A framework for the Most Important Risk Factors of Exposure in Container Based Sanitation (CBS)?

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Re: A framework for the Most Important Risk Factors of Exposure in Container Based Sanitation (CBS)?

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Hi Eve,

I've been enjoying reading the conversation between you and Claire, thank you! :-) Please don't take it away to direct e-mails unless you really have to - you might be surprised how many people read the open exchanges, and benefit and learn as a result of it.

Just a quick one about pharmaceutical residues in urine:
  1. You can read up about that here on the forum - please just check that you're not re-inventing the wheel. See here: forum.susana.org/component/kunena/175-ur...euse-or-infiltration
  2. You also have pharmaceuticals in feces by the way, not just in urine.
  3. In the scheme of things in developing countries, health risks from pharmaceutical residues in urine and ultimately on crops, is miniscule compared to all the other risks in sanitation provision (and due to lack of sanitation)
  4. Soils are better in breaking down pharmaceutical residues in urine than aquatic environments which are receiving sewage. Therefore reuse of urine may be preferable from that perspective.
Also, somewhere above you talked about risks coming from urine infiltration. Don't forget also the risk of nitrate pollution of groundwater (although the health risks from that might also be smaller than previously thought, see here: forum.susana.org/component/kunena/193-gr...-health-implications (2 pages of discussion))

Regards,
Elisabeth
Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
Independent consultant located in Ulm, Germany
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