National WASH Conclave 2022


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Re: National WASH Conclave 2022

Technical Breakout Session Hygiene 3: Hygienic disposal of child faeces in rural areas - How can PRIs make it possible and feasible?

Date: 24 February
Time: 5:00-6:30PM

Name: Dr Apurva Vijay Ghugey
Designation: Thematic Manager- Sanitation and Hygiene, Gram Vikas

1.     Ms Gloria Sclar Public Health Researcher Emory University
2.     Mr. V.R Raman, Head of Policy, WaterAid India
3.     Ms Anju Khewar, Program Coordinator, State Health Resource Centre, Chhattisgarh
4.     Mr. Aloknanda Bisoyi, Research Manager, Emory University
5.     Mr Prabhakar Sahu, Secretary, Village Water and Sanitation Committee Laxmanpalli GP, Ganjam, Odisha
6.     Mr Narayan Sahu, President, Village Water and sanitation Committee Laxmanpalli GP, Ganjam, Odisha
7.     Ms Mamata Kumari Sahu, ASHA Worker, LaxmanpalliGP, Ganjam, Odisha
8.     Ms Sanjulata Pradhan, Anganwadi Worker,Laxmanpalli GP, Ganjam, Odisha
Context/ Problem Statement:
The world has made great progress in increasing access to basic sanitation and reducing open defecation, with only 9% of the global population open defecating as of 2017. In India, the percentage is as high as 15%. However, an often overlooked component of sanitation is safe Child Feces Management (CFM). Child feces may contain more pathogens compared to adult feces and are likely a significant source of fecal exposure in rural Indian households, and other similar settings. The latest National Family Health Survey (2015-2016) reported only 36% of Indian households safely dispose of their child’s feces into a latrine despite 61% of households having a latrine. There is a need for effective behavioral interventions that focus on safe CFM practices among caregivers, with the eventual goal of the child learning to use
the latrine, and to achieve the global commitment to ensure safe drinking water and sanitation for all.
Why PRIs are important for this issue:  
The PRIs are the immediate governance for the rural communities when it comes to getting aware, addressing and reporting any issues and ideas in the community. Active PRI in any panchayat leads to progressive rural communities. When it comes to Child Feces Management, it is of utmost importance for the people to learn, accept and be accountable for the new habits they need to inculcate in order to bring about sustainable health changes. PRI can help people to,
·       Be aware of the magnitude of the issue , and its connection to bigger picture
·       Believe themselves to solve the problem by facilitating to avail the provisions
·       Set up good monitoring practices ensuring the long term success of the CFM initiative.
Gaps, challenges, and issues:
In India,managing child faeces is often neglected due to many reasons, some of which are listed below,
·       Ignorance-considering child’s faeces as non-harmful
·       Lack of education to parents
·       Lack of proper healthcare facility focusing on children
·       Lack of institutions where parents can take guidance from.
·       Lack of access to proper infrastructure such as toilet, diapers, etcs
·       Lack ofpolitical will-power
Hence, it is very important to put a good amount of focus on Child Feaces Management.
What is the potential that we can gain with the involvement of PRIs?
Direct involvement of the PRI will ensure that their political activism for the issues and parents would get the sense of belongingness. This will bring a more focused approach towards all the schemes and initiatives the Government is taking to address the issues. This will also make the people aware of the grave health problems if the issue is not tackles with focus and seriousness. With roll-out of SBM-2, role of PRIs has become even more critical. PRIs, since they have significant impact on local people’s psychology, can play a very important role to make behavioral changes on ground possible and monitorable.
Session summary 
1. Child Sanitation is often overlooked component. It has direct impact on health. It is
usually considered as “not harmful”, a narrative created by the society.
2. Child faeces may contain morepathogens compared to adult faeces and are likely a significant source of
faecal exposure in rural Indian households.
3. Traditionally in rural area women are consideredresponsible for safe disposal of child faeces.
1. Ignorance- considering child’s faeces as non-harmful.It’s part of the social conditioning
2. Lack of access to proper infrastructure such as toilet, diapers, etc.
3. Lack of institution where parents learn the preventive healthmeasures for children. Though the social media is available with many tips and
tricks but largely for urban parents.
4. Gender barrier– Over dependence on mothers as caregivers, this put undue pressure on mothers 
Key takeaways:
a) Solutions -Examples of what/where/how/who
1. Education, awareness programmes are needed to highlight the issues. Wall writings or nukkad natak can be done.
2. VHSC training can be done on child feces management (CFM). Chhattisgarh's model on working on CFM with Mitanin can be replicated.
3. There has been some piloting of programmes with Ekjut on providing community creches for children whose parents have to go out for work.
4. Gram Vikas model on training and involving male members in child-friendly latrines can be followed. Use of hardware like potty and latrine mat can also be very handy in inducing behavioral change.  
b) The way forward or what needs to be done.
1. Direct involvement of the PRI will ensure proactive political will, and may ease accessibility to the schemes and initiatives the Government is taking
to address the issues.  Sanitation must be seen beyond visible cleaning.
2. We must move beyond safe sanitation and disposal and consider Child Feces Management (CFM)
exposure pathway. Child feces can be called as second generational issue of WASH and hence convergence with SBM2 can be
3. PRI can help people to be aware of the magnitude of the issue, and its connection to bigger and facilitate in
solving the problem by utilizing the provisions or availing the schemes
4. PRI can also help in setting up a good monitoring practice ensuring the long-term success of the CFM initiative.
5. We need to explore how CFM can be incorporated in key mandated government programmes and the required materials like potty and
latrine mat can be subsidized.
c) Any Specific points to be added to call to action?
1. Safe Childfeces management should be put in national guidelines to declare the ODF status. As of now, this is ignored in the declaration of ODF status.
2. Disposal of diapers is also a bigger waste management issue. This can also be agenda for policy-level advocacy.
3. Disaster-specific planning needs to be done specifically during rainy season for safe disposal of child faeces.
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Re: National WASH Conclave 2022

Technical Breakout Session Hygiene 4: Engagement of PRIs for WASH social and behaviour change communication

Date: 24 February'22
Time: 5:00-6:30PM

Name– Shalini Prasad
Designation-Social and Behavoiur Change Specialist, UNICEF, Delhi

1. Shri Yugal Joshi
2. Mr.Vijay Shankar Kanthan
3. Ms. Sowmyaa Bharadwaj
4. Ms Zoya Rizvi
5. Ms Pratima Kumar
6. Ms. Rekha
7. Mr. Mukhiya Abhishek Arnav

Panchayati Raj Institution (PRI)members are responsible for local, village-level development, and play a key role in connecting communities with key services around Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH). PRI members’ role as basic units of local administration make them key enablers at the ground level, rendering them as a key stakeholder in driving WASH practices among communities.
As PRI members play a dual role in implementing and monitoring government services and programs, their ownership and engagement around WASH issues is essential to building grassroots-level action around WASH. The first step therefore is to build the capacities
of PRI members on technical issues of WASH, followed by skilling them on effectively communicating these in simple messages to communities through various channels and tools (conducting interpersonal communication, holding group meetings, demonstrating, and
promoting WASH practices). Since PRI members are elected representatives within a community, they are respected members of societies and maybe looked up to as role models and influencers of key behaviours. Thus, PRI members play an important role in engaging and mobilising their communities to adopt positive behaviours. They can balance the demand and supply and can create an enabling
environment at the ground level. It is therefore critical to optimize their role in driving Social and Behaviour Change (SBC), and improving uptake of WASH practices among communities.
Making the sarpanch and gram panchayat members well conversant with their responsibilities of integrating SBC communication as part of their plans, is key to ensuring improved and sustained use of WASH facilities and adoption of positive practices.  As PRI members have a unique potential to drive local community-led planning and action processes, investing in their leadership qualities is critical to bringing about large-scale community mobilization and engagement around WASH. As developers of action plans such as the GPDP, PRI members are also responsible for village-level agenda and priority setting around WASH, and well as bringing about convergent efforts to administer WASH service delivery on the ground.
Engaging with PRI members and establishing sustained communication with these key stakeholders and understanding their current gaps in capacity and knowledge around WASH Social and Behaviour Change is essential to improving WASH outcomes.
Session summary
1.     Enabling WASH behaviour
2.     Steps taken by the government to ensure the sustainability of handwashing practice
3.     Strategies for ensuring messages are effectively communicated by PRIs
4.     Ways to build skills of PRIS with respect to communicating hygiene and MHM related messages
1.     Culture of silence around MHM due to taboos
2.     Lack of menstrual facilities compromising safety of girls and women
3.    Huge gap between access to soap and water
4.    Low involvement of males
5.    Lack of involvement of PRIs and community in designing communication
Key takeaways:
a) Solutions- Examples of what/where/how/who
1.     Improving access to safe water and sanitation facilities (Mr. Abhishek working towards installation of handwash stations in his village)
2.     Design locally and culturally relevant tools and resources for information dissemination, Nudge experiments in institutions
3.     Perpetuating myths/taboos/misinformation
4.     Capacity building of functionaries/GPs/community leaders
5.     Shift focus from campaign mode to integrating WSSH message in regular conversation
6.     Involvinglocal administration in SBCC activities
7.     CreatingGP level task force, MHM corners and WASH monitors
8.     Calendar of communication activities to be prepared
9.     Leverage on important contact days (adolescent health and wellness days) as a platform for service providers (such as doctors, ASHA workers) to interact with community and identify and break down barriers to
access to right information
b) The way forward or what needs to be done?
1.     PRAs critical to encourage community participation
2.     Map barriers to behaviours,integrated-evidence-based planning
3.     Capacity building of service delivery chain.
4.     Strategic partnerships with CSOs/youth networks/etc., to help build change processes at community level for leveraging resources, and creating platforms for advocacy initiatives
5.     Reaching tech and media dark populations
6.     Avoid information overload to prevent fatigue among communities
7.     Interpersonal communication capacity instrumental in changing mindsets and behaviour
8.     Discussion with stakeholders to develop tools
9.     Strengthen community feedback mechanism
10.  Promoting institutional communication activities with convergence and focused approach
11.  Creating enabling environment for dialogue, strengthening delivery of services
12.  Access to regular messaging on both hygiene and menstrual hygiene behaviours – through various forms social media, traditional art and folk songs, door to door etc.Taking a 360-degree approach in disseminating the messaging by creating and adapting content to culturally fit the context.
13.  Creating models of GPs that be scaled and replicated.
14.  Integrated planning, microplanning at the community level
15.  Use of participatory approach to understanding the needs of the community. This means look at each group differently, and trying
to understand their needs – so groups of women, men, person with disability etc – unpacking their needs in a participatory manner would give solutions from the ground up.
16.  Equipping the GP members with simple yet effective way to monitor.

1. Presentation is prepared by Ms. Shalini Prasad 'Medium, channels and tools for communication on improving hand hygiene and menstrual hygiene management'-
2. Presentation is prepared by Praxis ‘Implementation of Social and Behaviour Change Programs for WASH at Ground Level’-
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Re: National WASH Conclave 2022

Technical Breakout Session on cross-cutting themes 1: Role of PRIs in improving communication and mobilization at village level for strengthening sustainable WASH behaviours and environmental health

Date: 25 February'22
Time: 4:00-5:30PM

Name: Manjaree Pant
Designation SBC Specialist, UNICEF India, Rajasthan Field Office

1.      Ms Manju Rajpal IAS Secretary Govt. of Rajasthan
2.     Mr R.K Sama IFS ( Retd) Trustee Shroff Foundation Trusts
3.     Mr Ajit Fadnis Director PriMove
4.    Ms. Kavita Upadhya 

Context/Problem Statement:
Enhanced participation of communities is well-acknowledged as a suitable development strategy in India. The progressive
incarnations of water, sanitation and hygiene-related flagship programmes of the Government of India heavily bank on collective community action and ownership for improved outcomes, on a sustained basis. The programme resonates with ideas of a demand-driven, socially inclusive planning, implementation and monitoring that considers local needs and priorities pertaining to safe water and sanitation practices. An inclusive, participatory approach is indeed crucial in a country like ours where patriarchal, feudalistic norms substantially shape the rightsholder's perspective and ability to demand services and entitlements. Communication that can empower and catalyze social & behaviours change holds the key. It is important to strategize on not merely the “what“to be communicated, but also “who“ will say it for maximum influence for long-lasting impacts.
Why PRIs are important for this issue:  
For centuries, India has existed in its villages and Panchayats have enjoyed a social and cultural recognition and influence much before they were constitutionally mandated to deliver on 29 rural development activities in XIth Schedule.  All rural water supply and sanitation schemes are to be operated and maintained by local bodies such as Gram Panchayats, and Village Water & sanitation Committees. A large part of the current Gram Panchayat Development Plan and funding is dedicated to water and sanitation objectives, with an inbuilt component of community participation. Inclusion of needs and aspiration of the villagers lies at the very core and hence communication and community engagement emerge as a critical initiative. With their immense influence, PRIs can potentially catalyse community mobilisation including the marginalized sections.
Gaps, challenges, and issues:
On the ground, there are multiple challenges faced by Panchayats towards the deliverance of a sustained, result-centric community engagement.  Poor capacities and understanding of the water and sanitation programme itself are primary bottlenecks. Skill-building for
communication and sustained community engagement in a rights-based approach, is negligible in a regular PRI capacity-building programme, even in a best-case scenario. With limited resources for community engagement, most often, Panchayats are relegated to acting as implementing agencies of flagships. Often the interests of the most marginalized are left unaddressed as panchayats are unable
to overcome strong social norms and hierarchies. The equity agenda, ironically, takes a hit.
What is the potential that we can gain with the involvement of PRIs?
PRIs have the potential to render sustainability in many ways. When successful in community mobilization and communication, the longevity and maintenance of the shared resources and practices are ensured. Government flagships can safely hand over the facilities and services to the public, the right holders themselves as the real custodians of these resources.  Environmental sustainability also gains a strong fillip given the optimal management of natural resources and practices of  recycle, reuse, reduce and recover associated with WASH. Strengthened collective ownership, pride, and creation of new normal around WASH practices can be a natural result of improved
communication and mobilization by Panchayats.
Session summary
1. Government program or schemes always are better implemented when community have ownership on this. Similarly, PRI has a huge role to take this forward being local government . Even though they have been positioned or looked at like an implementing agency
2.Community led inclusive planning  process should be strengthened where CSO can take important role. Along with this, both community, PRI should have transparency about allocation of funds. Then only joint plan can be more effective and PRI can be more accountable to their role   
3. Comprehensive capacity building of PRI along with community can help both to work in synergies. Capacity building is needed as many technical aspects are part of the program like SLWM. Without through understanding of this, comprehensive planning can not be done ,
neither it can be implemented.
4. How the most disadvantageous community can demand for water and look into this as their right 
1.Community led approach is important but It does not come in action by a day. Hence specific flexible planning is needed.
2. Convergence of different departments is the need of the hour. Working on WASH requires support from other line departments as many schemes related to WASH are with other departments. Though the government started working on the same, yet convergence
is a big question
3. Periodic monitoring of PRI along with other line department is not place. Only periodic monitoring and feedback make them perform effectively
Key takeaways:
a) Solutions - Examples of what/where/how/who
1. Emphasise on selection of natural leaders from the community is one of the solutions as the person can be accepted to the community and can demand on behalf the community on WASH and other issues
2.Women should be part of the Gram Sabha in reality not the way it is in places. They also need supports to raise their voice. Hence capacity building of women group at their own context could bring change in WASH scenarios. Here flexible role of CSOs  is important
3. Strong monitoring and feedback mechanism for  all line departments could make them more accountable . Along with monitoring, feedback mechanism and result based appreciation process could make PRI more  effective 
4. PRI should expand its own committee so that they can reach more effectively to the community .
b) The way forward or what needs to be done.
1. Decentralization of power in PRI structure. PRI is a system but many places it is only the “Sarpanch” who takes call for everything.
Here power decentralization and more representation of the community is required for better progress in work
2.Monitoring and performance-based indicator can be developed by the government  and this should be implemented comprehensively
c) Any Specific points to be added to call to action?
1. Standard resource materials along with rigorous capacity building planning to be in place. The training should be on cascading method and cross monitoring and handholding support is needed for the PRI as well. So that they can get enough information about SBM and JJM. Specially this is important as both of these are technical aspects . along with
2. Structured protocol for planning and implementation should be developed and PRI should be trained on this . This can help  in comprehensive implementation. This implementation protocol should be on public domain so that transparency of work can be ensured. 
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Re: National WASH Conclave 2022

Technical breakout session on cross-cutting theme 2: Strategies for Gender Equality, Disability and Social inclusion in WASH programs at PRI level

Date: 25 February'22
Time: 4:00-5:30PM

Name: Anurag Gupta
Designation: State ProgrammeDirector (Odisha & West Bengal), WaterAid India

1.     Mr. Samir Ghosh (Director, SODHANA,Pune)
2.     Dr. Rupesh Rathore (State Consultant,Chhatisgarh)
3.     Ms Krupale Bidaye (Program Manager,Social Inclusion & Gender – Shodharambh Research & Development Foundation)
4.     Ms Vidhya Rajput (Social Activist,Mitwa Sankalp Samitit, Chattisgarh)
5.     Mona Dave (DNRLM)
6.     Mr. Nitin Pawar (Director, Rasikashraya Sanstha Yavatmal)
Context/Problem Statement:
Gender equality and social inclusion are the key factors for sustainable development. Socially excluded groups have the right to
access safe, improved, and affordable WASH facilities at home, in the community and in institutions. Although there is progress in providing access to WASH services for all, women and girls and persons with disabilities are still deprived to a large extent. A disability is a result of the interaction between a person with a health condition and a particular environmental context. Individuals with similar health conditions may not be similarly disabled or share the same perception of their disability, depending on their environmental adaptations.
As per Census 2011, in India, out of the 121 Cr population, about 2.68 Cr persons are ‘persons with disabilities’ which is 2.21% of the total
Why PRIs are important for this issue:  
Women, girls and persons with disabilities –specifically those who live in poverty are most affected when basic water and sanitation systems fail. Women and girls carry the bulk of the responsibility for collecting water and are exposed to the risks of harassment and violence. Walking long distances for water and/or to defecate in the open also puts them at risk. According to the joint report by World Health Organization and World Bank, “World Report on Disability and Rehabilitation,2011, “Households with a disabled member are more likely to experience material hardship including food insecurity, poor housing, lack of access to safe water and sanitation, and inadequate access to health care”. Furthermore, “people with disabilities have poorer health outcomes, lower education achievements, less economic
participation and higher rates of poverty than people without disabilities”. Panchayati Raj Institutions have the responsibility as the duty bearers for provisioning of clean drinking water and safe sanitation services to the communities in their jurisdiction.
Gaps, challenges, and issues:
It is of outmost importance that planning and designing of WASH facilities be done by keeping in consideration gender, social inclusion and disabilities.  Women emerge as the worst sufferers due to non-access to facilities. Any intervention in the WASH is one size fit for all, this affects people with special needs most and despite having facilities at the doorstep, most are not able to access them. In addition to this, in some cases facilities are provided on socio-economic and political clout which often leads to further marginalization.
What is the potential that we can gain with the involvement of PRIs?
The 73rd constitutional amendment was brought to address the anomalies present in the local administration and to strengthen the
process of governance at the grass-root level. This reform in the Panchayati Raj were made to address efficiency, openness, and accessibility of quality public services and to promote development with inclusion. It was also a response to the rising demand to create an institution to bring about ‘inclusion’ of the marginalised communities and groups. Considering the increasing political will towards WASH, all flagship programs have potential scope for PRIs. PRIs play a pivotal role in better utilization of resources. From being within the
community, they can better understand and address the needs of the different sections of society. Many of the states have reservation about women for PRIs. Involving the elected representatives from disadvantaged sections can help in addressing their challenges in a more appropriate manner. It is a known fact that the construction of the facilities alone doesn’t ensure its sustainability. Ensuring sustainability requires the concepts and facets of gender, disability, and social inclusion to be intertwined in the planning of these facilities. And this can be achieved to a large extent by involving PRIs. PRI being the local elected members have greater accountability towards each section of the community.

Session Summary
1.    Gender Equality and Social Inclusion are key factors for social development.
2.    Socially excluded groups have the right to access WASH facilities.
3.    Individuals with similar health conditions may not be similarly disabled or share the same perception of their disability, depending on their environmental adaptations.
1.    Transgender leaving jobs and schools because of exclusion when it comes to sanitation.
2.    Sanitation-related rapes.
3.    When it comes to menstrual hygiene – women with disabilities and transgender community misses out.
4.    Dwarfism, intellectual disability (Autism Spectrum Disorder), multiple disabilities of vision and sensory, upper limb disability etc. also misses out from the long list of focussed categories.
Key takeaways:
a) Solutions - Examples ofwhat/where/how/who
1.     Modified gender inclusive structures appropriate for different disabilities.
2.     Provision for third gender and disable friendly toilets in highways and communities.
3.     SBM logo is gender inclusive – All WASH programs should follow this.
4.     Design a proper curriculum or awareness programs by PRI.
5.     Trans people shall be allowed to use gender-based toilets as per their self-identified gender.
6.     Community based rehabilitation.
b) The way forward or what needs to be done.
1.     General awareness towards existence of so-called invisible groups.
2.     Understanding the requirement of a particular category – Sensitization to be done category specific & need specific.
3.     Talk to all category of people who comes under the transgender umbrella.
4.     Additional budgetary provision.
5.     Need for privacy and dignity of individuals.
6.     PRI leaders to ensure that accessible and inclusive sanitation forms a part of the agenda of the Gram Sabha.
7.     Adequate representation of persons with disabilities and transgender persons in Gram Sabha.
8.     Awareness in “Barriers to Access Sanitation” for both the excluded groups.
c) Any Specific points to be added to call to action?
1.     School dropouts has direct correlation with toilets not inclusive of trans people - Schools to be the focal point - Everyone has the Right to Education & Right to Sanitation.
2.     Cadre of rehabilitation resource person. Home based therapies and assistive devices.
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Re: National WASH Conclave 2022

Technical breakout session 3 on cross-cutting themes: Building linkages of WASH programs with sustainable climate and disaster resilience agenda at Panchayat level 

Date: 25 February'22
Time: 4:00-5:30PM

1. Dr. Prabhakar Sinha, WASH Specialist
2.  Ms. Swathi Manchikanti, WASH and Climate Specialist

1.    Ms Ritu Jaiswal Mukhiya, Gram Panchayat Singhwahini,Sitamarhi, Bihar
2·    Shri Vijay Amruta Kulange,IAS, District MagistrateGanjam, Odisha
3·    Mr Binoy Acharya Director Unnati
4·    Mr Salathiel R Nalli Emergency & Climate ChangeManager, UNICEF

Context Problem Statement
In 2019, India was ranked as the seventh most affected country due to climate change led extreme weather events – both in terms of the fatalities (2,267 people) as well as the economic losses (66,182 million USD)[1]. The impact of climate-induced disaster, has been more severe in rural areas compared to urban counterparts due to poverty, limited infrastructures and access to meagre resources and health care services[2]. Moreover, beyond economic consequences, climate change and environmental degradation has also impacted people’s access to clean air and land, sufficient food, secure shelter, and safe water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Poor waste management - of plastics, faecal sludge, greywater, biowaste and other waste types – and limited investment in water conservation efforts and other
resilient practices makes the existing challenges worse and reduces the resilience and ability of communities to withstand shocks.
Why PRIs are important for this issue:  The gram panchayat is the key local level institution responsible for the fulfillment of the community's aspirations with respect to the overall development of the village. Hence, it is necessary that the PRI functionaries are i) well-conversant with their duties for ensuring access to safe WASH ii) capacitated and equipped for implementing resilience-building activities, and iii) are able to respond quickly to climate and environment-related shocks. Proper climate adaptation depends on community planning and preparedness on a regular basis, irrespective of whether a disaster will strike. This could be achieved by integrating climate-resilient WASH features into daily planning under the Gram Panchayat Development Plans (GPDPs) as well as including the disaster preparedness and response mechanism under the Village Disaster Management Plans (VDMP)[3]
Gaps, challenges, and issues: Limited institutional capacities, technical competencies and access to resources are preventive factors that hinder robust planning and successful implementation of programs. While indigenous knowledge and practices of the rural community have a great potential in promoting the management of resources, these needs to be complemented by scientific understanding of climate change impacts and the adaptation practices that can go hand in hand with development planning.
What is the potential that we can gain with the involvement of PRIs: Leadership from PRIs has the greatest potential for sustaining positive behavior change and practices. Ensuring a bottom-up planning process, reflecting the needs and aspirations of the people, and including the participation of women and children through Mahila Sabha and Bal Sabha would make building resilience more inclusive and equitable. Through these measures, decentralized planning, accounting, implementation, and monitoring could play an important role in improving the coping capacity and enabling continued access to safe drinking water, clean sanitation and hygiene services. This in turn would lead to improved nutrition, reduced risk of diarrhoeal, cardio-respiratory and infectious diseases, and a secure living condition.

In this session, speakers will share experiences on how they responded to disasters, and will share recommendations for how PRIs and district officials can prepare their communities to withstand future shocks and environmental challenges.
[1]German Watch, 2021. The Global Climate Risk Index. As retrieved from
[2]Kumar et al, 2016. "Impact of flood on rural population and strategies for mitigation: A case study of Darbhanga district, Bihar state, India," Contemporary Rural Social Work Journal: Vol. 8 : No. 1 , Article 5. Available at:
[3]As per Section 37 of Disaster Management Act and guidelines issued by NDMA, each village, gram panchayat, block and district panchayat, need to prepare Disaster Management Plan in convergence with respective DDMAs

Session summary
In last one decade, there is an increase of 0.7% point in the temperature of India. Increase in frequency of drought can be seen clearly across the India. In fact, people are facing many climate change. India is on 7th position among 189 countries as far as extremely water stress is concerned. India is on 26th position among 163countries as per index developed by UNICEF. Significant impact of climate and
distress resilience which lead to migration, poverty and health problem. The role of panchayat is important
Due to flood in Bihar many villages disconnected from the outside worlds for 2-3 months and struggle for basic services like safe drinking water, toilet and health facilities. Flood is not only the climate issue rather people are struggling with drought conditions as well. Heavy rain and increase in temperature lead to these situations. Entire water distribution line was destroyed, toilets were filled with sild and waste. People were struggling for safe drinking water and safe sanitation facilities. In Satar district, where highest rainfall occurred in half of the area and rest is struggling with drought prone area. The intensity of rain was higher in Navaja block where, about 16.41 TMC water was collected in Koyana Dam in 3-4 hours only. This quantity is equal to the requirement of 25 days of big city. As a result, 12540 families were
relocated from 745 affected villages. Agriculture land was ruined due to accommodation of huge silt, road connectivity affected – internal and external, water supply destroyed. District has assessed a loss of 23.19 crore on water
supply structures. Overall following points were highlighted on climate challenges:
·      Life style has increased the risk of disaster and it is more prominent in more developed countries.
·      Decrease in precipitation lead to drought and affecting life of agriculture as well as availalbity of drinking water. On the other hands, increase in precipitation led to flooding and affect the WASH services – inaccessibility of water sources, pollution of well, flooding of sanitation system, waterborne diseases.
·      Increase in the temperature will lead to severe shortage of water and increase concentration of pollutants. Increase in
temperature melting the ice, which impact as sea level rise and change seasonality of water availability. Increase in temperature of 20C may flood the coastal area and it increases up to 40C decrease, it affects availalbity of water - cases of diarrhoea can increase.
·      There is no provision to quantify sanitation facilities under NDRF guidelines. 
Key takeaways:
a) Solutions- Examples of what/where/how/who
·      Watershed approach was adopted to deal with flooding issue
·      Emergency water supply through tanker was provided till the regular water supply system was made functional.
·      Role of panchayat is important is implementing appropriate toilet design so that it can be easily cleaned and restored after flooding. Similarly, facilities of drinking water need to be designed in such a way so that quick restoration can be done post disaster.
·      District administration has created rehabilitation centres or semi-permanent shelters for the affected families. Sanitation
facilities was the challenged and without support of PRIs it was not improved.
·      Decentralisation of efforts and involvement of community and Panchayat has helped in addressing the drought mitigation works
in Satara.
b) The way forward or what needs to be done.
·      Bottom-up planning is required, one solution cannot fit in all the problems
·      Build the understanding of community on early symptoms of climate change and risks. Understanding risk has to be a continue process in local context.
·      Capacity building at GP on early risk identification,aligning resources on disaster resilience agenda is
·      Understanding disaster governance
·      Proper management of eco-system is equally important to minimise the impact of climate change. Carbon footprint should be minimized.
·      Risk hazards assessment need to be done along with GSI, ACWADAM, UNICEF and other concerned stakeholders.
·      Institutionalisation of preparedness process to deal with climate change issues.
·      To strengthen GPs, provision of untied funds need to be made available for maintenance and addressing climate change needs. The devolution of power – fund, function and functionaries is necessary decentralised.
·      Climate change and preparedness related curricular need to be part of formal education system.
Mr.Salathiel Nalli summarised session as under
There is a lack of clarity on the issue of climate resilient WASH relevant to GPs. In long-term, shift in temperate and weather patterns is
a climate change. This can be natural and manmade. Human activities are the main driver of climate change, primary due to burning fossil fuels like coal oil and gas. On the natural climate changes, there is no control and only preparedness is the solution. On the other hands, manmade climate issues can be minimise through changing life style. Some of the solution which panchayat can take are as follows:
·      Maintained WASH infrastructure resilient to climate
·      During preparation of GPDP, climate resilient need to be included
·      Source sustainability related works can be carried such as RWH, Water Conservation, Groundwater recharge, reviving traditional
water bodies, afforestation
·      Awareness and sensitization on rational use of drinking water
·      Recycling and reuse of grey water at village level
·      Make appropriate WASH infrastructure like elevated the base of water tank and rising the plinth height of toilets etc.
c) Any Specific points to be added to call to action?
1. Two books was suggested by Binoy my “Abhi bhi khade haitalab” (on Bikaner’s ponds), Dying Wisdom - CSE 


1) Presentation by Mr. Salathiel Nalli on 'Climate Resilient Water, Sanitation and Hygiene relevant to Gram Panchayats (English)'-
2. Presentation by Mr. Salathiel Nalli on 'Climate Resilient Water, Sanitation and Hygiene relevant to Gram Panchayats (Hindi)'-
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Re: National WASH Conclave 2022

Technical Breakout session cross-cutting theme 4: Ways for Developing technical human resources for WASH at PRIs and ensuring the safety of sanitation work in rural areas

Date: 25 February'22
Time: 4:00-5:30PM

Nitya Jacob, coordinator, SuSanA India Chapter
VR Raman, Advisor –Policy, WaterAid India

1.       Ms Natasha Patel (Executive Director, IndiaSanitation Coalition)
2.       Ms Pragya Bhartiya (PMU, SBM MP)
3.       Shri Saroj Kumar Dash (Joint Director, SIRDand PR, Govt. of Odisha)
4.       Mr Devidas Kisan Nimje (Senior Program Manager, Samarthan)
5.       Mr Om Prakash (Trainer and CommunityMotivator)
6.       Mr Anshuman Karol (Lead, Local ProgramGovernance, PRIA Delhi)
7.       Mr Sathyanarayana (Executive Director,DDU-GKY, NIRDPR Hyderabad)

Context/ Problem Statement: Rural water and sanitation programmes, Swachh Bharat Mission II and Jal Jeevan Mission,respectively, have become increasingly technical. The maintenance of infrastructure, treatment of solid and liquid waste, and planning and operating water supply schemes need a WASH corps at the local level with the ability to plan, execute, monitor and communicate with their communities.
Panchayats at the three levels have been tasked with the work and provided finances from the two missions, the Finance Commissions and other sources. Implementation Support Agencies (ISAs), KRCs, Swachh Bharat Mission secretariat, Rural Development Department and the Public Health Engineering (or the state equivalent) Department will provide technical support, oversight, certification of the yield and quality of water sources and management of wastewater, solid waste and faecal sludge. Similarly, the Health and Family Welfare Department supports the PRIs in health and hygiene-related issues. They are also expected to oversee the institutions such as schools, Anganwadis and health facilities in rural areas. The session will look at the challenge of human resources in PRIs to meet these requirements; is it possible to have a ‘WASH Corps?”
Why PRIs are important for this issue: The JJM guidelines state gram panchayats are responsible for in-village infrastructure development and management through VWSC/ Paani Samiti / User Groups, supported by PHED or ISA. The SBM II guidelines have entrusted PRIs
with managing solid and liquid waste, toilet infrastructure and faecal sludge management. PRIs must support the execution by ensuring the availability of land, addressing concerns of the communities, monitoring progress and overseeing the payments. They are to prepare village action plans in consultation with the communities, ISA, PHED and DWSM. However, there are insufficient human resources in PRIs at all levels, especially at the Gram Panchayats which is the primary interface with the populace. They rely on block or district level staff,
and even ISAs, for all technical inputs. Currently, most states provide a secretary and the MGNREGS coordinator to panchayats, and sometimes the secretary is shared between several panchayats. Therefore, it is crucial to address the human resource needs for PRIs to adequately address WASH needs. This is a large-scale challenge. Coming to the issue of sanitation workers, few states have hired them on a contractual basis but are not able to provide them with the equipment or a regular salary. The SBM II guidelines have provisions to hire them using funds from MGNREGS. It is crucial to avoid the direct interface of these workers with faecal matter, which may amount to manual scavenging. Ideally, each gram panchayat will need a panel of technically-qualified people who are available on demand. The waste treatment and water supply work will need continuous support that a local person can provide. For example, the operator of the piped water network must daily turn on and off the pump and valves, while checking for leaks. This person needs skilling in the job and regular remuneration. Additionally, materials need to be available when needed, which also seeks management and oversight. Several lakhs of swacchagrahis were trained under SBM-I. wherein there is a need to see if these and other educated people be organized into the WASH corps. Similarly, the PRIs need to engage sanitation workers, plumbers etc. for various WASH related tasks safely and sustainably.
How will this benefit PRIs:  Although the constitutional amendment for introducing 3-tier governments in rural areas is a 3-decade old
reform, the discussion about strengthening PRIs as local governments is yet in an initial stage, in most states. Given this situation and the added load on PRIs due to the WASH-related responsibilities, the discussion about WASH human resource development and safety of sanitation workers can generate pathways for several state governments to think in this direction in a futuristic manner.
Gaps, challenges, and issues:
-        The sheer number and diversity of schemes will require a vast number of people to maintain them, as also assured funds and
materials. These people will need continuous training and handholding from external agencies such as ISAs, while PRIs will have to ensure funds and materials. Making the job attractive for local, educated youth is a related issue.
-        JJM and SBM II envisage the long-term engagement of PRIs as the elected body that is closest to communities, and therefore best
able to manage the systems. But PRIs will need support at all stages of the water supply and sanitation project lifecycle and the continuous and timely release of funds
-        The DWSM, SWSMs and PHEDs are to provide technical and managerial support but there is no clear definition of roles and responsibilities as yet to them to support PRIs
-        The understanding of the need and positioning of sanitation workers in rural areas is yet an emerging concept, wherein there is a need to build clarity.
-        Critically,PRIs need to work as equal partners in the two missions and other WASH-related issues else there is a risk of being reduced to contractors or worse, passive recipients of technical and financial assistance.
1) Presentation by VR Raman on 'Human Resources for WASHat PRI level: What does it entail?-

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Re: National WASH Conclave 2022

  1. Shri Amit Shukla – Director, Jal Jeevan Mission, Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Jal Shakti
  2. Smt Kavita Patidar, Sarpanch, Rajpura
  3. Shri Ashok Kumar Singh, Director, Sahbhagi Shikshan Kendra
  1. Efficiency of Piped Water Supply Schemes in the past has been affected majorly by two factors-
  2. The water source were not sustainable
  3. Poor operation and maintenance of the water infrastructure developed
  4. Jal Jeevan Mission recognises these issues and seeks to address from the initial stage
  5. Jal Jeevan Mission is not just water infrastructure development project but seeks to empower communities and local governments
  6. The paradigm shift JJM has brought is moving away from habitation-based schemes to provisioning of safe drinking water at household level
  7. There is need for institutional building of Panchayats is required for efficient planning, implementation, operation, monitoring and maintenance of JJM schemes
  • Panchayats, mandated committees such as Village Water and Sanitation Committees or Pani Samitis are expected to play major role in the execution and management of drinking water infrastructure being created under JJM. However, there is significant capacity gap that needs to be addressed.
  • Lack of clarity about systems and responsibilities of Panchayats in multi village schemes where third party is involved
  • The conventional approach of “Transfer of Knowledge” for capacity building of Panchayats has not yielded desired results in the past.
  • Village Action Planning and GPDP process are not in sync.
Key takeaways:
  1. Solutions- Examples of what/where/how/who
  • Coming up with robust training modules for village water sanitation committee as well as local residents from a technical, change management and operational and maintenance perspective.
  • Appointing skilled trainers who could gel well with the local community in order to create a dialogue and not appointing experts that the local community would disassociate with. Participatory methodology coupled with learning visits for capacity strengthening
  • Ensuring implementation of basic techniques such as appropriate ground water harvesting and rain water harvesting as well as attention to water quality. For example, the initiatives taken by the Gram Panchayat headed by Ms. Kavita Patidar.
  • Strategy to incentivise households and Panchayats proactively adopting and promoting source sustainability measures 
  • Conscious efforts to ensure subsidise user charges for the most marginalised families
  • Active participation of women in committees and other decision-making forums responsible for operation and management of schemes under JJM is critical
  1.  The way forward or what needs to be done.
  • Assessment of successful strategies and processes adopted by some states managing multi village schemes
  • Training required for Village water sanitation committees as well as ensuring availability of key resources and skills required for the same. Trainings could be on a technical front, change management front as well as operational and maintenance front.
  • Panchayats and concerned departments (i.e. PHED, Health)to strengthen coordination and bring synergy between VAP and GPDP process
  • KRCs and Sector Partners to evolve effective participatory training modules and tools 
  • Considering the paradigm shift in operation and management of PWS schemes from departments to Panchayats, KRCs to envisage affective 
  • Change Management Trainings for the officials concerned at different levels to facilitate the transition
Prepared by- Farrukh Khan & Marcelina Kujur
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Re: National WASH Conclave 2022


1.     Dr. G. Narendra Kumar, Director General, NIRDPR: Welcome address
2.     Ms. Gillian Mellsop, Country Representative, UNICEF India": Role of development Partners, CSOs and Private Sector for WASH in India
3.     Shri Amitabh Kant, CEO NITI Aayog: Special Address
4.     Shri Gajendra Singh, Shekhawat, Honourable Minister of Jal Shakti: Keynote Address
5.     Shri Giriraj Singh, Honourable Minister of Panchayati Raj: Keynote Address
6.     Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu, Honourable Vice President of India: Release of conclave booklet and inaugural address
7.     Dr. R. Ramesh, Associate Professor & Head, CRI, NIRDPR: Words of thanks
Role of Development partners, CSOs and Pvt Sector for WASH in India
1. Welcome address
2. Keynote address and introduction to WASH issues prevalent and action taken by the Ministry of Jal Shakti
3. Release of conclave booklet as well as words of thanks

1.      Gillian Mellsop: Multi-generational poverty remains a concern due to poor or limited access to healthcare, quality education, and safe water, alongside challenges from climate change.
2.      Access to water and intersectionality between WASH, Education, Agriculture, Gender - Women spend over 200 million work hours in collecting water across the globe.
3.      Last-mile delivery of services to rural areas related to water supply, healthcare
4.     Shri Venkaiah Naidu: “Jal Hai, Jeevan Hai” – There is no life without water. I have seen the need for safe drinking water and sanitation for every village and community. Our forefathers worshipped rivers and water sources across the length and breadth of our country. 
5.      Providing safe drinking water and sanitation is a significant task owing to the size of our country, its population, the nature of the terrain

Key takeaways:
a) Solutions - Examples of what/where/how/who
1.      Decentralized initiatives through time-bound targets and ensuring sustainability of these initiatives by bringing Government departments, state representatives, civil society organizations, community-based institutions and most importantly, panchayats, onto a common platform.
2.       Ms. Gillian Mellsop: The Jal Jeevan Mission and Swacch Bharat Mission are a good opportunity to empower young children and women, and development through health, nutrition and child-protection programmes
3.      Shri Gajendra Singh Shekhawat: Extending universal access to safe water for all and ensuring that no one is left behind by ensuring Piped water supply to every household, with 7 states having coverage to 100% of the households 
4. Village action plans lay the foundation for participation and ownership at Panchayat level as part of the Jal Jeevan Mission
5. Government of India working with speed and scale to ensure WASH, housing, electricity, health facilities, and food for all – Shri
Shri Venkaiah Naidu: WASH and SDG 6 has a cascading effect on other SDGs
6. Good health and Well-being (3) and many other indicators for our nation. Good sanitation can save over 1 lakh lives every year. 
7. Important to focus on panchayats for efficient last-mile delivery of services to rural areas 
8. Community participation and participatory planning, resource mapping and knowledge sharing is important, with a focus on women in these processes.

b) The way forward or what needs to be done. (None mentioned in Inaugural ceremony)

1. Time-bound targets need change management, brought about by a group of stakeholders at central, state, civil society, and most importantly at Panchayat level
2. According to the 15th Finance Commission, recommended a grant of Rs. 2.36 lakh crores to rural local bodies and Panchayati Raj Institutions from 2021 to 2025. 
3. Gajendra Singh Shekhawat: WASH a national priority to enable rural local bodies with funds utilized exclusively for supply of drinking water, rainwater harvesting, water recycling, sanitation, management of solid and liquid waste (both greywater and blackwater), and maintenance of ODF status.
4. For sustainability of initiatives, focus on different verticals of financing budgetary provisions of centre and state governments, MGNREGA, CSR funds and other business models.
5. Cutting-edge technologies to advance WASH through sanitation facilities, geo-tagging of assets, IoT based sensors, data analysis, mobile applications, water quality monitoring systems and portable devices, etc.
c) Any specific points to be added to call to action? (None mentioned in Inaugural ceremony)
1. Shri Venkaiah Naidu: The plan to provide piped water supply would create huge demand for plumbers, electricians, mechanics 
2. Draw insights from Hub & Spoke models for decentralized and localized governance in Scandinavian countries – Denmark, and Sweden, for application in an Indian context.
3. Critical role of washing hands and observing hygiene. We should not lower our guard and must continue the practice of washing hands. Covid brought hand hygiene, which was a regular practice before, back into focus. “WASH forward. Work forward.”
Prepared by: Ashish Manjunath & Kshitij Pathak 
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Re: National WASH Conclave 2022

1.     Mr. Nicolas Osbert, Chief WASH, Unicef India (Moderator)
2.     Dr. G. Narendra Kumar, Director General, NIRDPR
3.     Dr. Chandra Shekar Kumar, Addl. Sec, Ministry of Panchayati Raj
4.     Mr. L. K. Atheeq, Pr. Sec., RD&PR, Karnataka
5.     Mr. Amit Shukla, Director, Ministry of Jal Shakti
6.     Mr R. V. Karnan, Collector, Karimnagar, Telangana
7.      Mr. V. K. Madhavan, Chief Executive, WaterAid


1. Several schemes and programs that has been introduced by multiple ministries and departments have made Water, Sanitation and Hygiene an important priority. 15thFC has earmarked 60 per cent of the tied funds for the purpose too. 
2. There are several challenges and bottlenecks to address for PRIs, in order to translate this vision into reality
3. There is a need to learn from best practices by several states and districts in this regard.
4. Civil society groups need to support the PRIs too, both on technical as well as social areas.


1. Capacities of PRIs are critical in order to realise the Important agenda of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene including the last mile and the most marginalised sections of the society, in an effective manner.
2. While demand side mobilisation has potential, there is need to strengthen the abilities of Panchayats to deliver quality services
3. VWSCs are yet to be emerge as a critical institution, as a village level public utility for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene services
4. Panchayats importantly lack expertise and technologies related to WASH services, especially areas like liquid waste management, wherein a lack of availability of expert services in scale too. 
5. Participation of departments related to water, sanitation and hygiene in PRI as well as gram sabha processes need strengthening- this is weak as of now, comparing with other departments.

Key takeaways:
a) Solutions- Examples of what/where/how/who
1. For capacity building, more networked institutions are necessary at the levels of districts and blocks. Enrolment of close to 2900 higher education institutions under the Unnat Bharat Scheme can be seen as an important step, wherein PRIs can seek support from such institutes.
2. Interlinkages with National Rural Livelihood Mission, National Skill Development Programmes are important for ensuring the achievement and management of the WASH programs at the PRI level.
3. Pathways for developing both individual as well as institutional capacities are important, as relying on just individuals alone may lead to temporary improvements, not necessarily to systems strengthening.
4. There should be clear roles and responsibilities for various actors around contributing and supporting the PRIs on various WASH issues.
5. A monitoring and accountability framework for PRIs and a proper understanding on the same can lead to improved delivery of services.

b) The way forward or what needs to be done.

1. There should be a state level policy and implementation roadmap as well as institutional strengthening for revamping and strengthening VWSCs as village level public utilities for WASH services.
2. Civil Society and to help PRIs in technological aspects, demand generation, last mile coverage and equitable/ inclusive service provision covering most marginalised sections of the society.
3. Integration of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene with health and disease containment is essential.
4. Interface of block Panchayats to be strengthened to ensure focus on all GPs of a given district
5. Ensuring the leadership of women is an action that need further strengthening
Prepared by: V R Raman, Policy Advisor, WaterAid India. 

Note: We are attaching the Menti meter audience profile for the Conclave.

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Re: National WASH Conclave 2022

The Handbook of the Conclave with details of each session and speakers is available here:
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Re: National WASH Conclave 2022

The National WASH Conclave 2022 was held from 23 - 25 February.  Its objectives were to bring the government and WASH sector players on a platform to. Over three days, participants and speakers:
  • Deliberated on sector approaches and strategies for improved and sustainable WASH services by Panchayats
  • Facilitated learning and sharing of best practices of various WASH programs for scaling up
  • Discussed and agreed on ‘Call for Action’ for advancing WASH in Panchayats by all sector players
This discussion thread consolidates the sessions, summaries and presentations.
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Re: National WASH Conclave 2022: Valedictory Ceremony & Closing Words of Thanks

1.     Dr.Roderico H.Ofrin, Representative, World Health Organisation – India (Special
2.     Mr. V.K.Madhavan, Chief Executive, WaterAid India (Summary of the Conclave)
3.     Dr. G.Narendra Kumar, Director General, NIRDPR (Call to Action and Way Forward)
4.     Ms. ViniMahajan, Secretary, MoJS (Valedictory Address)
5.     Mr. SunilKumar, Secretary, MoPR (Valedictory Address)
6.     Mr. NicolasOsbert, Chief of WASH, UNICEF India (Concluding Remarks)
7.     Ms MeitalRusdia, Chief, UNICEF Hyderabad Field Office (Concluding Remarks)
8.     Dr. R.Ramesh, Associate Professor & Head, CRI, NIRDPR (Closing Remarks)
9.     Mr.Venkatesh Aralikatty, WASH Specialist, UNICEF HFO (Closing Remarks)
Moderator - Mr. Salathiel. R. Nalli, Emergency & ClimateChange Manager, UNICEF Maldives

Session summary

Achieving SDG – 6 leading to a cascading effect on health and wellbeing Role of Panchayati Raj Institutions(PRIs) in last-mile delivery of services in rural areas and their capacity for effective utilization of public investment. The potential of JJM and SBM for transformative impact on addressing multi-generational poverty and for empowerment. Vulnerability to climate change and linked extreme weather events
1.     Perception of Panchayats as implementing agencies of government schemes and not as institutions of self-governance
2.     Inadequate investment in capacity-building of PRI and strengthening the Gram Panchayats (GPs) and Gram Sabhas
3.     Increase in demand for skilled personnel and insufficient human resources
4.     Challenge of adequacy and appropriateness of infrastructure, O&M in institutions
5.     Impact of the lack of menstrual hygiene facilities, and culture of silence around MHM and taboos
6.     Scale, economic viability, ease of maintenance, etc., especially with regard to SWM and LWM concerning sustaining of ODF status and achievement of ODF+
7.     Shift from considering WASH as an engineering problem to considering it as a social change process requiring participatory, inclusive, and decentralized processes
8.     Convergence between different departments for both JJM and SBM
9.     Conventional training solutions tend to be limited and the pedagogy needs change
10.  Need for clear standards & norms for WASH services, and data-gaps related to WASH in households, schools, health centres, Anganwadis, public facilities
11.  Need for monitoring and accountability framework to support PRIs in improved delivery of services
Key takeaways:
a) Solutions -
1.     Strengthening institutional capacities of GPs
2.     Capacity development requiring skilled trainers, robust training modules, techniques
3.     Clarity on roles, responsibilities of actors contributing and supporting PRIs. Support system for PRIs with technical support and information to help generate awareness
4.     Investment in building capacities of PRI representatives and strengthening GPs and Gram Sabhas
5.     Addressing skill gap at GP levels – WASH Corps, who are available, accessible, accountable
6.     Planning and design of WASH facilities and standards incorporating considerations of gender, social inclusion, and disabilities.
7.     Access to safe drinking water
8.     Safe management of child-faeces to be part of guidelines for ODF and supported through SBM 2.0
9.     Incorporating and emphasising the importance of hygiene and in JJM and SBM programmes
10.  Encouragement  of PRIs to facilitate O&M of WASH infrastructure
11.  Encouragement of locally designed and produced products for MHM with quality assurance and
safe disposal of menstrual products.
12.  Interlinkages with NRLM, National Skill Development programme, Unnat Bharat Abhiyan
13.  Integrating climate resilient WASH, Water Quality Monitoring, SWM, LWM, need &
maintenance of hand-washing facilities in GP Development plans
14.  Supporting SWM through behaviour change, DPs/Block level panchayats, SHGs and service
providers working in tandem
15.  Demystification and encouraging solutions that are decentralized with plans based on local
context for LWM
16.  Change management in perception of PHED/RWS of their roles and reimagining of
panchayats as rural utilities
17.  Broad-base participation, demand generation, equity and accountability as part of efforts
to strengthen Gram Sabha
18.  Integration of WASH service provisions with health and disease containment
19.  Need for a state-level policy and implementation roadmap to strengthen PRIs; service level benchmarks and key performance indicators and clear standards and norms for WASH infrastructure
20.  Encouragement and facilitation of Panchayats through appropriate policies to develop their
own sources of revenue, critical for any independent institution
21.  The participation of women and their leadership to be encouraged, supported, and enhanced
22.  A clear role for civil society organizations needs to be evolved – support PRIs in building their capacities, to provide technical support, generate demand, and facilitate last mile coverage and inclusive service provision
b) The way forward or what needs to be done.
1.     Capacity building in systematic and sustainable way to reach all GPs
2.     Continuous support to GPs through WASH Resource centre
3.     Adoption of Model bylaws
4.     Continual monitoring and taking corrective measures
5.     Operation and maintenance – generation of resources by Panchayats
6.     Involving SHG MEs for SWM and JJM maintenance though contracting out
7.     Overall improvement in Panchayat governance
8.     Services based Citizen-Water delivery as per service standards
9.     Convergence with Rural Development programs
The Union budget allots 60,000crores for this year towards Water and Sanitation. Complemented by grants from
the 15th Finance Commission, would amount to around 1,15,000 crores. We would additionally also have resources from the state governments
The following measures were stated by NIRDPR, to be undertaken at different levels:
Local Government (GPs) measures:
1.     Support GPs in developing participatory long-term and annual WASH plans integrated within the Gram
Panchayat Development Plan (GPDP) and ensure that same is reflected in
e-Gram swaraj portal.
2.     Enhance capacities of GPs,Village Committees and local WASH professionals which are adequately equipped, trained and incentivized for optimal performances on scaling up and sustaining comprehensive WASH service delivery.
3.     Support GPs in the promotion of revenue generation models around community sanitary complexes, solid and liquid waste, safe drinking water and other WASH services.
4.     Facilitate GPs to understand, adhere to and comply with service level benchmarks and the
professionalization of WASH services as per government guidelines.
5.     Support GPs in implementing regulations to protect the welfare and dignity of sanitation workers and incentive systems for VWSCs and water quality surveillance committees to sustain their interest, and engagement in the respective activities as per guidelines.
6.     Support GPs and Village Water and Sanitation Committees (VWSCs) to establish and implement a robust
water, sanitation, and hygiene monitoring system focusing on feedback loop to communities to promote WASH enlightened citizens, and grievance redressal mechanisms.
7.     Facilitate PRIs in integrating infection prevention and control through WASH services for COVID-19 and other transmissible diseases in all existing programs including safety protocols in Schools, Anganwadis and Health centers with a constant focus on
improving public health.
8.     Support GPs in developing and adopting context specific strategies and approaches to meet the special WASH needs of women, children, differently-abled persons, transgender communities and other vulnerable communities at household and institution level, ensuring that no one is left behind.
9.     Equip each GP with at least one trained technical resource person and trained local service providers to assist GPs in management of various WASH services.
10.  Support and engage GPs to take responsibility for WASH services in all institutions such as Schools, Anganwadis, health facilities and public places.  
District and Sub-District Measures:
1.     Activate district and sub-district Water and Sanitation committees, including WASH sub-committee in District planning committee for improved convergence and implementation.
2.     Establish effective systems for pooling financial resources for WASH from various sources of funds available at district, block and GP levels, including for collective multi GP efforts.
3.     Districts to identify and engage Sector specialists, Master Trainers, Government and Non-government support agencies to provide continuous handholding support to GPs.
4.     Hold regular trainings of field functionaries and frontline staff from relevant departments, Key Resource Centers, NGOs, etc., to facilitate GPs for effective implementation of WASH programs.
5.     Every district to establish WASH Helpline to provide services of technical hands such as masons, plumbers, pump operators and electricians and make them available to GPs.
6.     Undertake periodical district specific communication campaigns to create a Jan Andolan for WASH with the support of elected members, Media, Key Resource Centers, PRIs, CBOs, community leaders etc.
7.     Establish and strengthen Grievance redressal systems including strengthening of relevant Quality control units to address complaints.
8.     Support GPs in establishing flexible and performance based contractual processes to scale-up the engagement of WASH professionals and service providers — including Civil Society Organizations for the delivery, operation and maintenance of WASH facilities and services.  
National and State level measures:
1.     Prioritize the above measures for GPs and districts within Annual Implementation Plans and budgets, ensuring accountability for the same through adequate performance monitoring systems.
2.     Establish and apply comprehensive service level benchmarks and regulatory framework for WASH services in rural areas including institutional arrangements at national, state and district level for monitoring compliance.
3.     Orient officials of various Institutions and decision makers on change management with accountability for sustainable and equitable WASH services meeting the aspiration of communities, adaptive and innovative technologies, performance-based monitoring systems, identifying and addressing sector challenges/bottlenecks and solutions.
4.     Support capacity enhancement of all State Institutes of Rural Development and other training institutions/Key Resource Centers at state and district level for supporting training and handholding for WASH sector services as per Swachh Bharath Mission and Jal Jeevan Mission guidelines.
5.     Coordinate, support and facilitate the engagement of Civil Society Organisations to participate in WASH service delivery, focusing notably on their added value for community mobilization and for equity, leaving no one behind.
6.     Improve the coordination of state departments contributing to WASH services in communities, schools, Anganwadi centres, Health facilities and public places, ensuring clarity of roles and responsibilities, evidence-based joint programme reviews, and cross-learning initiatives informed by enhanced knowledge management and dissemination.
7.     States to ensure filling gaps on guidance needed for various WASH related initiatives at local level under Swachh Bharath Mission (Grameen), Jal Jeevan Mission and other programs.
8.     States to support the development of GP bylaws for management of Solid and Liquid waste and ground water, environmental safety, gender, equity, integrating COVID management, disaster and climate resilience as well as support to GPs in implementing the same.
9.     Conduct regular field assessment — including independent evaluations — to generate reliable evidence informing WASH programming and corrective measures for emerging issues and challenges. 
c) Any Specific points to be added to call to action?
1. Leveraging resources,unleashing creativity among the Communities and GPs for them to define and address priorities and ensure active participation.
2. Converge resources flexibly and efficiently including some schemes that go beyond WASH flagships and from the private sector stakeholders who can nurture the spirit of entrepreneurship. A market-driven approach to reach the last mile.
3. Continue to keep women and children at the centre of the conversation, and monitor the quality of what is being delivered.
4. Investing in innovation for SWM, LWM, water supply to become more resilient in the face of climate change, over-exploitation of resources and preventive wastages. Prioritizing the maintenance and repair of assets.
5. Capacity and awareness building to support WASH as behaviour change agent.

Video link:
Here is the video link for the National WASH Conclave'22 event : 
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