Surveys on Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

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  • Alix
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Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Dear all,
 
I am doing a PhD at WEDC on regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).
 
I am currently compiling an inventory of regulation practices in cities in LMICs. I’m aware that not all initiatives have been documented or widely shared, so if you know of any interesting case, please answer this short survey and share any relevant documents or links.
https://lboro.onlinesurveys.ac.uk/inventory-of-regulation-practices-for-emptying-services
 
Answers to this survey, along with some online interviews and a document review, should provide a good snapshot of regulatory practices around the world.
Of course, once I have analysed the results, I will share my findings. They should be useful to national and local governments, regulators and development partners.
 
I am also running a questionnaire for emptying operators in Africa. If you know any emptier, please let me know or send them the following link: I'd be happy to answer any question or comment in this thread or via email.
 
Looking forward to your answers,

Alix 
Alix Lerebours
Doctoral researcher
WEDC
Loughborough University, UK
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  • paresh
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hi Alix.
C-WAS team at CEPT has worked on two small towns in Maharashtra, India. A paper based on their experience was posted by Dinesh in this thread

Besides, there have been efforts to regulate emptying in Bhubaneswar, Odisha. Their Gazette notification is available here

Hope this helps

Regards
paresh
Paresh Chhajed-Picha
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  • Elisabeth
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hi Alix,

It's always great to see PhD students utilise this discussion forum for their data gathering and I hope you get many useful replies to your surveys!

You've probably already browsed the related sub-category as it has also included information on emptying services and on regulation:
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks, transfer stations)

For example, this thread by Nicola from two years ago might be related:
Number of vacuum trucks and pit latrine emptiers in Africa - CROWDSOURCING INFORMATION PLEASE

Perhaps you could list the main documents of regulatory practices that you have already found so that people don't send you stuff that you already have (e.g. there are quite a few from India in the SuSanA library).

I noticed that two years ago you had posted regular updates on the SFD Promotion Initiative in this thread: 
SFD Promotion Initiative (SFD PI) - Project Updates (Shit Flow Diagrams)  . I see that that project has ended but am wondering if it is related to your PhD project now? If your PhD project perhaps a spin-off or continuation of that previous work on SFDs?

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  • Alix
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Thank you Paresh and Elisabeth.
I'll check out the links you provided.

Yes, I went through the Susana Library (although I probably missed interesting things, there is so much!). I already have some information and documents about initiatives in the Philippines, Zambia, Senegal, South Africa, some in India... 
I know regulation of sanitation is currently a hot topic among governments and development agencies / organisations. However, there is not much academic research published on it, so I'm hoping to gather enough information to start the trend.

Regarding the SFD posts, I worked for the SFD Project. My PhD is not directly related, although some elements of the SFDs are feeding my research and knowledge of sanitation planning.

Best, 
Alix
Alix Lerebours
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WEDC
Loughborough University, UK
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hi Alix,
I am just wondering if the publication discussed in this thread on  Institutional arrangements for regulating non-sewered sanitation (NSS)  is relevant for your work? If so, you might like to provide some inputs into the discussion there.

I wonder if we are making it harder for people to find stuff by using similar terms for the same thing, i.e. FSM (faecal sludge management) and now NSS (non-sewered sanitation).

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Elisabeth
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  • Chaiwe
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hello Alix,

It is great to see that you are making headway with your PhD research. I had the privilege of looking at some details you had shared a while ago and found your research objectives particularly interesting for many countries within the African context. For example, Zambia has recently developed a by-law on onsite-sanitation and a new regulatory framework on onsite-sanitation (2018), Uganda was ahead in this process and now Tanzania is following closely behind. The institutional frameworks and other enabling factors now have to be well consolidated to ensure that these new laws and regulations are implemented.  

I think your research and many of its kind offer necessary insights into what is possible and what bottlenecks exist. Therefore, it would be great if you could continue to provide us with insights into your outcomes.

You might already have seen this document: Urban Onsite Sanitation and Faecal Sludge Management: Framework for Provision and Regulation in Zambia, but I will share the link none-the-less for others that may not have but are following this topic:  https://www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resources-and-publications/library/details/3327  

EXTRACT:

In developing the framework for provision and regulation of urban onsite sanitation services, the National Water and Sanitation Council of Zambia (NWASCO) was mandated to facilitate and coordinate the consultative process under the Ministry of Water Development, Sanitation and Environmental Protection (MWDSEP).

The objective of this publication is to assist in the creation of a regulatory framework for onsite sanitation and faecal sludge management that supports the proper functioning of an integrated management system covering the whole sanitation chain. The regulation of service provision will ensure that faecal matter generated in onsite facilities is effectively contained, collected, transported, treated and disposed of in a safe manner to protect public health and the environment.

Regards,
Chaiwe
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  • Alix
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hello Chaiwe, 

Nice to read you!
Thanks for sharing and for your support.

Would you have additional information from Tanzania or a document to share?

Best, 
Alix
Alix Lerebours
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WEDC
Loughborough University, UK
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  • Chaiwe
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hello Alix,

Kindly look through the attachments within this thread:  https://forum.susana.org/194-cities-planning-implementation-and-management-processes/23239-city-to-city-knowledge-exchange-approach-to-oss-and-fsm-kampala-lusaka-dar-es-salaam#27887 .  
The content shared during the City-city knowledge exchange visits to Kampala and Tanzania detail Tanzania's prevailing regulatory frameworks and intended plans.

If you require some contact information to assist you further, do not hesitate to let me know.

Chaiwe
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  • rochelleholm
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  • Manager and Associate Professor with the Centre of Excellence in Water and Sanitation at Mzuzu University (Malawi). To learn more about the Centre visit http://www.mzuniwatsan.com/ .
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hi Alix,
Best of luck with your research.    For regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge in Malawi please check out these two documents:

*Holm, R. H., Tembo J. M. and Thole, B. Pit latrine emptying, a comparative analysis of Malawi and Zambia. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2015, 9:11, pages 783-792. DOI: 10.5897/AJEST2015.1971  http://www.academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-abstract/3FDFCF655722

Abstract:

This review paper covers the issues of pit latrine emptying national policies and regulations with a focus on Malawi and Zambia. With 2.4 billion people worldwide still lacking improved sanitation facilities, developing countries need to look at policy, regulation and practice for household sanitation service provision with a new lens. What happens “next,” when improved sanitation facilities eventually become full? An emphasis on faecal sludge management has multiplied this important issue in the past few years. The authors compare the pit latrine emptying situation in Malawi and Zambia with a focus on status, challenges and opportunities. To build this comparison, a desk review of national policies, local regulations and peer-reviewed journal papers was conducted. The paper concludes that existing national policies and regulations taking faecal sludge management into account are weak and have wide gaps in the two study countries. For the future, it is recommended, first, that household pit latrine emptying should be seen as an opportunity to address national sanitation gaps and, second, national policies and regulations need to be evaluated and updated. 


*Holm, R. H., Kamangira, A., Tembo, M., Kasulo, V., Kandaya, H., Gijs Van Enk, P. and Velzeboer, A. Sanitation service delivery in smaller urban areas (Mzuzu and Karonga, Malawi). Environment & Urbanization, 2018, 30(2), pages 597-612. DOI: 10.1177/0956247818766495  http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0956247818766495

Abstract:

This paper assesses the provision of sanitation services in two urban areas in northern Malawi, both with populations under 150,000, to determine the potential for private sector enterprises to contribute to longerterm self-reliance as part of the overall sanitation situation. The paper shows that most households in the two study areas use pit latrines and remain unserved with regard to both faecal sludge management and solid waste removal. Local governments have been unable to offer adequate coverage of sanitation services, and community-based organizations are doing very little that is relevant to the issue. This gap offers a viable business opportunity for private sanitation service providers. Of these two urban areas, Karonga Town has no formal private sector services, but Mzuzu City has pit emptying and solid waste collection services, plus some small-scale manufacturers of pre-made pit
latrine slabs. The paper explores these activities, considering their accessibility to low-income customers. It closes with suggestions regarding the potential for building on what is currently available.



Rochelle Holm
Rochelle Holm, Ph.D., PMP
Centre of Excellence in Water and Sanitation
Mzuzu University (Malawi)
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  • Alix
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Thank you both for your inputs!
Alix Lerebours
Doctoral researcher
WEDC
Loughborough University, UK
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Re: Surveys on Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hi everyone, 
Here is a short update on the surveys I am running on the regulation of emptying services.

The inventory of regulation practices in cities in LMICs is receiving some attention (14 answers from 10 different countries). I'm missing many countries in Central and West Africa and South-East Asia. If you're able to share the situation in a specific city or country (or know someone who can), follow the link below. It only takes 10-15min and you can share relevant documents.
https://lboro.onlinesurveys.ac.uk/inventory-of-regulation-practices-for-emptying-services
 
I am also running a questionnaire for emptying operators in Africa. I have received valuable answers but the response rate is still limited. If you know any emptier, please let me know or send them the following link: I've decided to leave them open for longer. The new deadline is 15th of July!

Thanks!
Alix
Alix Lerebours
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WEDC
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  • Chaiwe
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Re: Surveys on Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hello Alix,

The results of the survey should make for a good topic of discussion. It has been a while since your post, however, do you have an update to share?

I also wondered back then how you managed to survey operators who in most cases do not have access to internet technologies and in most cases have low literacy levels. How did you go about it? 

Regards,
Chaiwe
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