Urine Diversion Wet Toilets (Nepal, wet ecosan)

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  • Marijn Zandee
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Urine Diversion Wet Toilets (Nepal, wet ecosan)

Dear forum users,

In Nepal there has been a development that is locally know as "wet ecosan" Essentially the toilets built as part of this are a Twin-pit (Sulab) system fitted with a urine diversion pan. I have been trying to find out if this development has also happened in other parts of the world, but have not found much via Google. It is possible though that it is either under reported or that I use the wrong search terms. My question here is: Does anyone have more information on urine diversion flush toilets (in the developing world) outside Nepal.

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Marijn Zandee
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  • mwink
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Re: Urine Diversion Wet Toilets

Dear Marijn,

Interesting posting! Just to get it clear: are they really using modified Sulabh toilets as UD toilets and the faeces and toilet paper are flushed away with water? Or do you talk of anal cleansing water (if they practice anal cleansing in Nepal)?

I just know one project (outside Europe) which is located in Kimberley, South Africa. At the WEDC conference on Loughborugh Getrude Matsebe was reporting on this one as well as on other. I am attaching the pdf.
Additionally, did you contact the SANDEC guys? They are quite active in Nepal (as you probably know) as well as in the UD scene – maybe they know further projects.

With best regards,
Martina.
Research unit Water infrastructure and risk analyses
Institute for Social-Ecological Research (ISOE)
Frankfurt, Germany

winker[AT]isoe.de
www.isoe.de
www.saniresch.de

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  • Marijn Zandee
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Re: Urine Diversion Wet Toilets

Dear Martina,

Thanks for your reply. The system is: a urine diversion pan, urine obviously goes into a container. Faeces is flushed away to a pit, like with a normal twin-pit system. I think pits are designed to collect faecal matter for about 4 years, after which they can compost for 4 years, while the second pit fills up. After 4 years they have top excavate the first pit.

For a lot of districts in the hills of Nepal this technology seems to work well, because the ground water table is very deep, so no leaching of pathogens and there are usually some small springs up-hill of peoples houses from which they get a modest but sufficient water supply.

By the way, I do work for Eawag/sandec here, so I am in touch :-).

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Marijn Zandee
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  • mwink
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Re: Urine Diversion Wet Toilets

Dear Marijn,

no, now I am sure. I have definitely not heard of the combination of urine diversion with normal flushed toilets in such a way. I only know from Peru (and have heard in certain occasions) that they changed a normal pit latrine (dry version) into a UDDT by implementing the urine diversion part.
Maybe you can find out more, if you check the implementation of the UD squatting pans for flushed toilets or talk to the producing companies. We have collected them here:
www.susana.org/lang-en/library?view=ccbktypeitem&type=2&id=1147

Regarding your work for SANDEC: Didn't you do your mster thesis at Unesco IHE with Mariska? I thought you are still there...

All the best for your project,
Martina.
Research unit Water infrastructure and risk analyses
Institute for Social-Ecological Research (ISOE)
Frankfurt, Germany

winker[AT]isoe.de
www.isoe.de
www.saniresch.de
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  • Elisabeth
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Re: Urine Diversion Wet Toilets

Dear Marijn,

Interesting. What is the main purpose for the urine diversion in these "urine diversion pour flush toilets" (I think that would be the correct term)? How about uploading some photos of these toilets?
There are the current photos we have for Nepal in the SuSanA photo collection:
www.flickr.com/photos/gtzecosan/collections/72157626044680073/

I searched a bit on google but could also not find any other place than Nepal. Seems to be quite specific for Nepal - how come?
Maybe you would like to sum this up in a SuSanA case study? We don't have one yet for Nepal, only have these 15 for Asia here:
www.susana.org/lang-en/case-studies?show...ls=2&vbl_2=7&vbl_0=0

Actually, we have two case studies for Nepal in an early draft modus, perhaps by any chance I could encourage you to look at those and finalise them for publishing?

What exactly do you do in Nepal, is it for your PhD?

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Elisabeth
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  • Marijn Zandee
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Re: Urine Diversion Wet Toilets

Dear Elizabeth,

The main use of the urine is as a fertilizer, and of coarse the pit contents, once composted can also be used as soil amendment. An added benefit I see is that it should help prevent some nitrate pollution as well. I think the technology evolved here, because in many places people do have enough water to flush and wash. And it is just easier to mobilize communities to built toilets based on flushing.

The main reason I posted this question is that I am considering (as one of my many projects) to write a technology review or article to draw attention to this technology. UDDTs are a very good technology, but it seems that the "wet ecosan" as it is know here would be an alternative to consider for places with some water supply and a low groundwater table, where it will be difficult to promote water-less toilets.

I currently still work for Eawag's STUN project here. My work is not part of a study program.

Maybe we can discuss the options for looking into you drafts in a private email conversation. (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

regards

Marijn
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  • Elisabeth
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Re: Urine Diversion Wet Toilets

OK, great, I will send you those draft SuSanA case studies on 2 ecosan projects in Nepal tomorrow morning. They are for UDDTs. You should do a new one for this "wet ecosan" system that you know so well, would be very interesting.
Regards,
Elisabeth
Head moderator of this Discussion Forum
(under consultancy contract with Skat Foundation funded by WSSCC)

Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
Independent consultant located in Brisbane, Australia
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Twitter: @EvMuench
Founder of WikiProject Sanitation: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_Sanitation
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