Key documents for the sub-category on determining helminth egg quantities (measurement techniques)


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Key documents for the sub-category on determining helminth egg quantities (measurement techniques)

For more information about why we are creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category. It contains a recommendation and orientation for newcomers regarding the most important five documents and website links in this thematic area.

Recommended top five documents in the thematic area of "Determining helminth egg quantities (measurement techniques)", in reverse chronological order:

Jiménez, B., Maya, C., Velásquez, G., Torner, F., Arambula, F., Barrios, J. A., & Velasco, M. (2016). Identification and quantification of pathogenic helminth eggs using a digital image system. Experimental parasitology, 166, 164-172.

• The system identifies and quantifies seven species of helminth eggs.
• The system shows a specificity of 99% and a sensitivity between 80 and 90%.
• The time required to analyze each image is less than a minute.
• The system reduces the need for highly trained personnel for the identification of helminth eggs.

PRG (2013). Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) helminth tests (Ascaris, Trichuris and Taenia). Pollution Research Group, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

This document describes the standard operations procedures (SOP) for helminths test (Ascaris, Taenia). It includes scope and field of application, principals of laborartory testing, storage of samples, instructions about laboratory safety, apparatus, reagents and procedures.

Moodley, P., Archer, A., Hawksworth, D. (2008). Standard Methods for the Recovery and Enumeration of Helminth Ova in Wastewater, Sludge, Compost and Urine-Diversion Waste in South Africa. Report to the Water Research Commission (WRC), WRC Report No. TT322/08, South Africa

This manual has been developed to specify a standard analytical method for water and wastewater laboratories to recover and enumerate helminth ova in wastewater, sludge, compost and urine diversion waste. The method documented in this manual is an attempt at documenting a standard, simple and cost effective analytical method for South Africa for the recovery and enumeration of helminth ova.

Buckley, C., Foxon, K., Hawksworth, D., Archer, C., Pillay, S., Appleton, C., Smith, M., Rodda, N. (2008). Research into UD/VIDP (Urine Diversion Ventilated Improved Double Pit) toilets, prevalence and die-off of ascaris ova in urine diversion waste. Report to the Water Research Commission by the Pollution Research Group, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

The current minimum standing period of the UD (urine diverting) toilet vault is one year. In order to ascertain whether this time period is safe for removal and handling of UD solid waste, reliable estimates of the egg load in the waste after a one-year standing period are needed. A study was undertaken to investigate the natural viability and die-off of Ascaris spp. ova in the UD solid waste, using the AMBIC (ammonium bicarbonate) protocol.

Jimenez-Cisneros, B. E. (2007). Helminth ova control in wastewater and sludge for agricultural reuse. Water and Health in: Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK

This paper presents useful information for environmental and sanitary engineers concerning: (a) the general characteristics of the helminth ova; (b) the common helminth ova genus found in wastewater and sludge around the world; (c) the reason why common water and sludge disinfection methods are not effective at inactivating helminth eggs; (d) the main removal and inactivation mechanisms, (e) the processes that in practice have effectively removed or inactivated helminth ova and (f) how its content is measured in wastewater and sludge.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here:

Wikipedia page on measuring helminth egg quantity:, see in particular the section about measurement techniques for helminth eggs (needs more work!):

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Milli and Elisabeth
Danijela Milosevic
M.Sc. Environmental and Resource Management
Gießen, Germany

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