Public Toilets in freezing temperature (Jammu and Kashmir in India)

  • Bincy
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Public Toilets in freezing temperature.

What technologies are available to keep water from freezing? What technologies or solutions are available for keeping the water from freezing so that it do not solidifies in the storage tanks or the plumbing system of public toilets? What successful models are available? Can anybody advice me on this?
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  • JKMakowka
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Re: Public Toilets in freezing temperature.

Could you give us a bit more background information about your inquiry?

What one would normally do is of course install all the tanks and plumbing inside of the building (as opposed to the common practise in warmer places to have them outside), add a thick layer of isolation to the walls and if that isn't sufficient also install some sort of heating.
In most places a sun-faced frontage with large, but well isolating windows (double or triple layer glass) will heat up the building sufficiently during the day that it stays well above freezing temperatures during the night (given a good isolation).

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  • canaday
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Re: Public Toilets in freezing temperature.

Dear Bincy,

Freezing conditions are one excellent reason to consider UDDTs. I think the details in terms of dealing with urine under such conditions have been well worked out in Sweden.

As JKM said, please tell us more about the situation you are dealing with.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday

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  • Bincy
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Re: Public Toilets in freezing temperature.

Thank you JKM and Chris,
Our Public toilet facility called e-toilets(automated toilets integrated with sensor enabled systems for ensuring cleanliness and hygiene) are installed in a few places in Jammu and kashmir in India, where the temperature dips to sub zero. Our e-toilets have an overhead water tank in place and we have integrated our first stage of self washing system(under our BMGF grant) in these toilets on a trial basis. But the difficulty we now face is that the water freezes in the tank as well as through the plumbing system . So the flushing system and the self wash systems are not operational. We had done some insulated packaging outside the water tank. but it is found to be not effective.
Chris,
It would be great if you could throw more light on the UDDT in such situations

JKM,
The e-toilet occupies only 50 sq.ft space and they are unmanned standalone units. The water tank is therefore exposed to the extreme weather.

I have posted details about the features and functionalities of e-toilet. I would be happy to provide more details if you wish to know more.
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  • JKMakowka
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Re: Public Toilets in freezing temperature.

I assume it generally goes up to above freezing temperatures and is quite sunny during the day?
Under such conditions just adding isolation actually keeps the tank cool during the day, thus isn't really helping as you have noticed.

I suggest you look into green-house technology that was developed to prevent early spring freezing in Europe. For example there is a technology that consists of a dual-layer transparent foil which lets in sun during the day, but can be filled with soap-bubbles automatically to provide better isolation when it freezes.

But really any kind of solution that naturally heats up the system during the day and isolates it in the night should do the trick. Maybe just put the toilet (or tank) in a greenhouse?

Hmm, another alternative: For protecting fruit-tree buds from freezing a common technique is also water spraying. It will form a layer of ice, but the latent heat release of the water when turning into ice keeps the buds just above freezing temperatures. But I doubt this would work in this case.

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  • AquaVerde
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Re: Public Toilets in freezing temperature.

Dear Bincy,

As Julius already explained have at your toilet well insulating windows (double or triple layer glass) faced to the sun during the day. To heat up during day times building mass (foundation, walls and water tank). Have the water tank and pipework too inside the building and the tank direct underneath the roof. Have above the water tank a well insulating roof-window (double or triple layer glass) as part of roof facing sun during daylight.

Unfortunately in your case walls and roof made from tin (stainless steel), this would not functioning as the needed heating-"battery". forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-pr...ram-scientific-india

Furthermore, if the day-heating of mass of building by sun is not enough or in your case not possible: you may have at least during night time the water in the pipes slowly moving by an additional circulation pipe system (as warm-water system in larger houses have) by very small 12V water-pump, powered by small PV and robust PV-battery. Additional insulate your water tank, but the top should be insulated by glass (double or triple layer glass) to heat up your black water tank during day by sun.

Sorry this amendments (redesign) to cold conditions is not very cheap to do, if you have to change your nice stainless steel design from scratch. If you keep solutions simple and if not over-engineered, it would not be too expensive to make needed changes.

Let us know about your forthcoming's.

Greetings from the warm summer in Germany
Detlef

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  • F H Mughal
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Re: Public Toilets in freezing temperature.

Dear Bincy,

Attached is an excellent publication (WEDC: Out in the Cold), which should help you in your work.

The link is:

Out in the cold: Emergency water supply and sanitation for cold regions - 3rd edition (3rd edn); Author(s): Buttle, Mark | Smith, Michael

wedc.lboro.ac.uk/resources/books/Out_in_the_Cold_-_Complete.pdf

Regards,

F H Mughal

F H Mughal (Mr.)
Karachi, Pakistan

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  • Bincy
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Re: Public Toilets in freezing temperature.

Hi,
Thank you very much for the excellent and timely input. Though we may not be able to fully follow you, it would help our tech team to ponder over the solutions, which would suit our specific needs. Also, as you suggested we are currently reviewing our designs as well.
warm regards
Bincy
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  • Bincy
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Re: Public Toilets in freezing temperature.

Hi Mugal,
I am thankful for sharing that informative doc. As we have just ventured into developing toilets for extreme weather, this is helpful in a lot of ways. Our toilets have electronic components as well and so we are extremely sensitive about all weather related effects, which a normal toilet need not worry much.


Any info about waterless toilets produced n Germany, which burns the waste, and can work in extreme cold. Just commented by my R&D collegue, but I have no more info. Any clue on this?
warm regards
Bincy
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  • AquaVerde
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Re: Public Toilets in freezing temperature.

toilets produced in Germany, which burns the waste, and can work in extreme cold

comment: What a waste!

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  • christoph
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Re: Public Toilets in freezing temperature.

Hi Bincy,
I don´t have any idea what your collegue could have been thinking of. I´m not aware of anything that fits do the description

Any info about waterless toilets produced n Germany, which burns the waste, and can work in extreme cold.

.
Probably there is a missunderstanding but you might ask Wolfgang Berger (the german toilet specialist ( :evil: at least for me))

Yours Christoph
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  • JKMakowka
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Re: Public Toilets in freezing temperature.

Maybe this "reinvent the toilet" project was meant?
www.rti.org/newsroom/news.cfm?obj=EC9026...100-0C87415C9CAD0A95

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