Connection/ intersections between FSM & Solid Waste Management ?

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  • nasirsahar
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Connection/ intersections between FSM & Solid Waste Management ?

Dear All,

May anyone please guide /advise me on interconnectedness/ intersection between Solid Waste Management and Faecal Sludge Management.

I am looking to develop more understanding.

Regards,
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  • JKMakowka
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Re: Connection/ intersections between FSM & Solid Waste Management ?

For organic solid-waste co-composting with faecal sludge is somewhat common:
sswm.info/water-nutrient-cycle/wastewate...-waste/co-composting
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  • Anthony
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Re: Connection/ intersections between FSM & Solid Waste Management ?

Hi,

Thats a great question! I sincerely hope you will get a lot of feedback on the SuSanA forum because we need more connection/intersection between FSM & SWM and we need to discuss ways to bring that about. After all, both FSM and SWM fall under 'sanitation'.

Certainly in Haiti, there is a massive gap between the organisation of the FSM & SWM sectors. This gap is present at a high level with separate ministries dealing with these separate sectors and donor-driven development programmes addressing one problem or the other but very rarely both. However, at the household level, SWM and FSM are "managed" together, with FS and SW entering the same open spaces and waterways indiscriminately ("co-dumping"). All formally registered 'waste management' private businesses are alert to this and they all therefore offer both SWM and FSM services to their customers.

In summary; there is a massive disconnect between institutional arrangements at a high level, and the reality faced by households and private sector service providers. The reasons for this disconnect are many and diverse, but they certainly include the fact that poop is more taboo than trash, so there is therefore a reluctance for state-level SWM actors to also address FSM ("oh no! thats poop! we don't touch that!" - the reality of course, is that they do.) The possible solutions are equally many and diverse, and include facilitating effective dialogue between different ministries, and between the public and private sectors.

I hope you get some good responses on this thread, from technological approaches (composting; ABD; BSF) to business cases, to institutional arrangements which facilitate synergies between SWM and FSM. I would be surprised if you didn't find some really useful reading on this subject from EAWAG-SANDEC, who have also produced excellent MOOCs on these subjects. Good luck!

Anthony.
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  • AjitSeshadri
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Re: Connection/ intersections between FSM & Solid Waste Management ?

Dear Anthony and SusanA Members.

Sub. : Comments on connection/ intersections between FSM & Solid Waste Management and suggested remedial solutions

As there is a definitive connection/ intersection between FSM & SWM and there is a need to discuss ways to bring about remedial solutions for safe disposal on the path of both FSM and SWM. Rightly put forward that they both fall under - sanitation.

It is been mentioned that there is a distinct disconnect between institutional arrangements and the reality faced by households and other service providers. In Indian scenario, the service deliveries by both ULBs - Urban Local Bodies and for villages - Rural Boards, are not being taken care off efficiently and not in a desired mode.

In the cities having working STPs, the sludges are removed and taken for safe disposal. We have observed in one case that the sludges removed by contractors clearing the slurry matter ex STPs were used as fuel for a brick kiln. As the output- matter of the STP process final stage, had not been fully digested and it contained bio-matter akin to fuel and with presence of hydro carbons viz. Methane Etc.

The STP slurry was fed with coal/ bio-mass for fueling the brick kiln. The ash generated was co-mixed with the usual mud-clay for making of bricks and loaded in the kilns .

Normally Fecal Sludges removed from open areas ex OD spaces ex rural region are not tackled in a systematic manner and are mixed with SW matter and disposed. It is a cause for concern as safe, secure disposal of all these sludges from FS and SW path is not being carried out.

Ideally in stray cases, urban STPs are operated efficiently. The effluent water complying to standards is used for irrigation of urban- greens or for agri-farms at rurals. The sludges ex. STP are co- composted with bio-matter generated from the SWM path and the compost generated is used for urban- greens as soil- nutrients.

For safe SWM in some of the Indian cities, 3 Nos. designated paths are used in the communities - ie 1. all bio- wastes are sent for composting, 2. plastic, and other re-usables are recycled and the 3rd path takes care of safe disposal of medical, sanitary waste Etc. duly sent for pyrolitic- incineration. This is being done in order not to use landfills at urban areas.

It is also seen that when both the recycled water and compost generated are used, then benefits are accrued in the communities.
This instills confidence in the ULBs and encourages others to perform .

Well wishes,

Ajit Seshadri .
Prof. Ajit Seshadri, Senior Faculty in Marine Engg. Deptt. Vels University, and
Environment Consultant (Water shed Mngmnt, WWT, WASH, others) Chennai, India
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  • kimmee22
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Re: Connection/ intersections between FSM & Solid Waste Management ?

Hello everyone!

Last week colleague Eline Bakker and i posted on IRCWASH's blog about why the sanitation sector should begin including solid waste management in its purview.

Check out our post and let us know if you have worked in a similar type of integration!

What the Shit is the WASH Sector Doing about Waste?
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  • Elisabeth
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Re: Connection/ intersections between FSM & Solid Waste Management ?

Hi Kim,
I totally agree with you. I have copied below some information from your blog to give it more attention:

We think it’s time for WASH-sector sanitation programmes to include solid waste management components, and here are 7 reasons why. Let’s (dumpster) dive right in:

1. Waste that isn’t managed is dumped.
2. Waste complicates sewage
3. When poorly managed, all waste is a public health concern
4. Waste can pollute our water
5. Waste collection work isn’t sexy, but someone must do it
6. A waste management service has a lot in common with that of faecal waste
7. Integrating both wastes can create financial returns

So, what’s next?
We have listed our 7 reasons why the WASH sector should integrate solid waste management into programming, and now we are looking for solutions. We want to get informed on management and financing models, within or outside of the sector and especially where one service offsets costs for the other. Once we can gather this information, we can share with everyone in another post.


I have no solutions but I think terminology is important. We should always stress that sanitation does include solid waste management (this is correctly described in the Wikipedia article on sanitation: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanitation#Definition )

However, the term "WASH" doesn't really make that connection. It makes you think mainly of water and washing. Is there anything we can do about that? Probably nobody wants a new acronym at this stage, but if we could have a new one, what could it be?

Secondly, the term "sanitation worker" was recently narrowly defined by a landmark report by Worldbank to exclude solid waste collection. I think that is a mistake and have written about it here:
forum.susana.org/sanitation-workers/2379...pedia-articles#29290
If you have an opinion about this, please join into the discussion in the other thread.

Greetings,
Elisabeth
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(under consultancy contract with Skat Foundation funded by WSSCC)

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  • Heiner
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Re: Connection/ intersections between FSM & Solid Waste Management ?

Dear all,

if you press the button"resource recovery" here in this forum you will find a poor visited category. To me it is understandable because the sanitation question (just WASH) is dominating here due to the qualification and work of the members.
But to a farmer like me the raised question is very important right now and in the long run. But I failed already here in Germany when I was involved in dicussions about the future of agriculture and how to close the loop. In a final statement after one of those discussions it was written down: "the question of reusing (fecal) sludge is too big to be answered by the agriculture section. We need an intersectional nationwide approach...."
When I scroll through this forum I am quite happy to see there colleagues in India, Australia, China and many small countries who working on this topic. In central europe legal frame in most countries will not allow quick progress.
I think it was the artist Hundertwasser who said: "There is noch such thing like waste in nature!"
But mankind was and is able to produce plenty of waste (non degradable), mix it all up, and start to burn or dispose it. It is a shame but a fact.
It is a very long way to change attitudes and here I find the people who start. During the last two years I looked after a little aquaponic demonstration plant here. We had lots of school kids there and I showed them the nutrient cycle in my little "farm-box". And I always ended with the question: why don't we do it with our leftovers? And only very few were upset about my question.
Last month I visited the place and a new school garden right next to it. And what I found was a UDDT. Made me happy!
On the one hand we don't have the time for slow progress on the other hand it simply takes time. I hope the speed comes from other countries ;-)
Back to the started question: I think the WASH sector is well aware of the "waste" question but it needs the demanding (asking) agriculture section which could prevent disposal and burning. This demand raises slowly. Some minerals become short and due to the climate change discussions there is always the wish to increase the humus in the soil, to raise the c-level.
Organic farmers are always proud when they tell you they use the dung of their livestock for manure. Ask them what they will do if people become vegan? I tell you it is funny to watch their faces ;-)
So I think we need more discussions in the public and very much in the agriculture section. And WASH should not be shy and look for the contact and make the offers. Though Corona won't make it easier.....
Good luck!!!
And the WASH sector can make a good offer to us farmers.
Heiner, the old farmer.....
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Re: Connection/ intersections between FSM & Solid Waste Management ?

Thanks, Elisabeth. 

I think one of the interesting things I've experienced in talking to people who are not in WASH or who work primarily in solid waste is that they don't initially view that the term "sanitation" includes human waste. I interpret that to often mean that the WASH sector has not championed and made very clear that the term sanitation includes solid AND fecal waste enough beyond the sector. On the flipside, I hear a lot of conversations in the sanitation communities about fecal waste - not so much talk (until a little more now, and with orgs integrating them like WASTE and Sanergy) about also addressing solid waste. And I think you're right - the sanitation worker definition excluding solid waste collection is a mistake and makes it harder to see the connection between the two different worlds.

I think that a new acronym could be painful. What would be better (although more work probably) is making sure sanitation sector programs emphasize that if they're working on the fecal waste part of sanitation that they're not addressing the entirety of the sanitation terminology.
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Re: Connection/ intersections between FSM & Solid Waste Management ?

Thank you for your great insight, Heiner! It's really great to hear about your work in agriculture. What else would the agriculture section say to the WASH sector about their related demands and needs? And what kind of offers should WASH be making to farmers to help you with your work?

I very much advocate for the integration of sanitation with other sectors. I wrote another blog post about that recently - https://washfunders.org/lets-connect-sanitation-to-the-rest-of-development/ - and use data as a way to improve the conversations between the sectors. Are there other things that would help integration, do you think?

Moderator's addition: See the thread about the other blog mentioned by Kimberley here  
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  • Heiner
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Re: Connection/ intersections between FSM & Solid Waste Management ?

Hi Kim,

a longer post I wrote yesterday got lost since I left the forum by accident....

To repeat it in very few words:
  • every region in the world has different answers. Depending on climate, WASH standards, infrastructure a.s.o. There is a huge difference between rural communities and megacities
  • in general agriculture needs the nutrients and the water back. The time for wasting potable water for wc's is over
  • in some areas/countries farmers can pay money for these resources if they meet standards for production (pathogens, heavy metals and other limiting things)
  • in other areas/countries authorities and foundations must help
  • the headline is: closing the loop for ecological and productive reasons. One way production and resource wasting is not at all in line with the sdgs.
These points we must discuss and spread into public wherever we are. With who you start to talk in your country and ask for more resources for your work I really don't know.

Good luck anyway,

Heiner

 
Heiner, the old farmer.....
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  • Chaiwe
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Re: Connection/ intersections between FSM & Solid Waste Management ?

Hello All,

Long post alert, but this is a subject that is dear to my heart, being a solid waste management lecturer and also having worked within the sanitation sector for some time. The perceived disconnect between FSM and SWM does indeed exist in the minds of many, and I have heard this even among my students, I usually try to bring up the connections between these two management approaches clearly.

Let us begin by breaking down the definitions:

Faecal sludge management is both an urban and rural problem in developing countries, but the greatest opportunity for addressing full sanitation facilities lies in urban, and peri-urban, areas where pit latrines still dominate household sanitation facilities . Faecal sludge (FS) requires collection, transport, treatment and disposal (Strande et al., 2014). FS management deals with on-site sanitation systems. FS may be treated in separate treatment works or co-treated with sludge produced in wastewater treatment plants (Strauss et al., 2002).

Solid waste management on the other hand deals with control of generation, storage, collection, transport , processing and disposal of solid waste materials in a way that best addresses the range of public health, conservation, economic, aesthetic, engineering, and other environmental considerations see here: ( https://www.britannica.com/technology/solid-waste-management ). 

In developing countries,  Zambia inclusive, the problem of SWM is becoming more complicated and requires not only long-term but sustainable programmes as a solution. Considering African cities, Lusaka for example, less than 20% of urban solid waste is collected and disposed off properly. SWM is unsatisfactory in most developing countries. As part of the solution, some cities and towns have involved their communities in the management of solid waste by introducing Community Based SWM enterprises delegated by the Local Authorities who are mandated to provide the services. However, the 80% of uncollected waste ends up everywhere (and this is where it gets interesting for FSM) Including and especially the toilet!! This creates a major challenge for FSM , causing problems across the full sanitation service chain:

i. Pit-emptying technology options become a challenge as technologies that can handle solid waste within the pits are currently unavailable.
ii. Treatment options also cannot handle/ are not designed to accommodate solid waste and so the waste that is separated before treatment is usually collected by the SWM service providers and taken away for disposal....
iii. This solid waste becomes a major challenge for disposal because it is contaminated and falls under the hazardous waste category and by no means can it qualify to be disposed of together with regular municipal solid waste

In addition to these issues, one of the major challenges relating to FSM and SWM in Zambia as an example is in the implementation of existing national policies and regulations to overcome these challenges.

Regards,
Chaiwe
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(Under consultancy contract with Skat Foundation funded by WSSCC)

Chaiwe Mushauko-Sanderse BSc. NRM, MPH
Independent consultant located in Lusaka, Zambia
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Twitter: @ChaiweSanderse

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