Key documents for the sub-category on biogas sanitation (systems focusing on biogas production)


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Key documents for the sub-category on biogas sanitation (systems focusing on biogas production)

For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category. It contains a recommendation and orientation for newcomers regarding the most important 5 documents and website links in this thematic area.

Recommended top five documents in the thematic area of "Biogas sanitation (systems focusing on biogas production)" , in reverse chronological order: *

EVI (2013). Waste to Energy Technical and Financial Analysis, India - Technical and financial analysis for opportunities and obstacles associated with various FS to energy processing options. Consultancy report of Emergent Ventures India commissioned by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA

EVI has been commissioned by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for carrying out a technical and financial analysis for opportunities and obstacles associated with various FS to energy processing options. The project's focus is on urban India.

Ingle, R., Sundberg, C., Wendland, C., Reuter, S., Jurga, I., Olt, C. (2012). Links between sanitation, climate change and renewable energies - Factsheet of Working Group 3. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This factsheet emphasises the need for climate change mitigation and adaptation measures in the area of sanitation. In addition, it provides an overview of the possibilities of using sanitation systems for renewable energy production, nutrient recovery and it explains the financial benefits that emission trading can bring.

Water Information Network (2011). Biogas for sanitation - Closing the nutrient loop through sanitation, hygiene, environmental protection and food security in Lesotho. WIN-SA Water Information Network, Gezine, South Africa

In 2002, a group of technicians with strong interest in the link between environmental protection and human well-being, started to implement household biogas digesters for sanitation purposes in Maseru/Lesotho. Since then, biogas systems for decentralised wastewater treatment (or Biogas DEWATS) were constructed for individual households especially in urban and peri-urban settlements and at institutions like schools, orphanages, prisons and holiday resorts countrywide. This document gives an overview on the technology as it is implemented in Lesotho.

CNSS (2011). 4-in-1 biogas systems - Sanitation aspects & acceptance issues. China Node for Sustainable Sanitation, Beijing, China

China plays a leading role in the development and dissemination of household biogas technology. One of these technologies is the 4-in-1 biogas system, which has been promoted and implemented in colder regions of China. A survey on the acceptability of 4-in-1 biogas systems in two townships in Liaoning Province was undertaken in July, 2010. The purpose of the survey was to clarify the status of 4-in-1 biogas systems and to learn more about people’s attitude and behavior towards them.

Mang, H.-P., Li, Z. (2010). Technology review of biogas sanitation (draft) - Biogas sanitation for blackwater, brown water or for excreta and organic household waste treatment and reuse in developing countries. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Eschborn, Germany

Anaerobic treatment units as part of an on-site decentralised or semi-decentralised wastewater treatment system are an alternative to centralised wastewater treatment systems due to their energy and soil conditioner production capacity, low-tech components and adaptability. It is also an excellent technology for organic sludge treatment, collected from septic tanks, holding tanks, dry toilets, settlers or from aerobic wastewater treatment systems.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here: Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection?


* In the documents and links provided here, you will find some overlap with DEWATS systems, but those will have their own sticky post with key documents. DEWATS systems also produce biogas but they are usually not designed to maximise biogas production. In contrast, the key documents and links listed here deal with technologies that aim to achieve the maximum possible amount of biogas from human excreta, wastewater, animal excreta, organic waste.
Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
Freelance consultant on environmental and climate projects
Located in Ulm, Germany
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