On-site sanitation based on bio-additives and pit design (LSTH, UK and Tanzania, South Africa and Vietnam)

  • KimAndersson
  • KimAndersson's Avatar
  • Senior Expert at SEI working on sustainable sanitation, integrated water management and resource recovery
  • Posts: 61
  • Karma: 9
  • Likes received: 27

Re: On-site sanitation based on bio-additives and pit design (LSTH, UK and Tanzania, South Africa and Vietnam)

Dear Jeroen,

Thanks for introducing your project to the Forum. It is an interesting idea to combine biofilters with worms and low-flush toilets. I would appreciate a lot if you could share some more insights about the current status of your research and what are the main lessons so far.

Here are some more specific questions to get a better understanding of your innovative project.
- I can see that you have partners in different countries; are you setting up pilots in communities in various socio-economic contexts?
- What is the general design and function of your system? What are the main components (type of toilet model, collection tank, etc.)? If you could share a photo of your system it would be great.
- What are the requirements when it comes to operation and maintenance?
- Do you have any results regarding volume reduction of the material to estimate the frequency for emptying?
- Since your system is connected to a flush toilet; how do you manage excess water from the system after it passes the filtration bed? Do you promote reuse?
- How do the tiger or earth worms cope with the high humidity in the biofilter?

I am looking forward to hear more about your exciting project.

Thanks and best regards,
Kim Andersson

Kim Andersson
Stockholm Environment Institute
Postbox 24218,104 51 Stockholm, Sweden
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
You need to login to reply
  • former member
  • former member's Avatar
    Topic Author
  • Posts: 92
  • Likes received: 0

Re: AW: questions about your grant on the forum

Some more information about our research project (Kim, your questions have not been ignored, we will get to that soon):

Current state of affairs:
Currently we are in the process of analysing the data from our detailed microbial analysis, and are looking for associations with with management and use practices. We have come up with definitions on what we consider good and poor performing latrines when it comes to fill-up rates. We are further in the process of field testing our tiger and black soldier fly toilets.

Biggest successes so far:
The interest from outsiders in our new toilet designs, but also the fact that it is clear from our initial analysis that good performance of latrines is associated with particular microbial communities but also management practices.

Main challenges / frustration:
The main challenges in the project has been a variety, selecting good and bad performing latrines and measuring use and performance was a challenge, followed by collecting indisturbed samples from different layers. Most of the analysis we conducted on the samples were too complicated to be done on site so samples had to be shipped under the right conditions to the UK and the Netherlands, while in Tanzania we faced long power cuts and a lack of electricity. The 454 sequencing done at the Sanger Institute is in high demand and as a result we had to wait quite some time for the results to come back to us.

Regards,
Jeroen

++++++++
Note by moderators: This post was made by a former user with the login name jensink who is no longer a member of this discussion forum.
You need to login to reply
  • muench
  • muench's Avatar
  • Moderator of this Forum; Freelance consultant and Wikipedian (former roles: program manager, lecturer, process engineer for wastewater treatment plants)
  • Posts: 2861
  • Karma: 53
  • Likes received: 761

Re: Black soldier fly for sanitation

Dear all,

I obtained some further information from one of the researchers of this grant, Walter Gibson.
He told me that only the BioCycle has been progressed since Sep. 2012. The work is being done near Cape Town, at the AgriProtein experimental facilities.

Website: www.thebiocycle.com

The website contains some interesting videos, see e.g. this one which explains the idea behind using the Black Solider Fly (Using Black Soldier Flies to convert human waste to valuable commodities):



He also told me that they are are awaiting funding to do the field trials for the Tiger system. If they get it this will be done in India, Ethiopia and Uganda.
There is no work going on to his knowledge on the BSF toilet idea (within this grant). [BSF = Black Soldier Fly]

I have added some documents on results for this project here in the SuSanA library:
susana.org/lang-en/library/library?view=...eitem&type=2&id=1743
You can find:
1 - Literature review (May 2010)
2 - Poster by Ian Banks from Stockholm World Water Week in 2012 on black soldier fly
3 - Report on progress (Aug. 2012)
4 - Presentation on pit latrine fill; key lessons learnt (Sept. 2012)

Regards,
Elisabeth

P.S. Note: further discussions about the Black Solider Fly research that is part of this grant is now in this separate thread:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/91-pro...h-africa-agriprotein

Head moderator of this discussion forum
(Funded via consultancy contract with Skat Foundation funded by WSSCC)

Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
Independent consultant located in Brisbane, Australia
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Twitter: @EvMuench
Sanitation Wikipedia project leader: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_Sanitation
My Wikipedia user profile: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:EMsmile
You need to login to reply
  • former member
  • former member's Avatar
    Topic Author
  • Posts: 92
  • Likes received: 0

Re: On-site sanitation based on bio-additives and pit design (LSTH, UK and Tanzania, South Africa and Vietnam)

Dear Kim,

Sorry for the belated reply to answer your questions

I can see that you have partners in different countries; are you setting up pilots in communities in various socio-economic contexts?


Assuming we obtain the required funding we will be testing in urban, rural and humanitarian relief settings (Possible field sites are in India, Uganda and Ethiopia)

What is the general design and function of your system? What are the main components (type of toilet model, collection tank, etc.)? If you could share a photo of your system it would be great.


Detailed descriptions of the systems can be found online described in a report you can find at www.sanitationventures.com/_pdf/Mileston...vation-Final-Web.pdf

What are the requirements when it comes to operation and maintenance?


We don't know exactly yet but we anticipate it will not be high - removal of some vermicompost occasionally

Do you have any results regarding volume reduction of the material to estimate the frequency for emptying?


These are presented in the report above

Since your system is connected to a flush toilet; how do you manage excess water from the system after it passes the filtration bed? Do you promote reuse?


Not planning to at the moment, just allow it to infiltrate the soil

How do the tiger or earth worms cope with the high humidity in the biofilter?


So long as the drainage is good from their bedding layer they should be fine

best regards
Jeroen

++++++++
Note by moderators: This post was made by a former user with the login name jensink who is no longer a member of this discussion forum.
You need to login to reply
  • KimAndersson
  • KimAndersson's Avatar
  • Senior Expert at SEI working on sustainable sanitation, integrated water management and resource recovery
  • Posts: 61
  • Karma: 9
  • Likes received: 27

Re: On-site sanitation based on bio-additives and pit design (LSTH, UK and Tanzania, South Africa and Vietnam)

Dear Jeroen,
Thanks for your reply and for sharing the project report.

I think I still have some doubts regarding the liquid effluent that you will infiltrate to soil (from your vermi-compost system connected to a flush toilet). According to the result of the effluent quality analyses in your report, the levels of COD and bacteria are still high; hence uncontrolled infiltration could have negative impacts on groundwater quality. However, it is not clear if the test of the prototype in the report includes the filtration bed that you mention on the homepage. Would be good to get some more details on this matter.

Best regards,
Kim Andersson

Kim Andersson
Stockholm Environment Institute
Postbox 24218,104 51 Stockholm, Sweden
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
You need to login to reply
  • AquaVerde
  • AquaVerde's Avatar
  • "simple" Sanitation-Solutions by gravity
  • Posts: 379
  • Karma: 16
  • Likes received: 75

Re: On-site sanitation based on bio-additives and pit design (LSTH, UK and Tanzania, South Africa and Vietnam)

Dear Jeroen,

In regard to this by M&B Gates funded project, I found the stated project approach on "Global Access and Intellectual Property" most refreshing, so much different to what we all know about Microsoft, making sure all people receiving the "key" and not only some. :)

I am not very sure about, the USA might have a clear government policy, that all public funded research results have to be fully accessible by the public. Maybe someone from USA can correct me on that nice policy? Is this real reality in USA?

Beside this refreshing discovery on the "key", I have a more technical question to you, to understand better technical targets behind.

"The unit can be linked to flush or pour-flush toilets,..." This makes me a bit alerted on the "travelling" of the possible liquids involved! I understand, all liquids passing trough an active layer near the surface, where solid waste get digested and then enters a filtration bed where the liquid waste is further treated by aerobic bacteria.

After that, do the treated liquids pass direct through the soil around the pit? Or is the possible pit maybe lined and "you" try to discharge from that aerobic filtration bed by gravity via a biological more active topsoil and vegetation filtration first, before treated water is entering ground water or surface water?

Thanks in advance.

Good Luck and Best Regards,

Detlef SCHWAGER

www.aqua-verde.de
"simple" Sanitation-Solutions by gravity
Low-Tech Solutions with High-Tech Effects
"Inspired by Circular Economy and Cooperation"
www.flickr.com/photos/aqua-verde/
You need to login to reply
  • muench
  • muench's Avatar
  • Moderator of this Forum; Freelance consultant and Wikipedian (former roles: program manager, lecturer, process engineer for wastewater treatment plants)
  • Posts: 2861
  • Karma: 53
  • Likes received: 761

Re: On-site sanitation based on bio-additives and pit design (LSTH, UK and Tanzania, South Africa and Vietnam)

I received this answer by Walter Gibson by e-mail on 21 May 2013 (Walter is one of the researchers of this grant):

++++++++++++

My thanks to Kim for the question about effluent quality from the Tiger system. Just to answer his specific point about the prototype filter - yes, the one at CAT uses the same type of filtration bed as we used in the pilot tests.
This may change in the systems we hope to field test later this year.

We're not aware of any recognised standards as far as COD and pathogen levels in effluents from such small systems but if Kim has any information or references that would be useful. The levels of COD and pathogen reduction we have observed are greater than the published data on septic tanks which is our main reference point.

Kind regards

Walter

++++++++++++++

I also just wanted to highlight that some work on the Black Soldier Fly Larvae, which is also part of this grant, is now being discussed in a separate thread here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/91-pro...mit=12&start=12#4542

Head moderator of this discussion forum
(Funded via consultancy contract with Skat Foundation funded by WSSCC)

Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
Independent consultant located in Brisbane, Australia
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Twitter: @EvMuench
Sanitation Wikipedia project leader: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_Sanitation
My Wikipedia user profile: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:EMsmile
You need to login to reply
  • KimAndersson
  • KimAndersson's Avatar
  • Senior Expert at SEI working on sustainable sanitation, integrated water management and resource recovery
  • Posts: 61
  • Karma: 9
  • Likes received: 27

Re: On-site sanitation based on bio-additives and pit design (LSTH, UK and Tanzania, South Africa and Vietnam)

Thanks Walter!
From my perspective the most attractive solution would be to find ways to reuse the liquid effluent, since it should be potent as a fertilizer; for example using a drip-irrigation system, which reduce exposure risk if the levels of pathogen are not satisfactory (see www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/wastewater/gsuww/en/ ).

Regarding your question on recommendations of effluent levels of COD, I have seen values from guidelines in Sweden of 70mg/l for sanitation systems >25 pers. This could be compared to your levels that are between 500-1200 mg/l. Hence, if reuse cannot be achieved then it may be necessary to install a soil infiltration system, to ensure appropriate treatment. If you want to achieve acceptable discharge levels, I guess it is not recommended to have the septic tank as a reference since this should be considered as a pretreatment system.

Best regards,
Kim

Kim Andersson
Stockholm Environment Institute
Postbox 24218,104 51 Stockholm, Sweden
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
You need to login to reply
  • muench
  • muench's Avatar
  • Moderator of this Forum; Freelance consultant and Wikipedian (former roles: program manager, lecturer, process engineer for wastewater treatment plants)
  • Posts: 2861
  • Karma: 53
  • Likes received: 761

Re: On-site sanitation based on bio-additives and pit design (LSTH, UK and Tanzania, South Africa and Vietnam)

Here comes an answer to the posting of Detlef Schwager above (15 May) which was sent to me by e-mail:
+++++++++++++++

Detlef had asked:

"The unit can be linked to flush or pour-flush toilets,..." This makes me a bit alerted on the "travelling" of the possible liquids involved! I understand, all liquids passing trough an active layer near the surface, where solid waste get digested and then enters a filtration bed where the liquid waste is further treated by aerobic bacteria.

After that, do the treated liquids pass direct through the soil around the pit? Or is the possible pit maybe lined and "you" try to discharge from that aerobic filtration bed by gravity via a biological more active topsoil and vegetation filtration first, before treated water is entering ground water or surface water?


Answer by Claire:

++++++++++++++
Dear Elisabeth,

I am a co-worker of Walters who designed and ran the trails on the Tiger latrine. I have answered your questions below.

If theres is a enough distance between the bottom of the system and the water table the liquids and the infiltration rates rea ok the effluent is directly infiltrated into the soil, we have done this in Wales and Ethiopia.

If the water table is high or the infiltration rates are to low then the bottom of the system is sealed and the liquid can be diverted into a planted systems or beds infiltration wells.

The effluent will not be directly discharged into surface water.

I hope this answers your questions.

Claire

Claire Furlong Ph.D C.WEM


Find out more about me and my work at www.clairefurlong.com

Head moderator of this discussion forum
(Funded via consultancy contract with Skat Foundation funded by WSSCC)

Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
Independent consultant located in Brisbane, Australia
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Twitter: @EvMuench
Sanitation Wikipedia project leader: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_Sanitation
My Wikipedia user profile: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:EMsmile
You need to login to reply
  • AquaVerde
  • AquaVerde's Avatar
  • "simple" Sanitation-Solutions by gravity
  • Posts: 379
  • Karma: 16
  • Likes received: 75

Re: On-site sanitation based on bio-additives and pit design (LSTH, UK and Tanzania, South Africa and Vietnam)

Many Thanks to Claire and to Elisabeth.

So I can see there is not any type of rocket science involved, joust general common sense. More or less the same groundwater related effluent discharge pre-consideration are in-place by our local standards in Germany too.

I am just wondering how this general common sense will be put in place by possible upcoming businesses minded ordinary sanitation entrepreneurs in general, as I know even specialist here in Germany get mixed up too.

I guess you have to allow percentages of wrong implementations. Real 100% perfections are not possible in this local-global world... C’est la vie

Best Regards,
Detlef SCHWAGER

www.aqua-verde.de
"simple" Sanitation-Solutions by gravity
Low-Tech Solutions with High-Tech Effects
"Inspired by Circular Economy and Cooperation"
www.flickr.com/photos/aqua-verde/
You need to login to reply
  • former member
  • former member's Avatar
    Topic Author
  • Posts: 92
  • Likes received: 0

Re: AW: WG: Sanitation Updates

Dear all,

The following link is to a journal paper which we published in July and which is an output of our BMGF funded project.

best regards

Jeroen

++++++++++++++++++++

sanitationupdates.wordpress.com/2013/07/...tion-to-fly-catches/

Characteristics of latrines in central Tanzania and their relation to fly catches

PLoS One. 2013 Jul 18;8(7).
This is an open access journal. The full text of the paper is available here:
www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10....journal.pone.0067951

Authors: Irish S, Aiemjoy K, Torondel B, Abdelahi F, Ensink JH.

Abstract:
The disposal of human excreta in latrines is an important step in reducing the transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. However, in latrines, flies can access the latrine contents and serve as a mechanical transmitter of diarrhoeal pathogens. Furthermore, the latrine contents can be used as a breeding site for flies, which may further contribute to disease transmission. Latrines do not all produce flies, and there are some which produce only a few, while others can produce thousands. In order to understand the role of the latrine in determining this productivity, a pilot study was conducted, in which fifty latrines were observed in and around Ifakara, Tanzania.

The characteristics of the latrine superstructure, use of the latrine, and chemical characteristics of pit latrine contents were compared to the numbers of flies collected in an exit trap placed over the drop hole in the latrine. Absence of a roof was found to have a significant positive association (t=3.17, p=0.003) with the total number of flies collected, and temporary superstructures, particularly as opposed to brick superstructures (z=4.26, p<0.001), and increased total solids in pit latrines (z=2.57, p=0.01) were significantly associated with increased numbers of blowflies leaving the latrine. The number of larvae per gram was significantly associated with the village from which samples were taken, with the largest difference between two villages outside Ifakara (z=2.12, p=0.03). The effect of latrine superstructure (roof, walls) on fly production may indicate that improvements in latrine construction could result in decreases in fly populations in areas where they transmit diarrhoeal pathogens.

Photo of drop-hole modification and trap placement:



Black plastic construction tape and nails were used to adapt the drop-hole and cover other potential exit points (Figure 1). Households were instructed on how to remove and replace the trap when they need to use the latrine. After 24 hours the traps were collected. The traps were transported back to the laboratory and frozen in a -20 °C freezer for 45 minutes to kill the flies. Flies were identified to the family level [15]. All specimens were preserved in ethanol (70% dilution). Each latrine suitable for fly trapping (n=42) was trapped once between July 7 and August 3, 2011.

++++++++
Note by moderators: This post was made by a former user with the login name jensink who is no longer a member of this discussion forum.
Attachments:
You need to login to reply
  • KimAndersson
  • KimAndersson's Avatar
  • Senior Expert at SEI working on sustainable sanitation, integrated water management and resource recovery
  • Posts: 61
  • Karma: 9
  • Likes received: 27

Re: AW: WG: Sanitation Updates

Dear all,
If you have been following this discussion and are interested in hearing more about the project on new concepts for on-site sanitation based on bio-additives and pit design led by London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine please join the upcoming live webinar.

The webinar, hosted by SEI, will take place on Tuesday 26 November 2013, 16:30 - 17:15 (CET – Sweden time), and will give you an opportunity to interact with Jeroen (and two other grantees). For more details how to participate (with or without microphone rights) please see here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/139-ge...nment-institute#6427

If you miss the live event, the recording will be provided a few days after the webinar.

Best regards,
Kim

Kim Andersson
Stockholm Environment Institute
Postbox 24218,104 51 Stockholm, Sweden
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
You need to login to reply
Share this thread:
Recently active users. Who else has been active?
Time to create page: 0.963 seconds