Tree Bogs sanitation system for IDP Camps ???

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  • reidharvey7734
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  • I am a ceramic industrial designer focused on environmental health and development. Ceramics is ideally suited to addressing the urgent needs of low-income communities and countries. Those embracing ceramic developments will industrialize, gaining resilience and self-sufficiency.
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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps?

Thanks for the question. It seems as if it would be a lot easier to dig a hole and make a platform over it, as in the Arborloo. The Tree Bog would involve building a structure above ground with a platform. Wouldn't it be better for the excrement to be below ground?
All the best, Reid
Anthony Reid Harvey, ceramic industrial designer
Africa Prosperity Inc.
Niagara Falls, NY USA
Here is a video presentation that gives an overview of ceramic WASH and development interventions:
Harvey, Anthony Reid (2021): Sanitary stoneware toilets: production closer to the need. Loughborough University. Conference contribution. hdl.handle.net/2134/16941193.v1

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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps ?

Hi Jay and all,

I am just wondering what you would say the difference is between a tree bog and an Arborloo? Looks pretty similar to me. If you can explain the difference then we can also add that information to the two Wikipedia articles: Regards,
Elisabeth

Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
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Located in Ulm, Germany
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  • Jay3
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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps ?

 Hello Aaron, AKSantaCruz, Dean, Richard, Ross and ToreThank you so much for taking the time to respond to Aaron’s post about the use of the Treebog in humanitarian scenarios, like refugee and IDP camps.

I hope this response will help to answer the questions and concerns you have about the Treebog.

The concerns raised by each of you about the Treebog have been raised before, and will no doubt continue to be raised as the Treebog becomes more widely known as a compost toilet which can be self-built and self-managed, and which can safely convert toilet wastes into biomass and biological resources.

As Sanitation Engineers and Humanitarian Organisations require data on Treebogs, I hope that this document will be useful in providing areas of focus for those of you who’d like to develop further research to discover both the applicability and the limitations of the Treebog.

From your comments, these concerns can be placed under the following headings:
1 Co-composting of faeces and urine, with possible overloading leading to sewage sludge leaking out of the Treebog base structure.
2 Need for Twin Cubicle Treebogs - for a rest or fallow period
3 Pathogen removal by the Treebog (viruses, bacteria etc.)
4 Ventilation - use of chimney, to enhance air flow around compost pile
5 Flies - control
6 Flooding of the toilet, by overland flows during high rainfall events
7 Access to toilet platform by disabled people
8 Capacity of the soil to absorb the liquids - especially if usage is high
9 The Scaleability of The Treebog
10 Composting Process is not Thermophilic - could pathogens be a problem in the long term?

Richard has visited a Treebog in Wales, built by the owner of a camping area.  The Treebog was located on a very steep slope in a woodland setting.  Richard, I’m looking forward to hearing your insights into the Treebog gained from using this particular, quite rustic, Treebog in Wales.

I was wondering if anybody else on this thread has any experience in building, using or monitoring a Treebog? 

If not, I shall attempt to bring you up to speed.

Treebog Concept
Please bear in mind in mind that the Treebog is a conceptual approach to decentralised sanitation.

What I offer is not a Blueprint, nor can it be effectively constructed without reference to the local culture, conditions, materials available and resources at hand.

Treebog: Definition
Treebog can be simply defined as a raised, platform-mounted, toilet cubicle, closely surrounded by densely planted and heavily mulched trees and shrubs. In terms of its structure, there are many possibilities when people self-build, using local resources.

The term ‘Treebog’ is spelt in this way, capitalised, so as to stress the importance of Trees in the creation and successful functioning of the Treebog. Note that ‘bog’ is an informal word for toilet in the UK.

A Treebog is not a pit latrine
As the Treebog is not a pit latrine, there is no need to dig a hole underneath it. 
This not only saves a lot of labour, but can be important in helping to protect groundwater, especially if there is a high water table.

Treebog: Soil surface compost chamber - not a below ground pit
Having no pit prevents the mixing of liquids and solids in the Treebog and so helps to prevent odour nuisance.  To make this as clear as possible we describe the enclosure underneath the platform, surrounded by the chicken wire, as the compost chamber. 

Platform mounted, directly above a compost pile
The Treebog cubicle has either a toilet seat or a squatting platform and directly below this, in the compost chamber, is the compost pile, onto which the daily offerings are deposited. This simple use of gravity, to create the compost pile underneath the cubicle, results in users only ever having to move the pile when it has fully decomposed into compost, they never have to move either sewage sludge or any non-composted material.

Faecal sludge/Compost 
Faecal sludge is a specific term in the water industry.  It is defined as faeces mixed with water, a slurry, and is the product of a water-based sewage system.   

Separation of liquids and solids
The faeces deposited in a Treebog form the compost pile, and the liquids drain off this pile, soaking into the surrounding earth, into the root zone of the planted trees. 

We could therefore be said to be employing ‘gravity-powered phase-separation’ enabling the compost pile to remain mainly aerobic.

The solids and the liquids do not get the opportunity to mix and become an anaerobic slurry as they would if collected in a pit. 

Aerobic decomposition creates fewer, if any, odorous off-gases, and occurs more quickly than anaerobic decomposition.

Water-based slurries will not compost at all well, and unless effectively mechanically aerated and mixed, they will rapidly become anoxic/anaerobic and as such, and will tend to smell. 

A Treebog is not a water-based system so produces no sludge or slurry.

Because a Treebog has no pit underneath it (the compost sits on the top of the soil surface) it is a dry-composting process - the liquids ‘drain’ off the pile into the root zone of the soil.This composted material is not the same as faecal sludge. 

Once full the Treebog can be allowed a fallow or rest period, it is not used for a while to allow full composting of the contents to occur. When fully decomposed the compost in the Treebog can be dug out and used in the garden or orchard.  It is then relatively dry, smells as sweet as good fertile topsoil and, because it isn’t in a pit, can be easily shovelled into a wheelbarrow and used as a, fertile, soil conditioner or top dressing.

The Arborloo 
The Arborloo is another type of compost toilet, a methodology already accepted in the field.  The Arborloo is only similar to The Treebog in that it involves a tree being planted.   In the Arborloo the tree is planted into a pit which has already been filled with toilet wastes. 

So, an Arborloo is a full up pit latrine, with a tree growing it. 

When an Arborloo pit is full, it is covered with a layer of soil and a single tree is planted on top.  However, it is still necessary to dig a pit, which is labour intensive, may bring septic wastes closer to groundwater and can be very difficult, or impossible, in rocky conditions.

The Arborloo - Short-lived tree is planted
Guidance on the Arborloo indicates that a short-lived species, like the banana, be used and once the tree dies off, then the pit is dug out and used again. 

The Treebog - Long-lived trees are planted
In contrast, the trees around the Treebog can grow and produce resources for many years, they can be managed as standards or coppice, and produce fruits, nuts and many other useful tree ‘services’ including shade from the sun and shelter from the wind.

The Treebog’s Water Retentive Root Zone
The platform-mounted toilet is surrounded with closely planted trees and shrubs.  These send their roots into the moist, nutrient-rich soil underneath and around the Treebog, opening up channels in the soil for water.  In doing this, the tree roots create a water-retentive space within the soil underneath the Treebog, enabling more water to be more readily absorbed in the soil; to be absorbed by the roots and transpired by the leaves of the trees and shrubs.

Visual Screen &
Particulate Organic Carbon Source for odour control
The use of a chicken wire mesh stuffed with straw (or other carbon rich material) to create a ‘sandwich’ as a visual screen, is not something people are used to seeing as a part of a toilet set-up. Apart from screening the compost pile from sight until the trees have grown up around it, the carbon-rich material used also helps to absorb the Nitrogen in the urea and washing water.  This screening material needs to be topped up periodically as it rots down to become soil.

It is the nitrogen containing substances which might cause odour problems if not effectively dealt with, urea must be fully broken down and an aerobic environment and a carbon source are very important to enable this to occur. 

A Treebog directly integrates sanitation with resource production
Different species of trees provide various yields:  fruit and nuts, fodder crops, firewood, polewood for building, mulch, and the material for charcoal production.  Thus the Treebog is a sanitation methodology which creates both soil and biomass resources, enabling people to take control of, and to benefit from having their sanitation needs met naturally, often with a self-built Treebog structure.

Flooding by overland flows during heavy rain
Flooding is problematic with many methods of sanitation.  If it is necessary to build a Treebog in an area which periodically floods, then it is possible to either construct a low earth berm around the Treebog base structure, or indeed build a Treebog on top of a raised mound surrounded by Trees.  

This could then act as a ‘flood refuge’ place in times of heavy rain, which would be handy, as it would have a functioning toilet and trees for shelter.

Disabled Access to The Treebog
This is a perennial challenge and can be addressed in two ways:
1 A gently sloping ramp can be built to aid access.
2 The Treebog can be built onto a slope, with the entrance on upper slope ‘ground level’ and so no stairs are required. 

Pathogen Removal within the Treebog
A wide range of soil creatures and microbes can be found within a Treebog composting pile, from dung beetles and earthworms, to ants and termites.  A Treebog can be also have earthworms added, and so use the power of earthworms to aid the composting process, as they would do in a wormery.The funga (the total population of fungal species) along with the Archea and Bacteria are the primary decomposers and transformers of the waste material into compost.  

Pathogen removal mechanism
 
Also within the Treebog and the soil are many Protista, a varied kingdom of eukaryotic single-celled organisms, many of which are known to predate (graze) upon both bacteria and viruses.  These include well known organisms such as the amoeba,paramecium, slime and water moulds, and nematodes.  These organisms are constantly looking for their next meal and gut bacteria or virus particle is easy prey to these free-living life forms.

Location and correct sizing of the Treebog
Both sizing and location are of great importance.  It is best to locate the Treebog close to the users so that they can manage it, tending it during its establishment, and then to collect the harvest from it.

A Treebog should not be located in an area known to flood, but can be placed on a raised earth mound, or have an earth berm constructed around it to deflect overland flow during excessive rainfall events.

A Treebog provides shade in hot climates
An adequately-sized, double cubicle, Treebog can serve around 35 - 40 people well, and can be surrounded by up to 25 trees and shrubs, so that the Treebog is a cool, shaded, area in hot climates, where several people have reported feeling very relaxed and comfortable using them - even in summer temperatures of 40-50o C.

Ventilation
Ventilation is of crucial importance within a Treebog, in order to maintain the aerobic nature of the compost pile underneath the Treebog Platform.

Airflow for Aerobic Decomposition
Only with good ventilation can aerobic composting occur.  This air flow enhances the breakdown of the solids in a microbial degradation process.  Having non-airtight sides of the chamber underneath the Treebog platform, helps to keep the process aerobic.  Some people use chicken wire, others have used hazel/willow hurdles or overlapping wooden slats which allow good airflow. 

Many Treebogs have straw stuffed between the chicken wire, others have woodchip, and in Senegal peanut shells have been used effectively (in the role of carbon source) filling the space between a double chicken wire screen.

Treebogs have also been fitted with a black plastic pipe/chimney which connects the platform chamber with the air, the black plastic pipe warming in the sun causes an increased, thermodynamically induced, air flow through the composting chamber. 

Odours
Odours can be minimised by adding small amounts of Particulate Organic Carbon, for example sawdust or leaf litter, crushed peanut shells etc.  It is worth noting that the smaller the particle size of this material, the more effective it is at reducing the likelihood of the pile creating a odour nuisance.

So, if possible, this material should chopped up prior to adding to the pile, order to minimise the amount of carbon rich materials being used within the Treebog, or if available small quantities of fine sawdust can be added every week, as this prevents the Treebog filling up with sawdust. 

The Earth Closet
Like the traditional European Earth Closet, the addition of small quantity of finely powdered dried soil each week, inoculates the pile with the necessary microbes and ensures a good supply of carbonaceous materials for the microbiota to use as an energy source.

Flies
Whatever is used to act as a visual screen around the chamber underneath the Treebog, it is important to keep the chamber as dark as possible, flies are not attracted to it as the lack of light discourages flies from entering.  It is also a very good idea to have a lid on the seat or squat to prevent direct access to the flies, as well as sunlight from entering the chamber.

Rodents  
Rodents can be excluded by using the chicken wire sandwich stuffed with straw and the chicken wire can be dug into the ground by about 6 - 8 inches to prevent burrowing animals accessing the compost pile.
The presence of the many users of the Treebog and Compound dogs are also a good deterrent. 

Moisture Retentive Woodchip Mulch - Particulate Organic Carbon Source
Use of a thick woodchip or straw mulch around the base of the trees, enhances the formation of soil and keeps the soil around the Treebog from drying out, shading and protecting the tree root systems from the intense heat of direct sunlight.

Management of the Treebog to maximise the absorptive capacity of the soil 
The area underneath a double Treebog structure is roughly 2 metres x 4 metres, so, in the order of 8 m2.  To this we add a surface mulch (a particulate organic carbon source) both to the ground underneath and around the Treebog where the trees are planted.  

Where possible, we add small quantities of topsoil from undisturbed, living soil.  Areas such as a woodland or the soil around solitary tree - which will contain many of the soil microbes, fungi and other microbiota we require to act upon the compost pile.

Mycorrhiza and mucopolysacheride gel production
With the tree roots and the mulch, along with the moisture added to the Treebog each day, the fungal associates of the trees’ roots - the arbuscular mycorrhiza - start to produce mucopolysacherides which create a water retentive ‘gel’ around the root zone, underneath the Treebog.  This enhances the Treebog’s ability to hold on to water and make it available to the myriad life forms which ‘colonise’ the soil underneath the Treebog. 

Local Materials and Tree Species
People can build a Treebog with whatever materials they have to hand or can obtain locally.  Treebogs growing certain species of tree such as Gliricidia sepium or Glory Cedar, a nitrogen fixer, which can produce polewood if coppiced, or bamboo a fast growing grass, may also provide materials necessary to build new Treebogs and to repair old ones. 

Useful trees such as Moringa and Neem can be grown around the Treebog.

Treebog Structure
Our aim is to use as few as possible non-natural, non-biodegradable materials. This not only gives low-embodied energy, but also means that the compost pile and the surrounding trees can be left as a resource and the superstructure moved to another place - perhaps adjacent to the original one.

Metal-framed Treebog Structure 
However, in areas where termites can destroy wooden structures, the Treebog is best made from metal, and the cladding can be made from light-weight woven grasses mats or cloth.

Movable Base Structure
If a light-weight metal frame is used there is the added possibility that it can be constructed to be either easily disassembled and rebuilt, or to be movable.If this were done then, once full, the Treebog could simply be taken apart and reassembled, or moved as a unit, and the Treebog process started again - leaving the original trees in place, with their store of compost and so not digging it up at all.

Scaffold Poles and Planks
In the UK several Treebogs have been constructed using scaffold poles and planks; the metal clamps used which hold the structure together, also enable the structure to be broken down and rebuilt.  One of these multi-seater Treebogs, made using scaffold poles, was also fitted with a ramp and a double sized cubicle for disabled access.

Urine in the Treebog
We have not found ‘neat’ urine to be a problem. As long as there is a source of particulate organic carbon (woodchip, leaf litter or straw) in place, the urea is readily broken down by microbial Nitrification and Denitrification processes.

Rate of mesophilic composting process
The rate of decomposition (composting) relates not so much to the area of soil surface underneath the Treebog in direct contact with the pile, but to the temperature, windchill effect, and moisture content, as well as the presence of Funga, Archea and Bacteria, and all the Protista.The ’wastes’ compost in-situ: the toilet wastes are transformed and then absorbed, with the plant nutrients being used in the production of biological resources and soil creation - feeding the trees.

Composting Process
Composting is the result of a multi-species interaction within the soil both below and around The Treebog.  The organic matter is decomposed and absorbed by the Flora, Fauna and Funga of the soil.  Transformed the Bacteria, Archea and Protista, the earthworms/dung beetles (in temperate zones) or the termites/ants (in tropical/sub-tropical zones).

The composting process is also greatly aided by the powerful extracellular enzymes released by the saprophytic funga of the soil.  Whilst the water retentive capacity of the soil is especially enhanced by the fungal associates (the mycorhyza) of the trees in the root zone underneath The Treebog, as they secrete mucopolysacherides which form a water-retentive gel around the plant roots.  

Earthworms, Beetles, Ants and Termites
Earthworms, dung beetles, termites and ants all carry saprophytic fungi in their guts which they ‘inoculate’ onto the organic matter and this greatly enhances decomposition.  

Vermiculture
In Temperate climates the Treebogs function is assisted by the introduction of earthworms to the compost chamber.  Vermiculture and composting are two processes which complement each other. 

The Treebog is assisted in processing the materials deposited into it by the earthworm - so a Treebog can be described as a compost system which embraces vermiculture.In dry/hot climates where earthworms do not thrive or cannot survive at all termites and ants carry out a similar function, taking organic matter under the earth, there to grow saprophytic fungi which are then harvested to feed the insects’ colony.

Emptying of the Treebog of compost (Humanure)
This period of time will depend on a range of factors including:

1 Population
served by the Treebog, at 350g/person/day (faeces) and 1 litre/day (urine).
2 Ambient temperature - which affects the rate of the composting process.
3 Size of Composting Chamber: the size/volume/height of the Treebog structure define the volume of the chamber below the seating/squatting platform, the larger this, is the longer it will be before emptying of the compost is necessary.

Based upon these factors the Treebog will sooner or later require emptying of compost, however, Treebog Emptying is not desludging! 

The Treebog does not need to have ‘Faecal Sludge’ removed, because there is no ‘sewage sludge’ created within a Treebog

Rate of solids breakdown
The build-up - to fullness - within the Treebog is dependent upon how many people are using the Treebog every day, how large the area under the platform is and how high off the ground the Treebog platform is constructed as well as the ambient temperature. The higher the platform and the larger the ‘floor area” the greater the volumetric capacity, and so the longer it will take to become full.  The composting process, hence the breakdown of the faeces to compost, will also be dependent upon the ambient temperature - for every 10o C increase in temperature the metabolic rate of the microbes doubles - so the breakdown in tropical areas can be between 2 and 4 times the rate in temperate climates.

The Farming & Health Education (FHE) Treebog - Dimensions/Filling Rate
The Farming & Health Education Treebog is a single-cubicle Treebog with dimensions of: 1.75m long x 1.5m wide, and with the platform being 1.5 m above ground level.  For a single cubicle Treebog these dimensions are on the large side. This Treebog has been in use for 6 months, and is used each day by between 30 - 35 people (around 80 people can visit the compound each day but not all of them use the Treebog).

This Treebog now has a ‘pyramid’ shaped compost pile of about 300mm high at the top. 

At this accretion rate the Treebog should not require emptying for at least 3 - 4 years.  By which time a large proportion of the pile will be fully composted into soil. So, users never have to handle septic wastes, only compost every few years.

Single or Double cubicle
My recommendation is that people build a double-cubicle Treebog as then, when one side is full up the other side can then be used - allowing full composting to occur on the first side, which having sat for 3 - 12 months, can be emptied when fully composted.   

Compost made from human toilet wastes is sometimes called called Humanure. 

The Treebog converts toilet wastes into Humanure.  

Please see The Humanure Handbook by Joseph C Jenkins:
www.amazon.co.uk/Humanure-Handbook-Guide...Manure/dp/0964425831

Treebog Roof and Rainwater Harvesting
The Treebog is built with an oversize roof which sheds the rainwater away from the Treebog structure and the compost pile.  The roof area can also be used to harvest rainwater for handwashing.

Overloading - setting upper limits to population served by each Treebog
In the comments it was mentioned that “Simple systems only work until there is more waste than the system can cope with”.

This is certainly true of the Treebog,  but also of any other system we choose to use. 

Bearing this in mind, each double-cubicle Treebog should only serve between thirty to forty people. Then the quantities of both urine and faeces is not an issue with regard to ‘containment’.

Scaleability
The Treebog is very scaleable, we can create more Treebogs for compounds of 20 -40 people, so there is no overloading and the solution scales on ‘Treebog by Treebog’ basis, not by having ever larger Treebogs

In Summary
i There is no pit underneath a Treebog, it is a soil surface composting process, which allows for gravity separation of liquids from solids ii No Pit - solids do not mix with liquids
iii Aerobic composting - not an anaerobic/anoxic slurry or sludge
iv No Faecal Sludge is produced so no Desludging is required
v) No flushing water - only washing water
vi) No pumps, replacement or spare parts are required
vii No mechanical parts to wear out, or indeed any moving parts - apart from the trees blowing in the breeze
viii Creation of soil so no ‘disposal of excreta’ periodically requiring a suction tanker.  Instead the creation of and use of compost, which can be then be the basis of a productive ‘home-garden’.
ix) Treebogs can accept urine and washwater.  So urine separation is not necessary
x) It is hygienic with no handling of septic wastes required
xi) It is ideal for Community or Self-build
xii) Pathogens are contained, faecal coliform (bacteria from the gut) are rapidly eliminated by the naturally occurring ecological processes of a living soil
xiii) It is a low-tech, biological process
xiv) It produces resources - it is not simply a waste treatment process
xv) It can include the use of earthworms or termites to help inoculate the compost pile and to bring organic matter into the soil in and around the Treebog structure.

I would like to thank Richard Luff for his comment that the Treebog has: “Wonderful elegance, with no handling of faeces and urine necessary and, with minimal requirements to move compost, which reduces health risks”

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  • Jay3
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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps ?

Having just contacted Rebecca in the SuSanA office and been told about the nuances of uploading to the forum

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I hope that the information I wish to share with those of you interested in the Treebog will appear here:
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  • Jay3
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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps ?

Hello to all of SuSanA members who had questions about The Treebog.  I have attached my responses to these questions as a pdf document, as well as attaching some photographs of Treebogs so that you are able to familiarise yourselves with the concept - in practice.I have now managed to sign onto the SuSanA network and hope that the conversation will continue. We are monitoring the first Treebog in Kenya, in the Kakuma Refugee Camp, which was built during a Treebog Workshop 6 months ago. 

It is surrounded with Papaya, Citrus and Moringa trees, and we have established a tree nursery to provide the trees for future Treebogs in the camp.

We have also started to propagate a large local bamboo, which we hope to use to build more Treebogs there. 

The Treebog is proving very popular with the 35 - 40 people who use it every day, and is a very welcome alternative to the communal toilets where women and children feel very vulnerable. We shall be hosting another Treebog Building Workshop in Kakuma later on this month and we aim to have a Treebog in all of the five main areas of the camp by the end of the year as an example to show the concept works here.

I attach some photos of a multiple cubicle Treebog with a ramp for disabled access (in Somerset in the UK) as well as a twin cubicle Treebog built in Senegal 2 years ago, where the surrounding wire enclosure is filled with peanut shells which are a locally available form of particulate organic carbon.

The Senegalese Treebog has a lightweight metal frame because the termites will eat any wooden structures!

All the very best,

Jay.

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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps ?

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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps ?

Hello Richard,

You've uploaded the Treebog Info, but not my responses to the comments made on this thread.

So,I shall try to upload the document again to enable the discussion to continue...

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  • Richardluff06
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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps ?

Dear all,

I have posted Jay's reply here as a PDF as per his request. Hopefully this will make for easier use/ref.

Richard

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  • Tore
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  • worked in sanitation for most of my life. taught plumbing. have plumbing and builders license, certified inspector in all facets of construction, PhD in public administration & have taught construction management in university, traveled numerous countries, Interest UDDT and sanitation & clean water
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Re: Tree Bogs sanitation system for IDP Camps ???

Without the moisture from the urine the feces will dry quickly and have minimum odor.  When pathogens die the feces it can be used as a soil conditioner."

If you use a composting toilet where the urine is separated from the feces the odors will be far less that if they are mixed.
All pathogens in feces will die over time and the higher the temperature the faster the pathogens will die.  At 165 degrees F. all pathogens will no longer be viable.  There are charts that will show the time vs. temperature that death will occur.  I use a glass panel facing south so the storage temperatures will be elevated and the feces will dry quickly.  In most situations 6 months of daily elevated temperatures will cause all pathogens to die and the product can be used as a soil conditioner.
Urine has no to very small amounts of bacteria and viruses and can be quickly used as a fertilizer.
See attached temperature/time chard

Sanitation & water consultant in developing countries

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  • Jay3
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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps ?

I am attaching a PDF file, but it doesn't seem to be uploading.

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  • Jay3
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Hope this is a PDF

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  • Jay3
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Re: Treebogs: A Sanitation System for IDP Camps ?

Hello Aaron, AKSantaCruz, Dean, Richard, Ross and ToreThank you so much for taking the time to respond to Aaron’s post about the use of the Treebog in humanitarian scenarios, like refugee and IDP camps. I hope this response will help to answer the questions and concerns you have about the Treebog.The concerns raised by each of you about the Treebog have been raised before, and will no doubt continue to be raised as the Treebog becomes more widely known as a compost toilet which can be self-built and self-managed, and which can safely convert toilet wastes into biomass and biological resources.As Sanitation Engineers and Humanitarian Organisations require data on Treebogs, I hope that this document will be useful in providing areas of focus for those of you who’d like to develop further research to discover both the applicability and the limitations of the Treebog.From your comments, these concerns can be placed under the following headings:
  1. 1  Co-composting of faeces and urine, with possible overloading leadingto sewage sludge leaking out of the Treebog base structure.
  2. 2  Need for Twin Cubicle Treebogs - for a rest or fallow period
  3. 3  Pathogen removal by the Treebog (viruses, bacteria etc.)
  4. 4  Ventilation - use of chimney, to enhance air flow around compost pile
  5. 5  Flies - control
  6. 6  Flooding of the toilet, by overland flows during high rainfall events
  7. 7  Access to toilet platform by disabled people
  8. 8  Capacity of the soil to absorb the liquids - especially if usage is high
  9. 9  The Scaleability of The Treebog
  10. 10  Composting Process is not Thermophilic - could pathogens be aproblem in the long term?
Richard has visited a Treebog in Wales, built by the owner of a camping area. The Treebog was located on a very steep slope in a woodland setting. Richard, I’m looking forward to hearing your insights into the Treebog gained from using this particular, quite rustic, Treebog in Wales.1I was wondering if anybody else on this thread has any experience in building, using or monitoring a Treebog? If not, I shall attempt to bring you up to speed.Treebog ConceptPlease bear in mind in mind that the Treebog is a conceptual approach to decentralised sanitation. What I offer is not a Blueprint, nor can it be effectively constructed without reference to the local culture, conditions, materials available and resources at hand.Treebog: DefinitionTreebog can be simply defined as a raised, platform-mounted, toilet cubicle, closely surrounded by densely planted and heavily mulched trees and shrubs.In terms of its structure, there are many possibilities when people self-build, using local resources.The term ‘Treebog’ is spelt in this way, capitalised, so as to stress the importance of Trees in the creation and successful functioning of the Treebog. Note that ‘bog’ is an informal word for toilet in the UK.A Treebog is not a pit latrineAs the Treebog is not a pit latrine, there is no need to dig a hole underneath it. This not only saves a lot of labour, but can be important in helping to protect groundwater, especially if there is a high water table.Treebog: Soil surface compost chamber - not a below ground pitHaving no pit prevents the mixing of liquids and solids in the Treebog and so helps to prevent odour nuisance. To make this as clear as possible we describe the enclosure underneath the platform, surrounded by the chicken wire, as the compost chamber.Platform mounted, directly above a compost pileThe Treebog cubicle has either a toilet seat or a squatting platform and directly below this, in the compost chamber, is the compost pile, onto which the daily offerings are deposited.2This simple use of gravity, to create the compost pile underneath the cubicle, results in users only ever having to move the pile when it has fully decomposed into compost, they never have to move either sewage sludge or any non-composted material.Faecal sludge/CompostFaecal sludge is a specific term in the water industry. It is defined as faeces mixed with water, a slurry, and is the product of a water-based sewage system.Separation of liquids and solidsThe faeces deposited in a Treebog form the compost pile, and the liquids drain off this pile, soaking into the surrounding earth, into the root zone of the planted trees.We could therefore be said to be employing ‘gravity-powered phase- separation’ enabling the compost pile to remain mainly aerobic. The solids and the liquids do not get the opportunity to mix and become an anaerobic slurry as they would if collected in a pit.Aerobic decomposition creates fewer, if any, odorous off-gases, and occurs more quickly than anaerobic decomposition. Water-based slurries will not compost at all well, and unless effectively mechanically aerated and mixed, they will rapidly become anoxic/anaerobic and as such, and will tend to smell. A Treebog is not a water-based system so produces no sludge or slurry.Because a Treebog has no pit underneath it (the compost sits on the top of the soil surface) it is a dry-composting process - the liquids ‘drain’ off the pile into the root zone of the soil.This composted material is not the same as faecal sludge. Once full the Treebog can be allowed a fallow or rest period, it is not used for a while to allow full composting of the contents to occur.When fully decomposed the compost in the Treebog can be dug out and used in the garden or orchard. It is then relatively dry, smells as sweet as good fertile topsoil and, because it isn’t in a pit, can be easily shovelled into awheelbarrow and used as a, fertile, soil conditioner or top dressing.3The ArborlooThe Arborloo is another type of compost toilet, a methodology already accepted in the field. The Arborloo is only similar to The Treebog in that it involves a tree being planted. In the Arborloo the tree is planted into a pit which has already been filled with toilet wastes. So, an Arborloo is a full pit latrine, with a tree growing it.When an Arborloo pit is full, it is covered with a layer of soil and a single tree is planted on top. However, it is still necessary to dig a pit, which is labour intensive, may bring septic wastes closer to groundwater and can be very difficult, or impossible, in rocky conditions.Arborloo - Short-lived treeGuidance on the Arborloo indicates that a short-lived species, like the banana, be used and once the tree dies off, then the pit is dug out and used again.Treebog - Long-lived treesIn contrast, the trees around the Treebog can grow and produce resources for many years, they can be managed as standards or coppice, and produce fruits, nuts and many other useful tree ‘services’ including shade from the sun and shelter from the wind.The Treebog’s Water Retentive Root ZoneThe platform-mounted toilet is surrounded with closely planted trees and shrubs. These send their roots into the moist, nutrient-rich soil underneath and around the Treebog, opening up channels in the soil for water.In doing this, the tree roots create a water-retentive space within the soil underneath the Treebog, enabling more water to be more readily absorbed in the soil; to be absorbed by the roots and transpired by the leaves of the trees and shrubs.Visual Screen & Particulate Organic Carbon Source for odour controlThe use of a chicken wire mesh stuffed with straw (or other carbon rich material) to create a ‘sandwich’ as a visual screen, is not something people are used to seeing as a part of a toilet set-up.4Apart from screening the compost pile from sight until the trees have grown up around it, the carbon-rich material used also helps to absorb the Nitrogen in the urea and washing water. This screening material needs to be topped up periodically as it rots down to become soil.It is the nitrogen containing substances which might cause odour problems if not effectively dealt with, urea must be fully broken down and an aerobic environment and a carbon source are very important to enable this to occur.A Treebog directly integrates sanitation with resource productionDifferent species of trees provide various yields: fruit and nuts, fodder crops, firewood, polewood for building, mulch, and the material for charcoal production.Thus the Treebog is a sanitation methodology which creates both soil and biomass resources, enabling people to take control of, and to benefit from having their sanitation needs met naturally, often with a self-built Treebog structure.Flooding by overland flows during heavy rainFlooding is problematic with many methods of sanitation. If it is necessary to build a Treebog in an area which periodically floods, then it is possible to either construct a low earth berm around the Treebog base structure, or indeed build a Treebog on top of a raised mound surrounded by Trees.This could then act as a ‘flood refuge’ place in times of heavy rain, which would be handy, as it would have a functioning toilet and trees for shelter.Disabled Access to The TreebogThis is a perennial challenge and can be addressed in two ways:
  1. 1  A gently sloping ramp can be built to aid access.
  2. 2  The Treebog can be built onto a slope, with the entrance on upper slope‘ground level’ and so no stairs are required.
See attached Treebog Infographic/photos of the Buddhafield Treebog.5Pathogen Removal within the TreebogA wide range of soil creatures and microbes can be found within a Treebog composting pile, from dung beetles and earthworms, to ants and termites. A Treebog can be also have earthworms added, and so use the power of earthworms to aid the composting process, as they would do in a wormery.The funga (the total population of fungal species) along with the Archea and Bacteria are the primary decomposers and transformers of the waste material into compost.Pathogen removal mechanismAlso within the Treebog and the soil are many Protista, a varied kingdom of eukaryotic single-celled organisms, many of which are known to predate (graze) upon both bacteria and viruses.These include well known organisms such as the amoeba, paramecium, slime and water moulds, and nematodes. These organisms are constantly looking for their next meal and gut bacteria or virus particle is easy prey to these free- living life forms.Location and correct sizing of the TreebogBoth sizing and location are of great importance. It is best to locate the Treebog close to the users so that they can manage it, tending it during its establishment, and then to collect the harvest from it.A Treebog should not be located in an area known to flood, but can be placed on a raised earth mound, or have an earth berm constructed around it to deflect overland flow during excessive rainfall events.A Treebog provides shade in hot climatesAn adequately-sized, double cubicle, Treebog can serve around 20 - 35 people well, and can be surrounded by up to 25 trees and shrubs, so that the Treebog is a cool, shaded, area in hot climates, where several people have reported feeling very relaxed and comfortable using them - even in summer temperatures of 40-50o C.6VentilationVentilation is of crucial importance within a Treebog, in order to maintain the aerobic nature of the compost pile underneath the Treebog Platform.Airflow for Aerobic DecompositionOnly with good ventilation can aerobic composting occur. This air flow enhances the breakdown of the solids in a microbial degradation process. Having non-airtight sides of the chamber underneath the Treebog platform, helps to keep the process aerobic.Some people use chicken wire, others have used hazel/willow hurdles or overlapping wooden slats which allow good airflow. Many Treebogs have straw stuffed between the chicken wire, others have woodchip, and in Senegal peanut shells have been used effectively (in the role of carbon source) filling the space between a double chicken wire screen.Treebogs have also been fitted with a black plastic pipe/chimney which connects the platform chamber with the air, the black plastic pipe warming in the sun causes an increased, thermodynamically induced, air flow through the composting chamber.OdoursOdours can be minimised by adding small amounts of Particulate Organic Carbon, for example sawdust or leaf litter, crushed peanut shells etc. It is worth noting that the smaller the particle size of this material, the more effective it is at reducing the likelihood of the pile creating a odour nuisance.So, if possible, this material should chopped up prior to adding to the pile, order to minimise the amount of carbon rich materials being used within the Treebog, or if available small quantities of fine sawdust can be added every week, as this prevents the Treebog filling up with sawdust.The Earth ClosetLike the traditional European Earth Closet, the addition of small quantity of finely powdered dried soil each week, inoculates the pile with the necessary microbes and ensures a good supply of carbonaceous materials for the microbiota to use as an energy source.7FliesWhatever is used to act as a visual screen around the chamber underneath the Treebog, it is important to keep the chamber as dark as possible, flies are not attracted to it as the lack of light discourages flies from entering. It is also a very good idea to have a lid on the seat or squat to prevent direct access to the flies, as well as sunlight from entering the chamber.RodentsRodents can be excluded by using the chicken wire sandwich stuffed with straw. The presence of the many users of the Treebog and Compound dogs are also a good deterrent.Moisture Retentive Woodchip Mulch - Particulate Organic Carbon SourceUse of a thick woodchip or straw mulch around the base of the trees, enhances the formation of soil and keeps the soil around the Treebog from drying out, shading and protecting the tree root systems from the intense heat of direct sunlight.Management of the Treebog to maximise the absorptive capacity of the soilThe area underneath a double Treebog structure is roughly 2 metres x 4 metres, so, in the order of 8 m2. To this we add a surface mulch (a particulate organic carbon source) both to the ground underneath and around the Treebog where the trees are planted.Where possible, we add small quantities of topsoil from undisturbed, living soil. Areas such as a woodland or the soil around solitary tree - which will contain many of the soil microbes, fungi and other microbiota we require to act upon the compost pile.Mycorrhiza and mucopolysacheride gel productionWith the tree roots and the mulch, along with the moisture added to the Treebog each day, the fungal associates of the trees’ roots - the arbuscular mycorrhiza - start to produce mucopolysacherides which create a water retentive ‘gel’ around the root zone, underneath the Treebog.This enhances the Treebog’s ability to hold on to water and make it available to the myriad life forms which ‘colonise’ the soil underneath the Treebog.8Local Materials and Tree SpeciesPeople can build a Treebog with whatever materials they have to hand or can obtain locally. Treebogs growing certain species of tree such as Gliricidia sepium or Glory Cedar, a nitrogen fixer, which can produce polewood if coppiced, or bamboo a fast growing grass, may provide materials necessary to build new Treebogs and to repair old ones. Useful trees such as Moringa and Neem can be grown around the Treebog.Treebog StructureOur aim is to use as few as possible non-natural, non-biodegradable materials. This not only gives low-embodied energy, but also means that the compost pile and the surrounding trees can be left as a resource and the superstructure moved to another place - perhaps adjacent to the original one.Metal-framed Treebog StructureHowever, in areas where termites can destroy wooden structures, the Treebog is best made from metal, and the cladding can be made from light-weight woven grasses mats or cloth.Movable Base StructureIf a light-weight metal frame is used there is the added possibility that it can be constructed to be either easily disassembled and rebuilt, or to be movable. If this were done then, once full, the Treebog could simply be taken apart and reassembled, or moved as a unit, and the Treebog process started again - leaving the original trees in place, with their store of compost and so not digging it up at all.Scaffold Poles and PlanksIn the UK several Treebogs have been constructed using scaffold poles and planks; the metal clamps used which hold the structure together, also enable the structure to be broken down and rebuilt. One of these multi-seater Treebogs, made using scaffold poles, was also fitted with a ramp and a double sized cubicle for disabled access. See photos of the Buddhafield Treebog.Urine in the TreebogWe have not found ‘neat’ urine to be a problem. As long as there is a source ofparticulate organic carbon (woodchip, leaf litter or straw) in place, the urea isreadily broken down by microbial Nitrification and Denitrification processes.9Rate of mesophilic composting processThe rate of decomposition (composting) relates not so much to the area of soil surface underneath the Treebog in direct contact with the pile, but to the temperature, windchill effect, and moisture content, as well as the presence of Funga, Archea and Bacteria, and all the Protista.The ’wastes’ compost in-situ: the toilet wastes are transformed and then absorbed, with the plant nutrients being used in the production of biological resources and soil creation - feeding the trees.Composting ProcessComposting is the result of a multi-species interaction within the soil both below and around The Treebog. The organic matter is decomposed and absorbed by the Flora, Fauna and Funga of the soil.Transformed the Bacteria, Archea and Protista, the earthworms/dung beetles (in temperate zones) or the termites/ants (in tropical/sub-tropical zones).The composting process is also greatly aided by the powerful extracellular enzymes released by the saprophytic funga of the soil. Whilst the water retentive capacity of the soil is especially enhanced by the fungal associates (the mycorhyza) of the trees in the root zone underneath The Treebog, as they secrete mucopolysacherides which form a water-retentive gel around the plant roots.Earthworms, Beetles, Ants and TermitesEarthworms, dung beetles, termites and ants all carry saprophytic fungi in their guts which they ‘inoculate’ onto the organic matter and this greatly enhances decomposition.VermicultureIn Temperate climates the Treebogs function is assisted by the introduction of earthworms to the compost chamber. Vermiculture and composting are two processes which complement each other.The Treebog is assisted in processing the materials deposited into it by the earthworm - so a Treebog can be described as a compost system whichembraces vermiculture.10In dry/hot climates where earthworms do not thrive or cannot survive at all termites and ants carry out a similar function, taking organic matter under the earth, there to grow saprophytic fungi which are then harvested to feed the insects’ colony.Emptying of the Treebog of compost (Humanure)This period of time will depend on a range of factors including:
1 Population served by the Treebog, at 350g/person/day (faeces) and 1 litre/ day (urine).
2 Ambient temperature - which affects the rate of the composting process.
3 Size of Composting Chamber: the size/volume/height of the Treebog structure define the volume of the chamber below the seating/squatting platform, the larger this, is the longer it will be before emptying of the compost is necessary.Based upon these factors the Treebog will sooner or later require emptying of compost, however, Treebog Emptying is not desludging! The Treebog does not need to have ‘Faecal Sludge’ removed, because there is no ‘sewage sludge’ created within a TreebogRate of solids breakdownThe build-up - to fullness - within the Treebog is dependent upon how many people are using the Treebog every day, how large the area under the platform is and how high off the ground the Treebog platform is constructed as well as the ambient temperature.The higher the platform and the larger the ‘floor area” the greater the volumetric capacity, and so the longer it will take to become full. The composting process, hence the breakdown of the faeces to compost, will also be dependent upon the ambient temperature - for every 10o C increase in temperature the metabolic rate of the microbes doubles - so the breakdown in tropical areas can be between 2 and 4 times the rate in temperate climates.The Farming & Health Education Treebog - Dimensions/Filling RateThe Farming & Health Education Treebog is a single-cubicle Treebog with dimensions of: 1.75m long x 1.5m wide, and with the platform being 1.5 m above ground level.11For a single cubicle Treebog these dimensions are on the large side. This Treebog has been in use for 6 months, and is used each day by between 25 and 30 people (around 80 people can visit the compound each day but not all of them use the Treebog).This Treebog now has a ‘pyramid’ shaped compost pile of about 300mm high at the top. At this accretion rate the Treebog should not require emptying for at least 3 - 4 years. By which time a large proportion of the pile will be fully composted into soil. So, users never have to handle septic wastes, only compost every few years.Single or Double cubicleMy recommendation is that people build a double-cubicle Treebog as then, when one side is full up the other side can then be used - allowing full composting to occur on the first side, which having sat for 3 - 12 months, can be emptied when fully composted.Compost made from human toilet wastes is sometimes called called Humanure. The Treebog converts toilet wastes into Humanure. Please see The Humanure Handbook by Joseph C Jenkins: https:// www.amazon.co.uk/Humanure-Handbook-Guide-Composting-Manure/ dp/0964425831Treebog Roof and Rainwater HarvestingThe Treebog is built with an oversize roof which sheds the rainwater away from the Treebog structure and the compost pile. The roof area can also be used to harvest rainwater for handwashing.Overloading - setting upper limits to population served by each TreebogIn the comments it was mentioned that “Simple systems only work until there is more waste than the system can cope with”. This is certainly true of the Treebog, but also of any other system we choose to use. Bearing this in mind, each double-cubicle Treebog should only serve between twenty to thirty people. Then the quantities of both urine and faeces is not an issue with regard to ‘containment’.12ScaleabilityThe Treebog is very scaleable, we can create more Treebogs for compounds of 20 or 30 people, so there is no overloading and the solution scales on ‘Treebog by Treebog’ basis, not by having ever larger TreebogsIn Summary
  1. i)  There is no pit underneath a Treebog, it is a soil surface compostingprocess, which allows for gravity separation of liquids from solids
  2. ii)  No Pit - solids do not mix with liquids
  3. iii)  Aerobic composting - not an anaerobic/anoxic slurry or sludge
  4. iv)  No Faecal Sludge is produced so no Desludging is required
  5. v)  No flushing water - only washing water
  6. vi)  No pumps, replacement or spare parts are required
  7. vii)  No mechanical parts to wear out, or indeed any moving parts - apartfrom the trees blowing in the breeze
  8. viii)  Creation of soil so no ‘disposal of excreta’ periodically requiring asuction tanker. Instead the creation of and use of compost, which canbe then be the basis of a productive ‘home-garden’.
  9. ix)  Treebogs can accept urine and washwater. So urine separation is notnecessary
  10. x)  It is hygienic with no handling of septic wastes required
  11. xi)  It is ideal for Community or Self-build
  12. xii)  Pathogens are contained, faecal coliform (bacteria from the gut) arerapidly eliminated by the naturally occurring ecological processes of aliving soil
  13. xiii)  It is a low-tech, biological process
  14. xiv)  It produces resources - it is not simply a waste treatment process
  15. xv)  It can include the use of earthworms or termites to help inoculate thecompost pile and to bring organic matter into the soil in and around the Treebog structure.
I would like to thank Richard Luff for his comment that the Treebog has:“Wonderful elegance, with no handling of faeces and urine necessary and, with minimal requirements to move compost, which reduces health risks”.13UNDER CONSTRUCTIONMovable steel-frame Treebog Kamyaak Village, Senegal new Women’s Forest Garden (ex-millet/peanut field)‘Humanure’ pileThe Treebog is simple: it comprises a raised
platform-mounted toilet seat or squatting platform,
positioned over a compost heap. There is no pit underneath The Treebog,
the compost pile sits on the surface of the soil. The platform & compost pile are closely & densely planted around with a variety of trees. This arrangement enables the toilet ‘wastes’ (faeces & urine) & any water used for washing, to feed & water the many useful or economically valuable trees which are grown around the platform.[img width=129.911973,height=145.134107]blob:https://forum.susana.org/0b798419-d128-494e-bf1e-1c00756a8d96[/img]SINGLE CHAMBER STEEL-FRAME TREEBOG[img width=85.771274,height=152.307213]blob:https://forum.susana.org/11c2decb-25dd-4aac-9523-d509f4f48947[/img] [img width=31.245919,height=16.585237]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c3b064b0-b97f-4ae9-a7ae-9fa618fee58a[/img] [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/f48483a8-1bfe-4c6b-950c-d1fce7e05d31[/img] [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/20a4332e-1418-433f-8b23-68a99dbb94fa[/img] [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/1fe9d3f4-4f93-4285-9492-edc6d9b366a5[/img] [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e6647c36-da15-423a-b56c-0085ab461de2[/img] [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/3e3ca595-31c3-4dc0-905f-1565371d5c4c[/img] [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/a574f7ca-f144-4051-aa71-2ba63a536e27[/img] [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/ec01e0ff-f337-4cf2-b079-bcd97ad06945[/img] [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d4813cd1-f571-489b-b623-b6ef445f001b[/img] [img width=0.336980,height=68.341702]blob:https://forum.susana.org/db4350af-f485-4dad-90d4-28c1b059d92d[/img] [img width=55.331954,height=100.795711]blob:https://forum.susana.org/2c3d8dc4-b5e5-4832-97d4-7fef67c2b933[/img] [img width=230.946470,height=171.450018]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e060acfd-d8d8-4462-abb5-e098ac3d9bbb[/img] [img width=80.299054,height=22.292309]blob:https://forum.susana.org/0064de0f-b4c0-4c01-984e-91c17efed298[/img] [img width=44.031399,height=71.399326]blob:https://forum.susana.org/47081fef-fecc-4abe-b90c-653475cc378e[/img] [img width=62.359990,height=29.447421]blob:https://forum.susana.org/326bd930-3a5f-4ef8-9fc9-b669ef9141d7[/img] [img width=76.107373,height=74.004566]blob:https://forum.susana.org/79a5d962-6b6d-41a9-acab-cd2404f0af26[/img] [img width=0.339697,height=160.032851]blob:https://forum.susana.org/6b0b9e4c-3def-4c5e-ae7d-181de757e75f[/img] [img width=0.339697,height=160.032851]blob:https://forum.susana.org/2db7714a-0dbd-470b-b8f1-78f6b81cad0c[/img] [img width=0.339697,height=113.604356]blob:https://forum.susana.org/1b54c505-36bc-485f-9136-7bbd6a64bfc3[/img] [img width=0.339697,height=113.604356]blob:https://forum.susana.org/db9e9892-7694-4ddf-b30d-b404c7375eae[/img] [img width=0.418507,height=112.011854]blob:https://forum.susana.org/541644d7-3fc2-4a81-8e5e-9b9278bff58d[/img] [img width=0.339697,height=108.332250]blob:https://forum.susana.org/50fecd56-6723-4252-b571-cbb732eb7596[/img][img width=56.858514,height=80.456537]blob:https://forum.susana.org/bf7c75b3-5d7f-46dd-980b-7dd1f317d401[/img] [img width=65.408074,height=0.679395]blob:https://forum.susana.org/cd667378-d0b2-4261-96d7-d151de79cfbb[/img] [img width=0.376385,height=99.407718]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d392f4d0-f681-4abb-a1c1-e64d2f8659a1[/img] [img width=0.413072,height=99.482451]blob:https://forum.susana.org/4340ecb5-bae6-4d29-881c-6366442d2b01[/img] [img width=0.451118,height=98.917194]blob:https://forum.susana.org/6ce07686-0e28-415c-a057-e6fbe5d8f661[/img] [img width=63.939222,height=0.679395]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d2339374-21ab-4ee9-8f55-8ee905ffbda1[/img] [img width=46.308367,height=23.750956]blob:https://forum.susana.org/75b77859-04e0-4669-a3f4-ef9bd7054e14[/img] [img width=29.970093,height=19.823802]blob:https://forum.susana.org/828bedc7-e45e-43eb-b592-b6badd714210[/img] [img width=23.108051,height=54.279509]blob:https://forum.susana.org/8e0e6537-ecfe-4614-8cc0-dffb9ac3bb64[/img] [img width=0.339697,height=86.192126]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c1a693b6-ccf6-4830-bbc1-dd06638a7c02[/img] [img width=0.339697,height=85.175751]blob:https://forum.susana.org/a82325db-8d35-4318-83d3-05d21c7342b4[/img] [img width=0.339697,height=85.739649]blob:https://forum.susana.org/01d032fe-0381-4a52-858e-bf1931140484[/img] [img width=0.339697,height=83.932458]blob:https://forum.susana.org/68c96309-b8a0-4c6e-879f-adbf502d2238[/img]SECTION[img width=32.760427,height=0.679395]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b60b7e78-dd35-496d-a1a7-66da5c279325[/img] [img width=50.460219,height=120.994245]blob:https://forum.susana.org/fe477c2e-8a30-43b2-8b09-f903035bd2cc[/img] [img width=14.660756,height=51.976833]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b45f3ac0-169f-4752-a310-08039f2c1c1f[/img] [img width=30.953236,height=0.792175]blob:https://forum.susana.org/99385a46-3413-4ba7-8bf9-1dd63e27f591[/img]PLANMesh surrounds straw around pile. Use brick/lime-stabilised soil to 30cm underground where floodingand/or rodents are an issue.[img width=63.939222,height=0.679395]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e99102d2-556b-4a5f-ba76-fa28c196b042[/img] [img width=33.551243,height=0.679395]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e3c38b6e-f9ee-40ce-a420-7c7298d58af8[/img] [img width=15.011167,height=85.190054]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e85bbf85-b55a-4e63-98d6-50982f6a014e[/img]Trees planted around platform[img width=3.484888,height=68.481518]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d8392c54-96fb-490b-ac6f-fc4808dfbdab[/img] [img width=3.850477,height=54.921936]blob:https://forum.susana.org/f85ee3f6-a737-4b3c-a054-6257e00e002e[/img] [img width=1.359878,height=52.793808]blob:https://forum.susana.org/f3eef27d-da8e-4d50-8de5-9de05e8da237[/img] [img width=2.057769,height=45.130564]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d1903f7f-bd42-4ab1-84e9-648d8673fac4[/img] [img width=1.978014,height=51.292214]blob:https://forum.susana.org/378d1f1c-ceaa-4e37-aef7-8ec7c6666e7f[/img] [img width=60.538171,height=25.072393]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b3d9f665-2432-44d4-8bd8-ec50c10d2bc7[/img] [img width=62.600814,height=38.385818]blob:https://forum.susana.org/ced42784-cc1c-458d-9261-23ab47dee278[/img] [img width=1.925391,height=45.210610]blob:https://forum.susana.org/358be93e-5564-4c87-bc54-b4dfaaa6349f[/img] [img width=41.519231,height=48.620149]blob:https://forum.susana.org/4ffe7473-0c7e-4202-a970-e2a68cf4815d[/img] [img width=0.853420,height=47.024325]blob:https://forum.susana.org/0224d70a-6cb8-4af0-9d86-92af1373e9f1[/img] [img width=2.361577,height=114.600349]blob:https://forum.susana.org/f876ea5c-c2a6-498a-b4a4-71a9eb3bdb2c[/img] [img width=2.614312,height=114.600349]blob:https://forum.susana.org/1efbc73f-a8e9-4736-9d9f-3e77c0c4ae79[/img] [img width=26.629987,height=110.555231]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b302820d-07e3-481c-a25d-4a27166bb965[/img] [img width=31.226353,height=1.199812]blob:https://forum.susana.org/df1cb98a-5fab-4417-8910-d01ed8d84e6d[/img] [img width=30.972259,height=0.797610]blob:https://forum.susana.org/034fc3e1-67be-4012-9558-095ff6f424fb[/img] [img width=34.026937,height=4.185643]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b627b30f-654e-471e-af95-6e701d02c420[/img] [img width=32.647647,height=1.017734]blob:https://forum.susana.org/cc08fdbe-a5a1-4d1e-8db7-5b25db5bcae3[/img] [img width=32.384042,height=1.168559]blob:https://forum.susana.org/212aa2c8-29f6-431c-a43a-9c326cf4e8c1[/img] [img width=63.580502,height=18.221374]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c51236ac-8238-4749-b793-d4d2d0885814[/img] [img width=2.178140,height=46.280387]blob:https://forum.susana.org/f0327328-ee36-4034-aae3-c27ee3fd8f13[/img] [img width=85.301397,height=62.215000]blob:https://forum.susana.org/89ae8446-37ae-41d0-8eab-d92cce48f65d[/img] [img width=33.827856,height=30.338450]blob:https://forum.susana.org/356b7130-84a8-4b39-ade3-a4e2ee661c78[/img] [img width=19.487324,height=48.323609]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b64d8693-52fa-4030-813e-355b2306406a[/img]Tree roots absorb urine and ‘humanure’ nutrients[img width=48.080784,height=3.168698]blob:https://forum.susana.org/dce5e2f1-3996-42cb-81c5-bebd56f4bd55[/img] [img width=161.092182,height=6.539294]blob:https://forum.susana.org/7cb6a1e2-f643-4a34-9bce-469dc32fdbc3[/img] [img width=161.135462,height=6.535103]blob:https://forum.susana.org/3101e633-c2ee-4385-8b10-2edbce74b0ac[/img]2-CHAMBER WOODEN TREEBOGBACK ELEVATIONFRONT ELEVATION[img width=31.725497,height=32.067597]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d5fc95c5-4dcf-438d-b48a-87ef9b94551f[/img] [img width=33.881340,height=29.910164]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b1781cfb-9a2c-44df-a22b-ae2d6060e161[/img] [img width=35.067264,height=2.613996]blob:https://forum.susana.org/bf889b9f-4864-4303-bbd4-e47712139e2c[/img] [img width=36.108675,height=2.492738]blob:https://forum.susana.org/94705908-d010-46a9-8268-db3382abfb96[/img] [img width=42.001985,height=3.221301]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c1a7a66d-1616-4e97-87db-910c59554307[/img] [img width=43.003123,height=3.445334]blob:https://forum.susana.org/4d3d2c57-0c3d-444a-a28c-f31b64caf84d[/img] [img width=54.378620,height=1.091103]blob:https://forum.susana.org/bb63a74e-ced5-4f8b-9641-92b770c102e6[/img]ON SLOPE[img width=47.374388,height=1.059825]blob:https://forum.susana.org/53f635ee-8b20-4505-9a40-c4c15f9ca7c5[/img] [img width=105.763070,height=148.194438]blob:https://forum.susana.org/ee8fe270-0e49-4315-9a24-d8a816854ce2[/img] [img width=1.528657,height=93.758900]blob:https://forum.susana.org/8d2d8685-6437-4c9c-a797-07efb7292895[/img] [img width=0.339697,height=124.685288]blob:https://forum.susana.org/cea7a0a8-fdfa-4f2b-b147-1292d8b883f5[/img] [img width=1.300403,height=150.826800]blob:https://forum.susana.org/51dcd0f6-18e3-4c16-9942-6bca7952f8f5[/img] [img width=1.300303,height=150.826800]blob:https://forum.susana.org/a6a64bc7-b389-424b-9155-4f110f056655[/img] [img width=1.300403,height=150.826800]blob:https://forum.susana.org/220ccf05-fbac-4f26-829c-1725a6f82e93[/img] [img width=1.174004,height=110.507350]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c9a72f84-5e57-426c-bf7b-5fb38ff63376[/img] [img width=1.174004,height=110.507350]blob:https://forum.susana.org/302134c7-f1ff-4d3c-8161-bce4c09ba76e[/img] [img width=1.174004,height=110.507350]blob:https://forum.susana.org/3b565341-c6bc-4940-8a7a-d3693e75796e[/img] [img width=1.174004,height=110.507350]blob:https://forum.susana.org/8e54af54-9769-451a-9035-37e21a3e5e0f[/img] [img width=1.561324,height=110.701688]blob:https://forum.susana.org/63d25b66-47a7-4a27-99bf-186798ec7572[/img] [img width=1.561224,height=110.701688]blob:https://forum.susana.org/4b26e6ba-a473-4a7e-be85-4a2f7f010aa2[/img] [img width=1.561323,height=110.701688]blob:https://forum.susana.org/324e5515-7449-4970-89cd-3db875115aa9[/img] [img width=1.561324,height=110.701688]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c91c1375-ec1e-49aa-8e4b-ea950dda74ab[/img] [img width=1.687612,height=151.092263]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c1d89218-1ac5-409e-9d46-ea6a095089b5[/img] [img width=1.687712,height=151.092263]blob:https://forum.susana.org/3db8bc99-208a-4aab-938f-ddfce0b2f70a[/img] [img width=1.687612,height=151.092263]blob:https://forum.susana.org/0942153c-c786-44dc-abdb-1e8141325e25[/img] [img width=38.209462,height=2.776649]blob:https://forum.susana.org/fb5638c6-29e8-414e-93d8-06e89518468f[/img] [img width=38.417163,height=2.976177]blob:https://forum.susana.org/1d2f0ec3-0ec9-48c4-b36a-ea59837684f1[/img] [img width=44.747672,height=0.164414]blob:https://forum.susana.org/4b54153a-f6cb-4bf8-8e33-c698d8f48f8d[/img] [img width=43.185794,height=1.824413]blob:https://forum.susana.org/ff3eea2b-43c0-4c2f-86bb-c8645af5cb0b[/img] [img width=43.399748,height=2.045460]blob:https://forum.susana.org/33a97aca-6011-4c46-b697-cca94e32a934[/img] [img width=44.747672,height=0.164414]blob:https://forum.susana.org/ad18afdb-5d6a-4ff6-add6-df885f3b2acc[/img] [img width=0.164414,height=79.690316]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c8b23027-7f19-4691-a336-1ee2a107c716[/img] [img width=0.164414,height=79.690316]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e45c0ada-9918-4508-bcfa-6e196c171cb2[/img] [img width=0.164414,height=79.690316]blob:https://forum.susana.org/945a398a-db24-4c98-9eb6-d4d5cf454f3c[/img] [img width=0.164414,height=79.690316]blob:https://forum.susana.org/18669d3f-e482-437b-96cd-4e5f7687be83[/img] [img width=0.164414,height=79.690316]blob:https://forum.susana.org/5678a304-312e-4240-aef6-dcdde3e8d211[/img] [img width=0.164414,height=79.690316]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b0bb4a55-2a1c-4cfa-a8f2-767c11f45585[/img] [img width=0.164414,height=79.690316]blob:https://forum.susana.org/0b0eecc0-7e87-4dca-96ad-d2e71c00b575[/img] [img width=38.520553,height=3.806237]blob:https://forum.susana.org/550b64b2-75c9-4e39-bcdb-5ec429953ca1[/img] [img width=46.856929,height=1.594695]blob:https://forum.susana.org/6e4bc36a-45ec-4e9b-a047-8f5f253a800e[/img] [img width=47.055770,height=1.798495]blob:https://forum.susana.org/9df8e8a0-5829-4d11-8a7d-f6733275b39b[/img] [img width=52.265415,height=3.508782]blob:https://forum.susana.org/1fc4c043-a321-4008-8889-47786aa33981[/img][img width=52.469886,height=3.707490]blob:https://forum.susana.org/8f1d9478-cb78-4f3b-9ec9-b65e8bca08a0[/img] [img width=47.231996,height=5.691194]blob:https://forum.susana.org/db7a4ca2-2571-46d4-a387-21d272fb366f[/img] [img width=52.981535,height=3.306210]blob:https://forum.susana.org/34a99037-efbf-4b15-b549-ca2f13035341[/img] [img width=30.410993,height=1.766147]blob:https://forum.susana.org/9edbfea3-2463-44f3-a61f-bfed552c815e[/img] [img width=53.222634,height=3.548363]blob:https://forum.susana.org/69aa13d0-2cbd-4e30-b186-46efdf551035[/img] [img width=30.619982,height=1.979157]blob:https://forum.susana.org/f5dc49be-65a5-4cc2-9fd2-6e8482691c0d[/img] [img width=52.032686,height=4.068096]blob:https://forum.susana.org/4caf7e7c-d44f-4a70-aa82-af834463a0a1[/img] [img width=52.246581,height=4.291555]blob:https://forum.susana.org/c87a9e38-12cc-4c9c-bc3b-ea82e9479c2f[/img]SIDE ELEVATIONOak frameQuarter-sawn red cedar cladding[img width=31.081699,height=3.110719]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b060d3df-5af5-4998-9ad1-86a8a0fed9e3[/img] [img width=48.062879,height=5.510466]blob:https://forum.susana.org/16fbd2aa-be8e-4896-ba63-dd1edade569a[/img] [img width=31.279561,height=3.289946]blob:https://forum.susana.org/667f9bdd-d999-4509-b918-df4892f25b53[/img] [img width=52.927584,height=10.055651]blob:https://forum.susana.org/2c4ae72c-c373-428d-870d-7d2144a93f90[/img] [img width=52.092127,height=4.385280]blob:https://forum.susana.org/fde59395-6c0c-4d77-8a28-2761ea7ed412[/img] [img width=52.312203,height=4.604969]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b9863fe6-eac7-488f-9c43-8e097931ec4c[/img] [img width=30.384075,height=7.642668]blob:https://forum.susana.org/abdb60c1-337c-460a-ba57-15e0fe732778[/img] [img width=46.846603,height=4.500784]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d96faeaf-2075-4273-bfc0-4ca98ac9e125[/img] [img width=109.249836,height=45.984184]blob:https://forum.susana.org/df0f966a-d683-488b-8494-ddbc42bc7250[/img] [img width=30.553750,height=2.846800]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b37d29b9-f0ff-46b7-bb66-b84ba7a70960[/img] [img width=30.753550,height=3.053458]blob:https://forum.susana.org/8ff337e0-5e65-4af7-a473-db70698f4f31[/img] [img width=47.237693,height=6.615805]blob:https://forum.susana.org/fb001865-ac88-4aac-8832-15ffb15e4639[/img] [img width=30.184254,height=1.038212]blob:https://forum.susana.org/717e1f37-4a0a-40d9-86dc-7f176d96e89b[/img] [img width=30.391173,height=1.237973]blob:https://forum.susana.org/762ca20b-5597-48e1-8555-5c8bff74182f[/img] [img width=47.300079,height=5.985573]blob:https://forum.susana.org/62a860af-9769-4844-921e-bb6843e6325b[/img] [img width=30.189609,height=2.015218]blob:https://forum.susana.org/61503ea5-22c6-4738-83d1-3ee47ab9b1d3[/img][img width=30.431534,height=2.243424]blob:https://forum.susana.org/6c900686-68da-412c-8093-f8ec810f4aba[/img] [img width=46.856134,height=3.002816]blob:https://forum.susana.org/cc7e0482-657c-44ba-afe3-46877e4f970d[/img] [img width=31.265270,height=6.589854]blob:https://forum.susana.org/7a6215e3-df77-4c18-9c82-abce1ac65380[/img] [img width=47.671460,height=3.893260]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e6143a0a-d7d7-480f-84a7-ba1b97c5ebaf[/img] [img width=44.747672,height=0.164414]blob:https://forum.susana.org/24f50520-baaa-4e27-8341-2d6382e49105[/img] [img width=30.618138,height=0.986533]blob:https://forum.susana.org/719590e7-4047-488f-8ea5-46f5166768f1[/img] [img width=43.495413,height=0.986409]blob:https://forum.susana.org/2aad64bf-86d9-4504-9e3e-b832e89a8935[/img] [img width=29.964050,height=0.929417]blob:https://forum.susana.org/a4256738-aef2-4c7e-ab0f-d6365b88f409[/img] [img width=43.495375,height=0.930803]blob:https://forum.susana.org/ab2812c6-a2dc-497f-a134-a28f921032e7[/img] [img width=34.882890,height=45.507203]blob:https://forum.susana.org/1fe5f35d-48cd-434b-90f8-dc7165eb84dc[/img] [img width=30.448104,height=10.144963]blob:https://forum.susana.org/593677fc-57bd-48a5-95a1-dbc1ee08af97[/img]ChamberChamber[img width=36.570043,height=23.539864]blob:https://forum.susana.org/292302eb-a656-428d-b254-94403585e5d0[/img] [img width=7.903499,height=51.408618]blob:https://forum.susana.org/413b9436-c758-471d-a3cf-f0f9f4d5c342[/img] [img width=30.390797,height=9.904666]blob:https://forum.susana.org/d66bfb69-2d1b-4df2-97af-8df306803306[/img] [img width=135.029631,height=3.288636]blob:https://forum.susana.org/774a3341-f98a-4319-8330-0b9ee04bff3a[/img]solids liquidsLodge & brace door
PLAN 3m x 1.5mPlinth[img width=135.029804,height=3.277675]blob:https://forum.susana.org/b3063f24-9df8-4ad8-a949-aaaad8f521f8[/img]Double chicken-wire over strawThe Treebog was developed for use in the UK in 1992. Many hundreds have since been
built there. The original Treebogs were planted around with basketry willows which grow
very well in UK temperate conditions (& can be coppiced for craft use each year), but do
not flourish in Mediterranean climates. Treebogs were also built in Ireland, Spain, Portu-
gal, Greece, Israel- Palestine & in Senegal–each was planted with trees native to the region
in which they were built. Treebogs are tree-powered via photosynthesis, symbiotically
support soil microbiota in the root zone (which carry out the composting process).
Treebogs are designed & planted in order to create biomass resources from the plant nutrients & water in toilet wastes, & can be the basis of a productive home garden. They are a good example, & expression, of Permaculture design & can be self-built using local materials & trees.By Andrew Jeeves ©Regrarians Inc 2021•The Regrarians HandbookliquidsRoot zoneunder
1.5m compost pile[img width=49.313207,height=0.339697]blob:https://forum.susana.org/08452d71-b87e-4bb6-a396-3f1eec327cc6[/img] [img width=115.117179,height=61.974412]blob:https://forum.susana.org/ce05c42b-3f4c-4dfb-8fb1-91d3725ba696[/img] [img width=115.116689,height=31.156375]blob:https://forum.susana.org/385c3e28-96d7-436e-8206-dd811ee5859b[/img] [img width=92.503706,height=32.467503]blob:https://forum.susana.org/9803ae22-61a1-40fb-8a20-14795cb987bb[/img]14Movable floor section[img width=115.116689,height=0.346491]blob:https://forum.susana.org/3a2e9293-c37b-49b5-b4a4-1456925f6b64[/img] [img width=115.116689,height=0.346491]blob:https://forum.susana.org/6da44d0f-3e88-49b3-98bf-b0e00f8e67b4[/img] [img width=115.116689,height=0.346491]blob:https://forum.susana.org/76364850-de46-4116-9971-0aa953765fab[/img]Plinth and movable floor section can be swapped when a chamber is full3.6m[img width=481.894200,height=361.420700]blob:https://forum.susana.org/beb9ae7d-44e2-4ec6-b020-ab1f2c4c42ca[/img][img width=481.894200,height=361.420700]blob:https://forum.susana.org/38efeb0e-3dab-489b-90d6-cb6f02c438a0[/img]15[img width=481.894200,height=361.420700]blob:https://forum.susana.org/9984cc21-48bc-49ec-95e4-ed56ff541443[/img][img width=479.627670,height=384.665810]blob:https://forum.susana.org/40777f52-9f40-403f-8ed1-85f845ed5d35[/img]16[img width=481.894200,height=361.420700]blob:https://forum.susana.org/e9518c79-d99c-4a37-8cf2-995f71395d33[/img][img width=481.894200,height=361.420700]blob:https://forum.susana.org/7b1478d7-fde8-45d3-a4ec-7f271edf6035[/img]17

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