood. A simple, portable urinal made from two plastic bottles is also described. These can be made at very low cost, with abundant natural materials, salvaged post-consumer waste, and items that are readily purchased almost anywhere.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here: Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection? We can update it from time to time.

Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
Freelance consultant on environmental and climate projects
Located in Ulm, Germany
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
My Wikipedia user profile:

Please Log in to join the conversation.

You need to login to reply
Page selection:
Share this thread:
Recently active users. Who else has been active?
Time to create page: 0.167 seconds
Powered by Kunena Forum