Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps?

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  • AaronTanner
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Tree Bogs sanitation system for IDP Camps ???

HI all

I have been approached by a permaculture centred NGO about Treebogs I am wondering if any of you have any experience with
them? The people I am speaking to want to apply it to the Kakuma Refugee camp in Kenya. They have one year of positive experience with them in the camp already. On first observation of the design, I have some reservations. But I don't want to be over-critical and over judgemental of the technology of others who have already had positive experiences.

I have the following reservations:
1. Co composting of faecal matter will create large volumes to break down (Tree bogs are not always a two-chamber
approach and so, it is likely that mass accumulation of faecal sludge is greater than the chamber volume, especially in IDP CAmps where the
user numbers may be quite high)
2. Unclear ventilation and air circulation (No chimney to aid ventilation)
3. Unclear fly protection
4. Faecal matter and urine are not on a platform and are not that well protected from overland flow during heavy rains. I am concerned that saturated earth and sloping overland flow could take black waters out of the chamber and into the community.
5. The raised platform prevents disabled and elderly from easy access

Advantages are - 
Clearly, the nutrient recovery and recycling in a Treebog is going much quicker and anecdotal evidence in the projects that these people have done suggests this is true (Mangos fruiting in 18 months). It stands to reason feeding plants well has positive results as does breakdown with higher levels of aerobic activity as in a pit. Also, the saturation of the topsoil as the faecal matter and NPK high urine will be closer to the roots (of young saplings) if sludge is stored closer to the surface of the soil and so more readily available to the roots.  The addition of anal and hand wash waters will feed trees as well. 

While (to my mind) the design seems to pay not enough regard to pathogen removal/containment or seperation. The advocates claims this activity is transferred to the trees and Microrizal network and accompanying organisms etc. 

I feel like correct sizing, (a double vault)  the addition of a surface water barrier and Sato pan might be sufficient to feel sufficient isolation of faecal matter is happening>... thoughts and reflections, please

Best wishes Aaron

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  • goeco
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Re: Tree Bogs sanitation system for IDP Camps ???

Hi Aaron,
Agreed on all points. Ventilation, fly and rodent protection are design issues that could be easily overcome.

However, although the concept itself is good: "enables the faeces and urine to be deposited on the soil surface, underneath the platform, where the solids are composted into soil"...
...my greatest concern is with the idea that "the liquid soaks into the earth below, feeding the root zone of the planted species surrounding the Treebog", because although in practice this would work for small numbers of users, I would expect communal toilets with handwashing and anal washing to generate more liquid waste than the clearly small soil area's capacity to absorb. Therefore the surplus liquid would have to drain somewhere else. This could be addressed by expanding soakage areas e.g. using plastic pallets covered by textile cloth which is covered with soil.

I'd also be worried about fecal sludge accumulating faster than it breaks down. If there is no handwashing/anal water being added the urine concentration will generate foul smells and slow down the decomposition process. Added water is essential, but then requires more soakage area. 

If the soil surface area is insufficient for the sludge to spread unhindered, decomposition will slow. This is because soil surface area in contact with the waste directly affects rate of decomposition.

These simple systems only work until there is more waste than the system can cope with... the key might be understanding its limitations. Generally those who enthusiastically sing its praises won't have done the quantitative research.

cheers
Dean
Dean Satchell, M For. Sc.
Vermifilter.com
www.vermifilter.com
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  • bowenarrow
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Re: Tree Bogs sanitation system for IDP Camps ???

I can see possible downstream problems with urine and solids mixed creating a health risk. Could the design of the pan be changed to embody Urine diversion for either collection/ use or separately irrigated ? Washing water would continue as originally planned.
Otherwise this is a good design.
Ross
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  • Richardluff06
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Re: Tree Bogs sanitation system for IDP Camps ???

I have engaged with Jay, the proponent/creator of the system. I think the concept of using the resource in situ has a wonderful elegance to it, which also much reduces FSM/compost handling, so associated health risks. As a humanitarian WASH person working in many, many camps in many contexts, all of the things you raised I have raised with Jay. You may find this article of interest;  www.re-alliance.org/post/looking-for-a-s...on-that-will-w-a-s-h

I camped at a place in Wales last year where a single chamber treebog was built and indeed heard about its limitations there, on a what admittedly was a very sub optimal site.

My conviction is that we should face, understand and design/build to address these limitations and get the system optimised because its so important. To this end I have in the last weeks designed an adapted treebog and run a compost toilet training course at Black Mountains College (Wales) where I work. It will be some months before we start to use and years before we gather much data. Modifications made;
UD
Twin pit (sized for 3 years as per traditional compost toilet sludge/compost accumulation rate estimates)
Pallet sides with chicken mesh for rodents, rather than just chicken mesh
Surface water run off skirt
If we face smell /visual problems we will add vent pipe and adopt other measures.

Jay acknowledged the lack of data on how fast vaults/chambers fill. This data is much needed. 

However my bottom line is lets test and stretch this system, while knowing and stating its limitation and use this widely.
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  • Tore
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  • worked in sanitation for most of my life. taught plumbing. have plumbing and builders license, certified inspector in all facets of construction, PhD in public administration & have taught construction management in university, traveled numerous countries, Interest UDDT and sanitation & clean water
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Re: Tree Bogs sanitation system for IDP Camps ???

Sanitation experts in developing countries are always looking for easier/cheaper systems to build but all have limitations.

1.  If you mix urine with feces you will have more odors. The ammonia in the urine mixing with the feces will make the system unpleasant at the least.  This will be especially acute since there is no vent.
2. Since the urine and feces are expected to be absorbed by the ground that will only work as long as the moisture does not exceed the ability of the soil to absorb.  If you produce more than the soil can absorb then the ground around the toilet will get moist and attract rodents as well exposing the pathogens to humans.
3. Most of the nutrients are in the urine which is also very low in pathogens so if you separate from the feces it can be used quickly.  Without the moisture from the urine the feces will dry quickly and have minimum odor.  When pathogens die the feces it can be used as a soil conditioner.
4. With the tree bog you must plant all trees close so the roots can absorb the nutrients.  If you could take the nutrients to the plants you have a much greater range where you could plant the trees.
5. In many developing countries the drinking water is gotten close to the surface so there is a much greater chance of contamination with the drinking water.
Sanitation & water consultant in developing countries
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  • AKSantaCruz
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Re: Tree Bogs sanitation system for IDP Camps ???

Hi everyone, 

Great thread. 

I have been implementing large-scale humanure composting projects for 12 years. We do not separate or divert urine, however we do only work in contexts where there is sufficient available carbon material to use as cover material and for the composting process. We use local sawdust, rice hulls, and cut grasses for the composting procedures. In contexts where we have not had enough space or carbon material to compost correctly, we have implemented Fosa Alterna toilets, and hybrid trench sanitation approaches. I do believe that trench sanitation needs more exploration in high-density camp contexts, as well as on-site composting. 

Can you please explain the science behind your statement:

 "Without the moisture from the urine the feces will dry quickly and have minimum odor.  When pathogens die the feces it can be used as a soil conditioner."

How do harmful pathogens just die?

Without treatment, these approaches may provide a better user-interface at the toilet experience, but overall, I do not believe they provide solutions that are scaleable. Pathogens in feces simply do not die without thermophilic composting. Therefore, overtime, this system will probably result in both soil and water pollution. I also take issue with comments here that continue to overstate the "health risks" involved with processing excreta. Skills training can reduce these risks completely, and we've trained dozens of humanure compost technicians with zero incidence of infection or illness associated with composting, even during the cholera pandemic in Haiti. 

According to the United States Composting Council the definition of composting is defined as:

Compost - is the product manufactured through the controlled aerobic, biological decomposition of biodegradable materials. The product has undergone mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures, which significantly reduces the viability of pathogens and weed seeds (in accordance with EPA 40 CFR 503 standards) and stabilizes the carbon such that it is beneficial to plant growth. Compost is typically used as a soil amendment, but may also contribute plant nutrients. (AAPFCO definition, official 2018)  Finished compost is typically screened to reduce its particle size, to improve soil incorporation. 

Feces don't just compost themselves. Decomposition and dehydration occur, however these natural processes do not reduce pathogens to acceptable levels defined by either the WHO or United States EPA. 

I would love to visit this pilot next time I'm in Kenya. 

Program Director, GiveLove.org — EcoSan Training Program
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  • Jay3
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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps ?

Hello All, Thanks for the comments and suggestions around Treebogs and their use in humanitarian scenarios.  As the originator of the term 'Treebog' and having used a Treebog for over 3 decades, I attach some information which I hope will inform and allay fears, as well as further the discussion. Blessings,  Jay
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  • Jay3
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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps ?

Hello Aaron, AKSantaCruz, Dean, Richard, Ross and ToreThank you so much for taking the time to respond to Aaron’s post about the use of the Treebog in humanitarian scenarios, like refugee and IDP camps. I hope this response will help to answer the questions and concerns you have about the Treebog.The concerns raised by each of you about the Treebog have been raised before, and will no doubt continue to be raised as the Treebog becomes more widely known as a compost toilet which can be self-built and self-managed, and which can safely convert toilet wastes into biomass and biological resources.As Sanitation Engineers and Humanitarian Organisations require data on Treebogs, I hope that this document will be useful in providing areas of focus for those of you who’d like to develop further research to discover both the applicability and the limitations of the Treebog.From your comments, these concerns can be placed under the following headings:
  1. 1  Co-composting of faeces and urine, with possible overloading leadingto sewage sludge leaking out of the Treebog base structure.
  2. 2  Need for Twin Cubicle Treebogs - for a rest or fallow period
  3. 3  Pathogen removal by the Treebog (viruses, bacteria etc.)
  4. 4  Ventilation - use of chimney, to enhance air flow around compost pile
  5. 5  Flies - control
  6. 6  Flooding of the toilet, by overland flows during high rainfall events
  7. 7  Access to toilet platform by disabled people
  8. 8  Capacity of the soil to absorb the liquids - especially if usage is high
  9. 9  The Scaleability of The Treebog
  10. 10  Composting Process is not Thermophilic - could pathogens be aproblem in the long term?
Richard has visited a Treebog in Wales, built by the owner of a camping area. The Treebog was located on a very steep slope in a woodland setting. Richard, I’m looking forward to hearing your insights into the Treebog gained from using this particular, quite rustic, Treebog in Wales.1I was wondering if anybody else on this thread has any experience in building, using or monitoring a Treebog? If not, I shall attempt to bring you up to speed.Treebog ConceptPlease bear in mind in mind that the Treebog is a conceptual approach to decentralised sanitation. What I offer is not a Blueprint, nor can it be effectively constructed without reference to the local culture, conditions, materials available and resources at hand.Treebog: DefinitionTreebog can be simply defined as a raised, platform-mounted, toilet cubicle, closely surrounded by densely planted and heavily mulched trees and shrubs.In terms of its structure, there are many possibilities when people self-build, using local resources.The term ‘Treebog’ is spelt in this way, capitalised, so as to stress the importance of Trees in the creation and successful functioning of the Treebog. Note that ‘bog’ is an informal word for toilet in the UK.A Treebog is not a pit latrineAs the Treebog is not a pit latrine, there is no need to dig a hole underneath it. This not only saves a lot of labour, but can be important in helping to protect groundwater, especially if there is a high water table.Treebog: Soil surface compost chamber - not a below ground pitHaving no pit prevents the mixing of liquids and solids in the Treebog and so helps to prevent odour nuisance. To make this as clear as possible we describe the enclosure underneath the platform, surrounded by the chicken wire, as the compost chamber.Platform mounted, directly above a compost pileThe Treebog cubicle has either a toilet seat or a squatting platform and directly below this, in the compost chamber, is the compost pile, onto which the daily offerings are deposited.2This simple use of gravity, to create the compost pile underneath the cubicle, results in users only ever having to move the pile when it has fully decomposed into compost, they never have to move either sewage sludge or any non-composted material.Faecal sludge/CompostFaecal sludge is a specific term in the water industry. It is defined as faeces mixed with water, a slurry, and is the product of a water-based sewage system.Separation of liquids and solidsThe faeces deposited in a Treebog form the compost pile, and the liquids drain off this pile, soaking into the surrounding earth, into the root zone of the planted trees.We could therefore be said to be employing ‘gravity-powered phase- separation’ enabling the compost pile to remain mainly aerobic. The solids and the liquids do not get the opportunity to mix and become an anaerobic slurry as they would if collected in a pit.Aerobic decomposition creates fewer, if any, odorous off-gases, and occurs more quickly than anaerobic decomposition. Water-based slurries will not compost at all well, and unless effectively mechanically aerated and mixed, they will rapidly become anoxic/anaerobic and as such, and will tend to smell. A Treebog is not a water-based system so produces no sludge or slurry.Because a Treebog has no pit underneath it (the compost sits on the top of the soil surface) it is a dry-composting process - the liquids ‘drain’ off the pile into the root zone of the soil.This composted material is not the same as faecal sludge. Once full the Treebog can be allowed a fallow or rest period, it is not used for a while to allow full composting of the contents to occur.When fully decomposed the compost in the Treebog can be dug out and used in the garden or orchard. It is then relatively dry, smells as sweet as good fertile topsoil and, because it isn’t in a pit, can be easily shovelled into awheelbarrow and used as a, fertile, soil conditioner or top dressing.3The ArborlooThe Arborloo is another type of compost toilet, a methodology already accepted in the field. The Arborloo is only similar to The Treebog in that it involves a tree being planted. In the Arborloo the tree is planted into a pit which has already been filled with toilet wastes. So, an Arborloo is a full pit latrine, with a tree growing it.When an Arborloo pit is full, it is covered with a layer of soil and a single tree is planted on top. However, it is still necessary to dig a pit, which is labour intensive, may bring septic wastes closer to groundwater and can be very difficult, or impossible, in rocky conditions.Arborloo - Short-lived treeGuidance on the Arborloo indicates that a short-lived species, like the banana, be used and once the tree dies off, then the pit is dug out and used again.Treebog - Long-lived treesIn contrast, the trees around the Treebog can grow and produce resources for many years, they can be managed as standards or coppice, and produce fruits, nuts and many other useful tree ‘services’ including shade from the sun and shelter from the wind.The Treebog’s Water Retentive Root ZoneThe platform-mounted toilet is surrounded with closely planted trees and shrubs. These send their roots into the moist, nutrient-rich soil underneath and around the Treebog, opening up channels in the soil for water.In doing this, the tree roots create a water-retentive space within the soil underneath the Treebog, enabling more water to be more readily absorbed in the soil; to be absorbed by the roots and transpired by the leaves of the trees and shrubs.Visual Screen & Particulate Organic Carbon Source for odour controlThe use of a chicken wire mesh stuffed with straw (or other carbon rich material) to create a ‘sandwich’ as a visual screen, is not something people are used to seeing as a part of a toilet set-up.4Apart from screening the compost pile from sight until the trees have grown up around it, the carbon-rich material used also helps to absorb the Nitrogen in the urea and washing water. This screening material needs to be topped up periodically as it rots down to become soil.It is the nitrogen containing substances which might cause odour problems if not effectively dealt with, urea must be fully broken down and an aerobic environment and a carbon source are very important to enable this to occur.A Treebog directly integrates sanitation with resource productionDifferent species of trees provide various yields: fruit and nuts, fodder crops, firewood, polewood for building, mulch, and the material for charcoal production.Thus the Treebog is a sanitation methodology which creates both soil and biomass resources, enabling people to take control of, and to benefit from having their sanitation needs met naturally, often with a self-built Treebog structure.Flooding by overland flows during heavy rainFlooding is problematic with many methods of sanitation. If it is necessary to build a Treebog in an area which periodically floods, then it is possible to either construct a low earth berm around the Treebog base structure, or indeed build a Treebog on top of a raised mound surrounded by Trees.This could then act as a ‘flood refuge’ place in times of heavy rain, which would be handy, as it would have a functioning toilet and trees for shelter.Disabled Access to The TreebogThis is a perennial challenge and can be addressed in two ways:
  1. 1  A gently sloping ramp can be built to aid access.
  2. 2  The Treebog can be built onto a slope, with the entrance on upper slope‘ground level’ and so no stairs are required.
See attached Treebog Infographic/photos of the Buddhafield Treebog.5Pathogen Removal within the TreebogA wide range of soil creatures and microbes can be found within a Treebog composting pile, from dung beetles and earthworms, to ants and termites. A Treebog can be also have earthworms added, and so use the power of earthworms to aid the composting process, as they would do in a wormery.The funga (the total population of fungal species) along with the Archea and Bacteria are the primary decomposers and transformers of the waste material into compost.Pathogen removal mechanismAlso within the Treebog and the soil are many Protista, a varied kingdom of eukaryotic single-celled organisms, many of which are known to predate (graze) upon both bacteria and viruses.These include well known organisms such as the amoeba, paramecium, slime and water moulds, and nematodes. These organisms are constantly looking for their next meal and gut bacteria or virus particle is easy prey to these free- living life forms.Location and correct sizing of the TreebogBoth sizing and location are of great importance. It is best to locate the Treebog close to the users so that they can manage it, tending it during its establishment, and then to collect the harvest from it.A Treebog should not be located in an area known to flood, but can be placed on a raised earth mound, or have an earth berm constructed around it to deflect overland flow during excessive rainfall events.A Treebog provides shade in hot climatesAn adequately-sized, double cubicle, Treebog can serve around 20 - 35 people well, and can be surrounded by up to 25 trees and shrubs, so that the Treebog is a cool, shaded, area in hot climates, where several people have reported feeling very relaxed and comfortable using them - even in summer temperatures of 40-50o C.6VentilationVentilation is of crucial importance within a Treebog, in order to maintain the aerobic nature of the compost pile underneath the Treebog Platform.Airflow for Aerobic DecompositionOnly with good ventilation can aerobic composting occur. This air flow enhances the breakdown of the solids in a microbial degradation process. Having non-airtight sides of the chamber underneath the Treebog platform, helps to keep the process aerobic.Some people use chicken wire, others have used hazel/willow hurdles or overlapping wooden slats which allow good airflow. Many Treebogs have straw stuffed between the chicken wire, others have woodchip, and in Senegal peanut shells have been used effectively (in the role of carbon source) filling the space between a double chicken wire screen.Treebogs have also been fitted with a black plastic pipe/chimney which connects the platform chamber with the air, the black plastic pipe warming in the sun causes an increased, thermodynamically induced, air flow through the composting chamber.OdoursOdours can be minimised by adding small amounts of Particulate Organic Carbon, for example sawdust or leaf litter, crushed peanut shells etc. It is worth noting that the smaller the particle size of this material, the more effective it is at reducing the likelihood of the pile creating a odour nuisance.So, if possible, this material should chopped up prior to adding to the pile, order to minimise the amount of carbon rich materials being used within the Treebog, or if available small quantities of fine sawdust can be added every week, as this prevents the Treebog filling up with sawdust.The Earth ClosetLike the traditional European Earth Closet, the addition of small quantity of finely powdered dried soil each week, inoculates the pile with the necessary microbes and ensures a good supply of carbonaceous materials for the microbiota to use as an energy source.7FliesWhatever is used to act as a visual screen around the chamber underneath the Treebog, it is important to keep the chamber as dark as possible, flies are not attracted to it as the lack of light discourages flies from entering. It is also a very good idea to have a lid on the seat or squat to prevent direct access to the flies, as well as sunlight from entering the chamber.RodentsRodents can be excluded by using the chicken wire sandwich stuffed with straw. The presence of the many users of the Treebog and Compound dogs are also a good deterrent.Moisture Retentive Woodchip Mulch - Particulate Organic Carbon SourceUse of a thick woodchip or straw mulch around the base of the trees, enhances the formation of soil and keeps the soil around the Treebog from drying out, shading and protecting the tree root systems from the intense heat of direct sunlight.Management of the Treebog to maximise the absorptive capacity of the soilThe area underneath a double Treebog structure is roughly 2 metres x 4 metres, so, in the order of 8 m2. To this we add a surface mulch (a particulate organic carbon source) both to the ground underneath and around the Treebog where the trees are planted.Where possible, we add small quantities of topsoil from undisturbed, living soil. Areas such as a woodland or the soil around solitary tree - which will contain many of the soil microbes, fungi and other microbiota we require to act upon the compost pile.Mycorrhiza and mucopolysacheride gel productionWith the tree roots and the mulch, along with the moisture added to the Treebog each day, the fungal associates of the trees’ roots - the arbuscular mycorrhiza - start to produce mucopolysacherides which create a water retentive ‘gel’ around the root zone, underneath the Treebog.This enhances the Treebog’s ability to hold on to water and make it available to the myriad life forms which ‘colonise’ the soil underneath the Treebog.8Local Materials and Tree SpeciesPeople can build a Treebog with whatever materials they have to hand or can obtain locally. Treebogs growing certain species of tree such as Gliricidia sepium or Glory Cedar, a nitrogen fixer, which can produce polewood if coppiced, or bamboo a fast growing grass, may provide materials necessary to build new Treebogs and to repair old ones. Useful trees such as Moringa and Neem can be grown around the Treebog.Treebog StructureOur aim is to use as few as possible non-natural, non-biodegradable materials. This not only gives low-embodied energy, but also means that the compost pile and the surrounding trees can be left as a resource and the superstructure moved to another place - perhaps adjacent to the original one.Metal-framed Treebog StructureHowever, in areas where termites can destroy wooden structures, the Treebog is best made from metal, and the cladding can be made from light-weight woven grasses mats or cloth.Movable Base StructureIf a light-weight metal frame is used there is the added possibility that it can be constructed to be either easily disassembled and rebuilt, or to be movable. If this were done then, once full, the Treebog could simply be taken apart and reassembled, or moved as a unit, and the Treebog process started again - leaving the original trees in place, with their store of compost and so not digging it up at all.Scaffold Poles and PlanksIn the UK several Treebogs have been constructed using scaffold poles and planks; the metal clamps used which hold the structure together, also enable the structure to be broken down and rebuilt. One of these multi-seater Treebogs, made using scaffold poles, was also fitted with a ramp and a double sized cubicle for disabled access. See photos of the Buddhafield Treebog.Urine in the TreebogWe have not found ‘neat’ urine to be a problem. As long as there is a source ofparticulate organic carbon (woodchip, leaf litter or straw) in place, the urea isreadily broken down by microbial Nitrification and Denitrification processes.9Rate of mesophilic composting processThe rate of decomposition (composting) relates not so much to the area of soil surface underneath the Treebog in direct contact with the pile, but to the temperature, windchill effect, and moisture content, as well as the presence of Funga, Archea and Bacteria, and all the Protista.The ’wastes’ compost in-situ: the toilet wastes are transformed and then absorbed, with the plant nutrients being used in the production of biological resources and soil creation - feeding the trees.Composting ProcessComposting is the result of a multi-species interaction within the soil both below and around The Treebog. The organic matter is decomposed and absorbed by the Flora, Fauna and Funga of the soil.Transformed the Bacteria, Archea and Protista, the earthworms/dung beetles (in temperate zones) or the termites/ants (in tropical/sub-tropical zones).The composting process is also greatly aided by the powerful extracellular enzymes released by the saprophytic funga of the soil. Whilst the water retentive capacity of the soil is especially enhanced by the fungal associates (the mycorhyza) of the trees in the root zone underneath The Treebog, as they secrete mucopolysacherides which form a water-retentive gel around the plant roots.Earthworms, Beetles, Ants and TermitesEarthworms, dung beetles, termites and ants all carry saprophytic fungi in their guts which they ‘inoculate’ onto the organic matter and this greatly enhances decomposition.VermicultureIn Temperate climates the Treebogs function is assisted by the introduction of earthworms to the compost chamber. Vermiculture and composting are two processes which complement each other.The Treebog is assisted in processing the materials deposited into it by the earthworm - so a Treebog can be described as a compost system whichembraces vermiculture.10In dry/hot climates where earthworms do not thrive or cannot survive at all termites and ants carry out a similar function, taking organic matter under the earth, there to grow saprophytic fungi which are then harvested to feed the insects’ colony.Emptying of the Treebog of compost (Humanure)This period of time will depend on a range of factors including:
1 Population served by the Treebog, at 350g/person/day (faeces) and 1 litre/ day (urine).
2 Ambient temperature - which affects the rate of the composting process.
3 Size of Composting Chamber: the size/volume/height of the Treebog structure define the volume of the chamber below the seating/squatting platform, the larger this, is the longer it will be before emptying of the compost is necessary.Based upon these factors the Treebog will sooner or later require emptying of compost, however, Treebog Emptying is not desludging! The Treebog does not need to have ‘Faecal Sludge’ removed, because there is no ‘sewage sludge’ created within a TreebogRate of solids breakdownThe build-up - to fullness - within the Treebog is dependent upon how many people are using the Treebog every day, how large the area under the platform is and how high off the ground the Treebog platform is constructed as well as the ambient temperature.The higher the platform and the larger the ‘floor area” the greater the volumetric capacity, and so the longer it will take to become full. The composting process, hence the breakdown of the faeces to compost, will also be dependent upon the ambient temperature - for every 10o C increase in temperature the metabolic rate of the microbes doubles - so the breakdown in tropical areas can be between 2 and 4 times the rate in temperate climates.The Farming & Health Education Treebog - Dimensions/Filling RateThe Farming & Health Education Treebog is a single-cubicle Treebog with dimensions of: 1.75m long x 1.5m wide, and with the platform being 1.5 m above ground level.11For a single cubicle Treebog these dimensions are on the large side. This Treebog has been in use for 6 months, and is used each day by between 25 and 30 people (around 80 people can visit the compound each day but not all of them use the Treebog).This Treebog now has a ‘pyramid’ shaped compost pile of about 300mm high at the top. At this accretion rate the Treebog should not require emptying for at least 3 - 4 years. By which time a large proportion of the pile will be fully composted into soil. So, users never have to handle septic wastes, only compost every few years.Single or Double cubicleMy recommendation is that people build a double-cubicle Treebog as then, when one side is full up the other side can then be used - allowing full composting to occur on the first side, which having sat for 3 - 12 months, can be emptied when fully composted.Compost made from human toilet wastes is sometimes called called Humanure. The Treebog converts toilet wastes into Humanure. Please see The Humanure Handbook by Joseph C Jenkins: https:// www.amazon.co.uk/Humanure-Handbook-Guide-Composting-Manure/ dp/0964425831Treebog Roof and Rainwater HarvestingThe Treebog is built with an oversize roof which sheds the rainwater away from the Treebog structure and the compost pile. The roof area can also be used to harvest rainwater for handwashing.Overloading - setting upper limits to population served by each TreebogIn the comments it was mentioned that “Simple systems only work until there is more waste than the system can cope with”. This is certainly true of the Treebog, but also of any other system we choose to use. Bearing this in mind, each double-cubicle Treebog should only serve between twenty to thirty people. Then the quantities of both urine and faeces is not an issue with regard to ‘containment’.12ScaleabilityThe Treebog is very scaleable, we can create more Treebogs for compounds of 20 or 30 people, so there is no overloading and the solution scales on ‘Treebog by Treebog’ basis, not by having ever larger TreebogsIn Summary
  1. i)  There is no pit underneath a Treebog, it is a soil surface compostingprocess, which allows for gravity separation of liquids from solids
  2. ii)  No Pit - solids do not mix with liquids
  3. iii)  Aerobic composting - not an anaerobic/anoxic slurry or sludge
  4. iv)  No Faecal Sludge is produced so no Desludging is required
  5. v)  No flushing water - only washing water
  6. vi)  No pumps, replacement or spare parts are required
  7. vii)  No mechanical parts to wear out, or indeed any moving parts - apartfrom the trees blowing in the breeze
  8. viii)  Creation of soil so no ‘disposal of excreta’ periodically requiring asuction tanker. Instead the creation of and use of compost, which canbe then be the basis of a productive ‘home-garden’.
  9. ix)  Treebogs can accept urine and washwater. So urine separation is notnecessary
  10. x)  It is hygienic with no handling of septic wastes required
  11. xi)  It is ideal for Community or Self-build
  12. xii)  Pathogens are contained, faecal coliform (bacteria from the gut) arerapidly eliminated by the naturally occurring ecological processes of aliving soil
  13. xiii)  It is a low-tech, biological process
  14. xiv)  It produces resources - it is not simply a waste treatment process
  15. xv)  It can include the use of earthworms or termites to help inoculate thecompost pile and to bring organic matter into the soil in and around the Treebog structure.
I would like to thank Richard Luff for his comment that the Treebog has:“Wonderful elegance, with no handling of faeces and urine necessary and, with minimal requirements to move compost, which reduces health risks”.13UNDER CONSTRUCTIONMovable steel-frame Treebog Kamyaak Village, Senegal new Women’s Forest Garden (ex-millet/peanut field)‘Humanure’ pileThe Treebog is simple: it comprises a raised
platform-mounted toilet seat or squatting platform,
positioned over a compost heap. There is no pit underneath The Treebog,
the compost pile sits on the surface of the soil. The platform & compost pile are closely & densely planted around with a variety of trees. This arrangement enables the toilet ‘wastes’ (faeces & urine) & any water used for washing, to feed & water the many useful or economically valuable trees which are grown around the platform.[img width=129.911973,height=145.134107]blob:https://forum.susana.org/0b798419-d128-494e-bf1e-1c00756a8d96SINGLE CHAMBER STEEL-FRAME TREEBOG[img width=85.771274,height=152.307213]blob:https://forum.susana.org/11c2decb-25dd-4aac-9523-d509f4f48947 [img width=31.245919,height=16.585237]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c3b064b0-b97f-4ae9-a7ae-9fa618fee58a [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/f48483a8-1bfe-4c6b-950c-d1fce7e05d31 [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/20a4332e-1418-433f-8b23-68a99dbb94fa [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/1fe9d3f4-4f93-4285-9492-edc6d9b366a5 [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e6647c36-da15-423a-b56c-0085ab461de2 [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/3e3ca595-31c3-4dc0-905f-1565371d5c4c [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/a574f7ca-f144-4051-aa71-2ba63a536e27 [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/ec01e0ff-f337-4cf2-b079-bcd97ad06945 [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d4813cd1-f571-489b-b623-b6ef445f001b [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/db4350af-f485-4dad-90d4-28c1b059d92d [img width=55.331954,height=100.795711]blob:https://forum.susana.org/2c3d8dc4-b5e5-4832-97d4-7fef67c2b933 [img width=230.946470,height=171.450018]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e060acfd-d8d8-4462-abb5-e098ac3d9bbb [img width=80.299054,height=22.292309]blob:https://forum.susana.org/0064de0f-b4c0-4c01-984e-91c17efed298 [img width=44.031399,height=71.399326]blob:https://forum.susana.org/47081fef-fecc-4abe-b90c-653475cc378e [img width=62.359990,height=29.447421]blob:https://forum.susana.org/326bd930-3a5f-4ef8-9fc9-b669ef9141d7 [img width=76.107373,height=74.004566]blob:https://forum.susana.org/79a5d962-6b6d-41a9-acab-cd2404f0af26 [img width=0.339697,height=160.032851]blob:https://forum.susana.org/6b0b9e4c-3def-4c5e-ae7d-181de757e75f [img width=0.339697,height=160.032851]blob:https://forum.susana.org/2db7714a-0dbd-470b-b8f1-78f6b81cad0c [img width=0.339697,height=113.604356]blob:https://forum.susana.org/1b54c505-36bc-485f-9136-7bbd6a64bfc3 [img width=0.339697,height=113.604356]blob:https://forum.susana.org/db9e9892-7694-4ddf-b30d-b404c7375eae [img width=0.418507,height=112.011854]blob:https://forum.susana.org/541644d7-3fc2-4a81-8e5e-9b9278bff58d [img width=0.339697,height=108.332250]blob:https://forum.susana.org/50fecd56-6723-4252-b571-cbb732eb7596[img width=56.858514,height=80.456537]blob:https://forum.susana.org/bf7c75b3-5d7f-46dd-980b-7dd1f317d401 [img width=65.408074,height=0.679395]blob:https://forum.susana.org/cd667378-d0b2-4261-96d7-d151de79cfbb [img width=0.376385,height=99.407718]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d392f4d0-f681-4abb-a1c1-e64d2f8659a1 [img width=0.413072,height=99.482451]blob:https://forum.susana.org/4340ecb5-bae6-4d29-881c-6366442d2b01 [img width=0.451118,height=98.917194]blob:https://forum.susana.org/6ce07686-0e28-415c-a057-e6fbe5d8f661 [img width=63.939222,height=0.679395]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d2339374-21ab-4ee9-8f55-8ee905ffbda1 [img width=46.308367,height=23.750956]blob:https://forum.susana.org/75b77859-04e0-4669-a3f4-ef9bd7054e14 [img width=29.970093,height=19.823802]blob:https://forum.susana.org/828bedc7-e45e-43eb-b592-b6badd714210 [img width=23.108051,height=54.279509]blob:https://forum.susana.org/8e0e6537-ecfe-4614-8cc0-dffb9ac3bb64 [img width=0.339697,height=86.192126]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c1a693b6-ccf6-4830-bbc1-dd06638a7c02 [img width=0.339697,height=85.175751]blob:https://forum.susana.org/a82325db-8d35-4318-83d3-05d21c7342b4 [img width=0.339697,height=85.739649]blob:https://forum.susana.org/01d032fe-0381-4a52-858e-bf1931140484 [img width=0.339697,height=83.932458]blob:https://forum.susana.org/68c96309-b8a0-4c6e-879f-adbf502d2238SECTION[img width=32.760427,height=0.679395]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b60b7e78-dd35-496d-a1a7-66da5c279325 [img width=50.460219,height=120.994245]blob:https://forum.susana.org/fe477c2e-8a30-43b2-8b09-f903035bd2cc [img width=14.660756,height=51.976833]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b45f3ac0-169f-4752-a310-08039f2c1c1f [img width=30.953236,height=0.792175]blob:https://forum.susana.org/99385a46-3413-4ba7-8bf9-1dd63e27f591PLANMesh surrounds straw around pile. Use brick/lime-stabilised soil to 30cm underground where floodingand/or rodents are an issue.[img width=63.939222,height=0.679395]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e99102d2-556b-4a5f-ba76-fa28c196b042 [img width=33.551243,height=0.679395]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e3c38b6e-f9ee-40ce-a420-7c7298d58af8 [img width=15.011167,height=85.190054]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e85bbf85-b55a-4e63-98d6-50982f6a014eTrees planted around platform[img width=3.484888,height=68.481518]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d8392c54-96fb-490b-ac6f-fc4808dfbdab [img width=3.850477,height=54.921936]blob:https://forum.susana.org/f85ee3f6-a737-4b3c-a054-6257e00e002e [img width=1.359878,height=52.793808]blob:https://forum.susana.org/f3eef27d-da8e-4d50-8de5-9de05e8da237 [img width=2.057769,height=45.130564]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d1903f7f-bd42-4ab1-84e9-648d8673fac4 [img width=1.978014,height=51.292214]blob:https://forum.susana.org/378d1f1c-ceaa-4e37-aef7-8ec7c6666e7f [img width=60.538171,height=25.072393]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b3d9f665-2432-44d4-8bd8-ec50c10d2bc7 [img width=62.600814,height=38.385818]blob:https://forum.susana.org/ced42784-cc1c-458d-9261-23ab47dee278 [img width=1.925391,height=45.210610]blob:https://forum.susana.org/358be93e-5564-4c87-bc54-b4dfaaa6349f [img width=41.519231,height=48.620149]blob:https://forum.susana.org/4ffe7473-0c7e-4202-a970-e2a68cf4815d [img width=0.853420,height=47.024325]blob:https://forum.susana.org/0224d70a-6cb8-4af0-9d86-92af1373e9f1 [img width=2.361577,height=114.600349]blob:https://forum.susana.org/f876ea5c-c2a6-498a-b4a4-71a9eb3bdb2c [img width=2.614312,height=114.600349]blob:https://forum.susana.org/1efbc73f-a8e9-4736-9d9f-3e77c0c4ae79 [img width=26.629987,height=110.555231]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b302820d-07e3-481c-a25d-4a27166bb965 [img width=31.226353,height=1.199812]blob:https://forum.susana.org/df1cb98a-5fab-4417-8910-d01ed8d84e6d [img width=30.972259,height=0.797610]blob:https://forum.susana.org/034fc3e1-67be-4012-9558-095ff6f424fb [img width=34.026937,height=4.185643]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b627b30f-654e-471e-af95-6e701d02c420 [img width=32.647647,height=1.017734]blob:https://forum.susana.org/cc08fdbe-a5a1-4d1e-8db7-5b25db5bcae3 [img width=32.384042,height=1.168559]blob:https://forum.susana.org/212aa2c8-29f6-431c-a43a-9c326cf4e8c1 [img width=63.580502,height=18.221374]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c51236ac-8238-4749-b793-d4d2d0885814 [img width=2.178140,height=46.280387]blob:https://forum.susana.org/f0327328-ee36-4034-aae3-c27ee3fd8f13 [img width=85.301397,height=62.215000]blob:https://forum.susana.org/89ae8446-37ae-41d0-8eab-d92cce48f65d [img width=33.827856,height=30.338450]blob:https://forum.susana.org/356b7130-84a8-4b39-ade3-a4e2ee661c78 [img width=19.487324,height=48.323609]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b64d8693-52fa-4030-813e-355b2306406aTree roots absorb urine and ‘humanure’ nutrients[img width=48.080784,height=3.168698]blob:https://forum.susana.org/dce5e2f1-3996-42cb-81c5-bebd56f4bd55 [img width=161.092182,height=6.539294]blob:https://forum.susana.org/7cb6a1e2-f643-4a34-9bce-469dc32fdbc3 [img width=161.135462,height=6.535103]blob:https://forum.susana.org/3101e633-c2ee-4385-8b10-2edbce74b0ac2-CHAMBER WOODEN TREEBOGBACK ELEVATIONFRONT ELEVATION[img width=31.725497,height=32.067597]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d5fc95c5-4dcf-438d-b48a-87ef9b94551f [img width=33.881340,height=29.910164]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b1781cfb-9a2c-44df-a22b-ae2d6060e161 [img width=35.067264,height=2.613996]blob:https://forum.susana.org/bf889b9f-4864-4303-bbd4-e47712139e2c [img width=36.108675,height=2.492738]blob:https://forum.susana.org/94705908-d010-46a9-8268-db3382abfb96 [img width=42.001985,height=3.221301]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c1a7a66d-1616-4e97-87db-910c59554307 [img width=43.003123,height=3.445334]blob:https://forum.susana.org/4d3d2c57-0c3d-444a-a28c-f31b64caf84d [img width=54.378620,height=1.091103]blob:https://forum.susana.org/bb63a74e-ced5-4f8b-9641-92b770c102e6ON SLOPE[img width=47.374388,height=1.059825]blob:https://forum.susana.org/53f635ee-8b20-4505-9a40-c4c15f9ca7c5 [img width=105.763070,height=148.194438]blob:https://forum.susana.org/ee8fe270-0e49-4315-9a24-d8a816854ce2 [img width=1.528657,height=93.758900]blob:https://forum.susana.org/8d2d8685-6437-4c9c-a797-07efb7292895 [img width=0.339697,height=124.685288]blob:https://forum.susana.org/cea7a0a8-fdfa-4f2b-b147-1292d8b883f5 [img width=1.300403,height=150.826800]blob:https://forum.susana.org/51dcd0f6-18e3-4c16-9942-6bca7952f8f5 [img width=1.300303,height=150.826800]blob:https://forum.susana.org/a6a64bc7-b389-424b-9155-4f110f056655 [img width=1.300403,height=150.826800]blob:https://forum.susana.org/220ccf05-fbac-4f26-829c-1725a6f82e93 [img width=1.174004,height=110.507350]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c9a72f84-5e57-426c-bf7b-5fb38ff63376 [img width=1.174004,height=110.507350]blob:https://forum.susana.org/302134c7-f1ff-4d3c-8161-bce4c09ba76e [img width=1.174004,height=110.507350]blob:https://forum.susana.org/3b565341-c6bc-4940-8a7a-d3693e75796e [img width=1.174004,height=110.507350]blob:https://forum.susana.org/8e54af54-9769-451a-9035-37e21a3e5e0f [img width=1.561324,height=110.701688]blob:https://forum.susana.org/63d25b66-47a7-4a27-99bf-186798ec7572 [img width=1.561224,height=110.701688]blob:https://forum.susana.org/4b26e6ba-a473-4a7e-be85-4a2f7f010aa2 [img width=1.561323,height=110.701688]blob:https://forum.susana.org/324e5515-7449-4970-89cd-3db875115aa9 [img width=1.561324,height=110.701688]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c91c1375-ec1e-49aa-8e4b-ea950dda74ab [img width=1.687612,height=151.092263]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c1d89218-1ac5-409e-9d46-ea6a095089b5 [img width=1.687712,height=151.092263]blob:https://forum.susana.org/3db8bc99-208a-4aab-938f-ddfce0b2f70a [img width=1.687612,height=151.092263]blob:https://forum.susana.org/0942153c-c786-44dc-abdb-1e8141325e25 [img width=38.209462,height=2.776649]blob:https://forum.susana.org/fb5638c6-29e8-414e-93d8-06e89518468f [img width=38.417163,height=2.976177]blob:https://forum.susana.org/1d2f0ec3-0ec9-48c4-b36a-ea59837684f1 [img width=44.747672,height=0.164414]blob:https://forum.susana.org/4b54153a-f6cb-4bf8-8e33-c698d8f48f8d [img width=43.185794,height=1.824413]blob:https://forum.susana.org/ff3eea2b-43c0-4c2f-86bb-c8645af5cb0b [img width=43.399748,height=2.045460]blob:https://forum.susana.org/33a97aca-6011-4c46-b697-cca94e32a934 [img width=44.747672,height=0.164414]blob:https://forum.susana.org/ad18afdb-5d6a-4ff6-add6-df885f3b2acc [img width=0.164414,height=79.690316]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c8b23027-7f19-4691-a336-1ee2a107c716 [img width=0.164414,height=79.690316]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e45c0ada-9918-4508-bcfa-6e196c171cb2 [img width=0.164414,height=79.690316]blob:https://forum.susana.org/945a398a-db24-4c98-9eb6-d4d5cf454f3c [img width=0.164414,height=79.690316]blob:https://forum.susana.org/18669d3f-e482-437b-96cd-4e5f7687be83 [img width=0.164414,height=79.690316]blob:https://forum.susana.org/5678a304-312e-4240-aef6-dcdde3e8d211 [img width=0.164414,height=79.690316]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b0bb4a55-2a1c-4cfa-a8f2-767c11f45585 [img width=0.164414,height=79.690316]blob:https://forum.susana.org/0b0eecc0-7e87-4dca-96ad-d2e71c00b575 [img width=38.520553,height=3.806237]blob:https://forum.susana.org/550b64b2-75c9-4e39-bcdb-5ec429953ca1 [img width=46.856929,height=1.594695]blob:https://forum.susana.org/6e4bc36a-45ec-4e9b-a047-8f5f253a800e [img width=47.055770,height=1.798495]blob:https://forum.susana.org/9df8e8a0-5829-4d11-8a7d-f6733275b39b [img width=52.265415,height=3.508782]blob:https://forum.susana.org/1fc4c043-a321-4008-8889-47786aa33981[img width=52.469886,height=3.707490]blob:https://forum.susana.org/8f1d9478-cb78-4f3b-9ec9-b65e8bca08a0 [img width=47.231996,height=5.691194]blob:https://forum.susana.org/db7a4ca2-2571-46d4-a387-21d272fb366f [img width=52.981535,height=3.306210]blob:https://forum.susana.org/34a99037-efbf-4b15-b549-ca2f13035341 [img width=30.410993,height=1.766147]blob:https://forum.susana.org/9edbfea3-2463-44f3-a61f-bfed552c815e [img width=53.222634,height=3.548363]blob:https://forum.susana.org/69aa13d0-2cbd-4e30-b186-46efdf551035 [img width=30.619982,height=1.979157]blob:https://forum.susana.org/f5dc49be-65a5-4cc2-9fd2-6e8482691c0d [img width=52.032686,height=4.068096]blob:https://forum.susana.org/4caf7e7c-d44f-4a70-aa82-af834463a0a1 [img width=52.246581,height=4.291555]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c87a9e38-12cc-4c9c-bc3b-ea82e9479c2fSIDE ELEVATIONOak frameQuarter-sawn red cedar cladding[img width=31.081699,height=3.110719]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b060d3df-5af5-4998-9ad1-86a8a0fed9e3 [img width=48.062879,height=5.510466]blob:https://forum.susana.org/16fbd2aa-be8e-4896-ba63-dd1edade569a [img width=31.279561,height=3.289946]blob:https://forum.susana.org/667f9bdd-d999-4509-b918-df4892f25b53 [img width=52.927584,height=10.055651]blob:https://forum.susana.org/2c4ae72c-c373-428d-870d-7d2144a93f90 [img width=52.092127,height=4.385280]blob:https://forum.susana.org/fde59395-6c0c-4d77-8a28-2761ea7ed412 [img width=52.312203,height=4.604969]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b9863fe6-eac7-488f-9c43-8e097931ec4c [img width=30.384075,height=7.642668]blob:https://forum.susana.org/abdb60c1-337c-460a-ba57-15e0fe732778 [img width=46.846603,height=4.500784]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d96faeaf-2075-4273-bfc0-4ca98ac9e125 [img width=109.249836,height=45.984184]blob:https://forum.susana.org/df0f966a-d683-488b-8494-ddbc42bc7250 [img width=30.553750,height=2.846800]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b37d29b9-f0ff-46b7-bb66-b84ba7a70960 [img width=30.753550,height=3.053458]blob:https://forum.susana.org/8ff337e0-5e65-4af7-a473-db70698f4f31 [img width=47.237693,height=6.615805]blob:https://forum.susana.org/fb001865-ac88-4aac-8832-15ffb15e4639 [img width=30.184254,height=1.038212]blob:https://forum.susana.org/717e1f37-4a0a-40d9-86dc-7f176d96e89b [img width=30.391173,height=1.237973]blob:https://forum.susana.org/762ca20b-5597-48e1-8555-5c8bff74182f [img width=47.300079,height=5.985573]blob:https://forum.susana.org/62a860af-9769-4844-921e-bb6843e6325b [img width=30.189609,height=2.015218]blob:https://forum.susana.org/61503ea5-22c6-4738-83d1-3ee47ab9b1d3[img width=30.431534,height=2.243424]blob:https://forum.susana.org/6c900686-68da-412c-8093-f8ec810f4aba [img width=46.856134,height=3.002816]blob:https://forum.susana.org/cc7e0482-657c-44ba-afe3-46877e4f970d [img width=31.265270,height=6.589854]blob:https://forum.susana.org/7a6215e3-df77-4c18-9c82-abce1ac65380 [img width=47.671460,height=3.893260]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e6143a0a-d7d7-480f-84a7-ba1b97c5ebaf [img width=44.747672,height=0.164414]blob:https://forum.susana.org/24f50520-baaa-4e27-8341-2d6382e49105 [img width=30.618138,height=0.986533]blob:https://forum.susana.org/719590e7-4047-488f-8ea5-46f5166768f1 [img width=43.495413,height=0.986409]blob:https://forum.susana.org/2aad64bf-86d9-4504-9e3e-b832e89a8935 [img width=29.964050,height=0.929417]blob:https://forum.susana.org/a4256738-aef2-4c7e-ab0f-d6365b88f409 [img width=43.495375,height=0.930803]blob:https://forum.susana.org/ab2812c6-a2dc-497f-a134-a28f921032e7 [img width=34.882890,height=45.507203]blob:https://forum.susana.org/1fe5f35d-48cd-434b-90f8-dc7165eb84dc [img width=30.448104,height=10.144963]blob:https://forum.susana.org/593677fc-57bd-48a5-95a1-dbc1ee08af97ChamberChamber[img width=36.570043,height=23.539864]blob:https://forum.susana.org/292302eb-a656-428d-b254-94403585e5d0 [img width=7.903499,height=51.408618]blob:https://forum.susana.org/413b9436-c758-471d-a3cf-f0f9f4d5c342 [img width=30.390797,height=9.904666]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d66bfb69-2d1b-4df2-97af-8df306803306 [img width=135.029631,height=3.288636]blob:https://forum.susana.org/774a3341-f98a-4319-8330-0b9ee04bff3asolids liquidsLodge & brace door
PLAN 3m x 1.5mPlinth[img width=135.029804,height=3.277675]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b3063f24-9df8-4ad8-a949-aaaad8f521f8Double chicken-wire over strawThe Treebog was developed for use in the UK in 1992. Many hundreds have since been
built there. The original Treebogs were planted around with basketry willows which grow
very well in UK temperate conditions (& can be coppiced for craft use each year), but do
not flourish in Mediterranean climates. Treebogs were also built in Ireland, Spain, Portu-
gal, Greece, Israel- Palestine & in Senegal–each was planted with trees native to the region
in which they were built. Treebogs are tree-powered via photosynthesis, symbiotically
support soil microbiota in the root zone (which carry out the composting process).
Treebogs are designed & planted in order to create biomass resources from the plant nutrients & water in toilet wastes, & can be the basis of a productive home garden. They are a good example, & expression, of Permaculture design & can be self-built using local materials & trees.By Andrew Jeeves ©Regrarians Inc 2021•The Regrarians HandbookliquidsRoot zoneunder
1.5m compost pile[img width=49.313207,height=0.339697]blob:https://forum.susana.org/08452d71-b87e-4bb6-a396-3f1eec327cc6 [img width=115.117179,height=61.974412]blob:https://forum.susana.org/ce05c42b-3f4c-4dfb-8fb1-91d3725ba696 [img width=115.116689,height=31.156375]blob:https://forum.susana.org/385c3e28-96d7-436e-8206-dd811ee5859b [img width=92.503706,height=32.467503]blob:https://forum.susana.org/9803ae22-61a1-40fb-8a20-14795cb987bb14Movable floor section[img width=115.116689,height=0.346491]blob:https://forum.susana.org/3a2e9293-c37b-49b5-b4a4-1456925f6b64 [img width=115.116689,height=0.346491]blob:https://forum.susana.org/6da44d0f-3e88-49b3-98bf-b0e00f8e67b4 [img width=115.116689,height=0.346491]blob:https://forum.susana.org/76364850-de46-4116-9971-0aa953765fabPlinth and movable floor section can be swapped when a chamber is full3.6m[img width=481.894200,height=361.420700]blob:https://forum.susana.org/beb9ae7d-44e2-4ec6-b020-ab1f2c4c42ca[img width=481.894200,height=361.420700]blob:https://forum.susana.org/38efeb0e-3dab-489b-90d6-cb6f02c438a015[img width=481.894200,height=361.420700]blob:https://forum.susana.org/9984cc21-48bc-49ec-95e4-ed56ff541443[img width=479.627670,height=384.665810]blob:https://forum.susana.org/40777f52-9f40-403f-8ed1-85f845ed5d3516[img width=481.894200,height=361.420700]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e9518c79-d99c-4a37-8cf2-995f71395d33[img width=481.894200,height=361.420700]blob:https://forum.susana.org/7b1478d7-fde8-45d3-a4ec-7f271edf603517
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  • Jay3
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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps ?

Hope this is a PDF
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  • Jay3
  • Posts: 13
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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps ?

I am attaching a PDF file, but it doesn't seem to be uploading.
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  • Tore
  • Tore's Avatar
  • worked in sanitation for most of my life. taught plumbing. have plumbing and builders license, certified inspector in all facets of construction, PhD in public administration & have taught construction management in university, traveled numerous countries, Interest UDDT and sanitation & clean water
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Re: Tree Bogs sanitation system for IDP Camps ???

Without the moisture from the urine the feces will dry quickly and have minimum odor.  When pathogens die the feces it can be used as a soil conditioner."

If you use a composting toilet where the urine is separated from the feces the odors will be far less that if they are mixed.
All pathogens in feces will die over time and the higher the temperature the faster the pathogens will die.  At 165 degrees F. all pathogens will no longer be viable.  There are charts that will show the time vs. temperature that death will occur.  I use a glass panel facing south so the storage temperatures will be elevated and the feces will dry quickly.  In most situations 6 months of daily elevated temperatures will cause all pathogens to die and the product can be used as a soil conditioner.
Urine has no to very small amounts of bacteria and viruses and can be quickly used as a fertilizer.
See attached temperature/time chard

Sanitation & water consultant in developing countries

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  • Richardluff06
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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps ?

Dear all,

I have posted Jay's reply here as a PDF as per his request. Hopefully this will make for easier use/ref.

Richard

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