Key documents for the sub-category on UDDTs at schools (urine-diverting dry toilets)


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Key documents for the sub-category on UDDTs at schools (urine-diverting dry toilets)

For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category. It contains a recommendation and orientation for newcomers regarding the most important five documents and website links in this thematic area.

Recommended top five documents in the thematic area of "UDDTs at schools (urine-diverting dry toilets)", in reverse chronological order:

Panesar, A., Roach, E., Wendland, C., Wienpahl, I., Schlenk, J., Toetzke, J. (editors) (2015). Making WASH in Schools more Sustainable (Volume II). Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA), Eschborn, Germany

This publication is the second volume of "Making WASH in Schools ore Sustainable". Similar to Volume I, it showcases various approaches, both practical and innovative, to provide sustainable WASH solutions in schools around the world. The stories are not limited to the construction of water and sanitation systems but also show how these systems are operated and maintained through active involvement of pupils, teachers, cleaning staff and community members.

Some of the projects presented in this document (and in Volume I ) deal with UDDTs at schools.

Pynnönen, K., Tuhkanen, T., Rieck, C., von Münch, E. (2012). Two years after donor funding ended: Success factors for schools to keep their urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) clean and well maintained. 4th International Dry Toilet Conference, Tampere, Finland

Nine schools were selected and visited in Nyanza and Western Provinces in Kenya in early 2012 in order to evaluate the performance of urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs)implemented between 2008 and 2010. Results indicated that benefits gained from the UDDTs were an important factor for ongoing motivation and success: the new UDDTs were in principle preferred to the old pit latrines in all the monitored schools, as they are comfortable to use, clean, not smelly and there was no risk of collapse of the toilet structure.

Wendland, C., Deegener, S., Jorritsma, F. (2011). Experiences with urine diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) for households, schools and kindergarten in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA). Published in EcoSan Club Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) Issue 6, Article 3, pp. 16-22, Ecosan Club Austria

This paper presents experiences with the implementation of urine diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) in the EECCA countries. In total 960 individual, 50 school and kindergarten and 7 public UDDTs have been implemented. Experience based indications are given related to the success factors for acceptance of the individual toilets and for school sanitation projects.

Deegener, S., Wendland, C., Samwel, A., Samwel, M. (2009). Sustainable and safe school sanitation - How to provide hygienic and affordable sanitation in areas without a functioning wastewater system. Examples from Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia. Women in Europe for a Common Future (WECF), The Netherlands, Germany, France

Compared to conventional toilets, UDDTs offer the possibility to explain the pupils in combination with the hygiene education the inter-linkages between ecology, agriculture, nutrient- and water-cycles. Through its pilot demonstrations of school toilets, WECF has shown that the situation can be improved with fewer financial resources compared to the installation of flush-toilets. No infrastructure such as central water supply or sewerage system is needed for the operation of the UDDT.

Ingle, R., Rieck, C., von Münch, E. (2009). Experiences with Ecosan Systems to provide Sustainable Sanitation for Schools in Kenya and India. Paper presented at the 3rd International Dry Toilet Conference 2009, Tampere, Finland

Several ecosan school projects from Kenya and India are described in this paper namely two school pilot projects within the EU-Sida-GTZ Ecosan Promotion Project in Kenya and several projects in India implemented by the Ecosan Services Foundation and various other actors. In all these projects, a sense of ownership and constant capacity development exercises are crucial factors in their success.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here: Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection?

Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
Freelance consultant on environmental and climate projects
Located in Ulm, Germany
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