Integrated Water and Sanitation Model for Rural India - livelihood projects aimed at alleviating poverty among tribal communities (CInI, Jharkhand, India)

  • amitwajpe
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Integrated Water and Sanitation Model for Rural India - livelihood projects aimed at alleviating poverty among tribal communities (CInI, Jharkhand, India)

Dear all,

Please find below and attached brief information of the Project "Integrated Water and Sanitation Model for Rural India" funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. I am responsible for the overall implementation of the program interventions under the current project.

Please let me know if you would like to know any further details.




Title of grant: Integrated Water and Sanitation Model for Rural India

Subtitle: Sanitation promotion and sustainable sanitation technology for rural households, as part of livelihood projects aimed at alleviating poverty among tribal communities.

Name of lead organization: Collectives for Integrated Livelihood Initiatives (CInI), CInI is an associate organization of The Tata Trusts and works in the Central India regions (for more details – )

Primary contact at lead organization: Mr. Ganesh Neelam (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Further contacts:
- Mr. Ganesh Neelam is Executive Director CInI and heads the overall operations of CInI.
- Mr. Sujit Kumar is Team Leader (Western Region) and guides overall Project implementation in CInI West region (states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan) – (email - This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ); and
- Mr. Amit Wajpe is Coordinator, Drinking Water and Sanitation Programme, and heads the WATSAN team at CInI. He is primary person, responsible for the overall implementation of the program interventions under the current project (email - This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ).

Grantee location: Head quartered at Jamshedpur, Jharkhand & Western regional Office in Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India)

Developing country where the research is being tested: India (in the states of Gujarat and Jharkhand)

Start and end date: May 2013 – June 2017


Grant size in USD: $1,567,638 as per BMGF grant database:


To achieve open defecation free status in 200-250 villages covering about 25,000 rural households in the states of Gujarat and Jharkhand in India through an integrated delivery model for water and sanitation.

Short description of the project:

This integrated rural water and sanitation project builds on the experiences of the Trust, CInI and its Implementing Support Agencies (ISA) derived from the implementation of community based drinking water supply systems across rural India. The collaboration with the Gates Foundation will focus on integrating sanitation into the village level action plans; leveraging community groups and structures (for example, women’s self help groups (SHGs), community based organizations and committees like the Village Water and Sanitation Committees) to generate demand, shape social norms and streamline delivery; and leveraging available funds for different components like water supply, environmentally sustainable sanitation, etc. from various ongoing Government programs. The main elements of the project are summarized in the table in the document attached below.

As stated previously, Gates Foundation funding will be utilized only to promote sanitation outcomes hence this project will focus mainly on the sanitation component of the project (and related cross-cutting themes).


1. To scale up a sustainable operating model for rural sanitation for 25,000 households across 200-250 target villages in four districts of Gujarat and two districts of Jharkhand
2. Test and document innovations to improve rural sanitation coverage and uptake
3. To support and strengthen the implementation of the NBA in other geographies of Gujarat and Jharkhand as well as nationally through evidence-based advocacy drawn from project lessons and results

Research or implementation partners:

The sub-grantees (Implementation Support Agencies - ISA) for this grant have been finalized. As the project intends to work through community groups and organizations and village-level leaders to advance water, sanitation & hygiene goals, ISAs with strong grassroots experience in community mobilization are well positioned to leverage their relationships and experience have been selected. Based on past work in Gujarat and Jharkhand, CInI has identified ISAs. These ISAs have worked extensively in the two states and have built credible relationships with local government through their past work on livelihoods, agriculture, water and allied areas. Some of the Gujarat partners – Coastal Salinity Prevention Cell (CSPC), N M Sadguru Water & Development Foundation (NMSWDF) and Aga Khan Rural Support Program, India (AKRSPI) have also worked directly on sanitation issues under other similar programs in different geographies. A summary of CInI and the Trust’s relationships with the prospective ISAs is provided in the attached document.

Links, further readings – results to date:

Currently we do not have any web links for further readings on the project - but please see document attached.

Current state of affairs:

See detailed table in document attached.

Tap water connections are ensured in 32% habitations of Tribal Gujarat whereas in coastal Gujarat it is more than 50%, as against the plan for 25% coverage. During this period, there was considerable national focus on sanitation and policies were revised with the launch of the flagship programme – Swach Bharat Mission. CInI used this transition phase to focus on streamlining the comprehensive planning of drinking water component of the programme. As a result good progress was made on the drinking water component. Rs 8.5 crores (USD 1.63 million ) was leveraged by 95 village committees to complete their drinking water programme. Rs 12.5 crore (USD 2.04 million) For 117 committees is expected to be leveraged through schemes approved during the period. The programme in Jharkhand was impacted due to state elections and extended dialoguing with the implementation partner – PRADAN. CInI effectively brought its expertise from Gujarat to support the programme in Jharkhand, which has now gained pace of implementation. Tata Water Mission was also formalized during this period which brought in the necessary co-finance and technical support from the Tata Trusts.

Biggest successes so far:

1. Collaboration already entered into with the state government through WASMO (Water and Sanitation Management Organization), Government of Gujarat. In the tribal areas the program is being branded as Tribal Areas Development Program (TADP), while in the coastal areas it is under the ongoing Coastal Areas Development Program. Project management unit (PMU) has been formed at WASMO (Water and Sanitation Management Organization) head office, for regular coordination, follow up and monitoring of the progress of the activities in both coastal and tribal area. Similarly, In Jharkhand, CInI has entered into MoU with Drinking Water and Sanitation Department, Government of Jharkhand.

2. In this process, CInI has significantly influenced the implementation of drinking water and sanitation programme in both states. The facility design developed under the programme is well accepted by both community and the department. In tribal areas, institutional framework has been a challenge. Under the project, water user committees which are traditionally organised at revenue habitation level, are now being organized at the scheme / habitation level. This will greatly influence the governance and post-operative management of these schemes. Based on our input, the average cost of drinking water schemes is reduced by a third.

3. Innovative toilet unit demonstrated at field level was well acceptance from the community. The toilet unit promoted is cost effective model which reduces construction time and management. Using AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete) blocks, the cost of a toilet block has reduced from Rs 17,000 (USD 327) to Rs 12,800/- (USD 246) for twin pit toilet, including provision of water tank and hand washing corner. With a bathroom, this cost is Rs 15,000/- (USD 288). This innovation has fuelled demand from the community. The construction time was halved from 3 days to 1.5 days taken per toilet. In tribal area supply of material is critical issues even if triggering process is successful and community demands for construction of toilet regular supply of utmost importance. CInI along with its partners has identified and negotiated with material suppliers and vendor for the supply of sanitation units.

See document attached for pictures of various cost effective toilet models designed for demystification of toilet unit cost and ensuring supply chain

One photo from the document (AAC block toilet model):

4. Similarly, in coastal areas of Gujarat affordable sanitation technologies with pre-cast fabricated material amounting to less than Rs. 10,000 (USD 192) has been tried out which is well accepted by the communities; specially for those who cannot afford higher costs but willing to adopt improved sanitation practices. The institutional mechanism of women federation (i.e. Sorath Women Cooperative society) of Junagadh district which not only creating demand generation activities by undertaking CLTS based triggering exercise but also supplying material to society members (@ low interest rate of 6%) is one of the unique approaches. This approach has immensely helped in creating demand in most needy section of the society. The revolving fund management by the women federation has built up their confidence in both financial management and material management. Realizing importance of sanitation; women members of the federation themselves have started doing street play and other demand generation activities in programme villages.

5. In coastal areas, process of gradual shift from “only subsidy dependence” to “community investment” model is adopted. In this approach, the community are motivated to invest their resources for building sanitation and bathroom facilities together at their own and don’t dependent on government subsidy. Thus, more focus is put up on motivation aspects of communities where prioritization of need for sanitation is pushed. Multi-dimensional activities using various medium (such as posters, audio messages, collective actions, etc.) are being undertaken with the community with close engagement.

Main challenges / frustration:

1. While the formal agreement was executed in March 2014, its operationalization has been challenging particularly in Jharkhand due to low acceptance from government machinery at the district level. Continuous engagement is one strategy to mitigate this. Further, we are also organizing state level events to bring attention to the programme, achievements and learning.

2. For sanitation component: dovetailing funds from the Government under SBA, the flagship programme is a challenge at field level especially for defunct but reported toilet unit. In Tribal Gujarat, district authority mentions around 90% toilet coverage where as in actual it is just 6% in the identified tribal districts. Hence, as per the district authority only 10% of households are eligible for getting support for toilet construction. Considering the income level of the tribal households it would be great challenge at household level to bear the entire cost of construction of toilet unit.
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  • arno
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Re: Integrated Water and Sanitation Model for Rural India - livelihood projects aimed at alleviating poverty among tribal communities (CInI, Jharkhand, India)

Hello Amit
We are interested in knowing more about the progress yo have made in this project.

1. What is the preferred model for integrating water and sanitation?
2. What is it that is being integrated?
3. Is water supply being made available contingent to achieving open defecation free status?
4. What sort of sensitization approach has been taken for the targeted communities following the initial CLTS?
5. What incentive methods are being used to encourage communities to invest in sanitation systems
6. How are the Self Help Groups set up in terms of governance structure?
7. What are the SHG linkages to the local government?
8. Do the SHGs take responsibility for community health and development or just the WASH aspect?
9. What sort of monitoring programme is being used to evaluate impact?


Arno Rosemarin PhD
Stockholm Environment Institute
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Current project affiliation:
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