Key documents for the sub-category on handwashing activities in schools


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Key documents for the sub-category on handwashing activities in schools

For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category. It contains a recommendation and orientation for newcomers regarding the most important five documents and website links in this thematic area.

The selection of documents is based on finding documents in the SuSanA library and also input by Bijan D. Manavizadeh who works for the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing (PPPHW).
We are open to feedback if others think that another document should be selected here.

Recommended top five documents in the thematic area of "Handwashing activities at schools", in reverse chronological order:

Dreibelbis, R., Kroeger, A., Hossain, K., Venkatesh, M., Ram, P. K. 4 (2016). Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh. International Journal of Environmental research and Public Health, 13(1) m 129; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010129 (open access)

Highlighting evidence from a behavior change study related to handwashing, the researchers developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. Nudges, which are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change, can be used to promote and improve handwashing with soap practices through programs that require fewer resource and less labor to achieve quality results.

UNICEF, GIZ (2013). Field Guide: The Three Star Approach for WASH in Schools. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), New York, USA and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Eschborn, Germany

The Three Star Approach for WASH in Schools is designed to improve the effectiveness of hygiene behaviour change programmes. The approach ensures that healthy habits are taught, practised and integrated into daily school routines. The Three Star Approach helps schools meet the essential criteria for a healthy and protective learning environment for children as part of the broader child-friendly schools initiative. It aims to address the bottlenecks that block the effectiveness and expansion of current WASH in Schools programmes.

GIZ Fit for School (2013). Field Guide: Hardware for Group Handwashing in Schools. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Philippines, ISBN 978-3-95645-057-0

Understanding that the school environment can enable development of healthy behaviors among children who may not have the same learning opportunity in their homes, schools serve as the center of development. Adapted from the experiences of Filipino NGO, Fit For Schools, this toolkit of effective handwashing tools promotes handwashing programs designed for schools and inspires a healthy learning environment by addressing approaches, common mistakes, and lessons learned regarding water sources, basins, piping and drainage, and introduces a new facility with improved functionality.

Vujcic, J., Ram, P.K. (2013). UNICEF Handwashing Promotion - Monitoring and Evaluation Module. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), New York, USA

Providing assistance on planning, implementing and M&E to implementers, the content of this module features information for a variety of handwashing programs in schools.

UNICEF (2012). Raising Even More Clean Hands: Advancing Health, Learning and Equity through WASH in Schools. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), New York, USA

Sharing experiences from around the world, this joint call to action brings programs to scale and sustains them to improve health, advance learning and enable children to serve as agents of change for their siblings, their parents and the community at large. This guide provides a role for all in handwashing programming and reviews UNICEF’s renewed commitments, which include taking action by setting minimum standards, engaging with at scale programs, promoting advocacy efforts, contributing to evidence on impact, and raising the profile of WASH in Schools programs.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here: Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection? We can update it from time to time.

Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
Freelance consultant on environmental and climate projects
Located in Ulm, Germany
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