Surveys on Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

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  • Alix
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  • PhD student in Urban Sanitation Looking at regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge in LMIC
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Re: Surveys on Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

And the paper on the Inventory of regulatory practices is out too! 

Regulating sanitation services in sub-saharan africa: An overview of the regulation of emptying and transport of faecal sludge in 20 cities and its implementation
Onsite sanitation is widely used in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) cities. Safe transportation and emptying of the resulting faecal sludge are essential for healthy cities. Typically provided by an informal and unmonitored private sector, these services are being increasingly regulated. This research provides an overview of the regulatory mechanisms in place in 20 cities across SSA, their implementation and emerging common trends. Findings highlight the diversity of tools, mechanisms, and capabilities. We conclude that incremental and pragmatic change is needed to achieve fully regulated services, with adequate implementation particularly facilitated by support and incentive mechanisms, and participation of all stakeholders.

Unfortunately it's not open-access, but it's free access until 4th January 2022 following this link. 
authors.elsevier.com/a/1e52D_LmuDm%7ECq

I'd be happy to get feedback and discuss the results.
Thanks again to everyone who participated / helped reached participants!

Best, 
Alix
Alix Lerebours
Doctoral researcher
WEDC
Loughborough University, UK

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Re: Surveys on Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Dear Susana members, 
Thank you again for contributing to my research. 
I am in the process of publishing my results, and will share them as they become available. 

A first paper has now been published, and is open-access: iwaponline.com/washdev/article/11/5/785/...on-the-regulation-of

Private emptiers' perspectives on the regulation of faecal sludge emptying services in Sub-Saharan Africa
Using a two-round Delphi study, 15 faecal sludge emptiers from 11 cities in Sub-Saharan Africa have expressed views on the regulation of faecal sludge emptying services. Their responses identify the regulatory mechanisms in place where they operate, their opinions of these mechanisms, and prioritisation of those considered most useful to enable safe emptying services for all urban residents. All respondents (100%) support regulation, with 80% finding the regulation they encounter useful. However, all also state that regulatory mechanisms should extend beyond only rules and sanctions, to incorporate support, incentives and pro-poor mechanisms. This study is the first to provide a first-hand account of Sub-Saharan African private emptiers' willingness to accept clear regulation. In that regard, regulation should be flexible and adapted to the context in order to facilitate fair competition, safe and satisfactory service for customers and workers alike, and to alleviate the public and environmental health risks.

I'd be happy to answer any question!

Best, 
Alix
Alix Lerebours
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WEDC
Loughborough University, UK

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Re: Surveys on Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hi Chaiwe, 
Thanks for the message.
I have collected data and am now in the process of publishing the results. I'll post here the papers once they are available. 
I will also present some of my results at FSM6 and WEDC conferences.

Also, on your question of literacy level. We expected that, due to the data collection tool, there would be a bias in the emptiers reached by the survey and it was indeed the case. We used emails and whatsapp to disseminate it mostly, even calling some emptiers to ask them the questions directly over the phone.
As we collected some information about the emptiers who answered this survey, I can say that our respondents were mostly from medium- and large-sized companies, and mostly mechanical emptiers. It's clearly a limitation, but the results are still interesting.
I'm looking forward to sharing them!

Best, 
Alix
Alix Lerebours
Doctoral researcher
WEDC
Loughborough University, UK
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Re: Surveys on Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hello Alix,

The results of the survey should make for a good topic of discussion. It has been a while since your post, however, do you have an update to share?

I also wondered back then how you managed to survey operators who in most cases do not have access to internet technologies and in most cases have low literacy levels. How did you go about it? 

Regards,
Chaiwe
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Chaiwe Mushauko-Sanderse BSc. NRM, MPH
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  • Alix
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Re: Surveys on Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hi everyone, 
Here is a short update on the surveys I am running on the regulation of emptying services.

The inventory of regulation practices in cities in LMICs is receiving some attention (14 answers from 10 different countries). I'm missing many countries in Central and West Africa and South-East Asia. If you're able to share the situation in a specific city or country (or know someone who can), follow the link below. It only takes 10-15min and you can share relevant documents.
lboro.onlinesurveys.ac.uk/inventory-of-r...or-emptying-services
 
I am also running a questionnaire for emptying operators in Africa. I have received valuable answers but the response rate is still limited. If you know any emptier, please let me know or send them the following link: I've decided to leave them open for longer. The new deadline is 15th of July!

Thanks!
Alix
Alix Lerebours
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WEDC
Loughborough University, UK

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  • Alix
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Thank you both for your inputs!
Alix Lerebours
Doctoral researcher
WEDC
Loughborough University, UK

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  • rochelleholm
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hi Alix,
Best of luck with your research.    For regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge in Malawi please check out these two documents:

*Holm, R. H., Tembo J. M. and Thole, B. Pit latrine emptying, a comparative analysis of Malawi and Zambia. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2015, 9:11, pages 783-792. DOI: 10.5897/AJEST2015.1971  www.academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/a...bstract/3FDFCF655722

Abstract:

This review paper covers the issues of pit latrine emptying national policies and regulations with a focus on Malawi and Zambia. With 2.4 billion people worldwide still lacking improved sanitation facilities, developing countries need to look at policy, regulation and practice for household sanitation service provision with a new lens. What happens “next,” when improved sanitation facilities eventually become full? An emphasis on faecal sludge management has multiplied this important issue in the past few years. The authors compare the pit latrine emptying situation in Malawi and Zambia with a focus on status, challenges and opportunities. To build this comparison, a desk review of national policies, local regulations and peer-reviewed journal papers was conducted. The paper concludes that existing national policies and regulations taking faecal sludge management into account are weak and have wide gaps in the two study countries. For the future, it is recommended, first, that household pit latrine emptying should be seen as an opportunity to address national sanitation gaps and, second, national policies and regulations need to be evaluated and updated. 


*Holm, R. H., Kamangira, A., Tembo, M., Kasulo, V., Kandaya, H., Gijs Van Enk, P. and Velzeboer, A. Sanitation service delivery in smaller urban areas (Mzuzu and Karonga, Malawi). Environment & Urbanization, 2018, 30(2), pages 597-612. DOI: 10.1177/0956247818766495  journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0956247818766495

Abstract:

This paper assesses the provision of sanitation services in two urban areas in northern Malawi, both with populations under 150,000, to determine the potential for private sector enterprises to contribute to longerterm self-reliance as part of the overall sanitation situation. The paper shows that most households in the two study areas use pit latrines and remain unserved with regard to both faecal sludge management and solid waste removal. Local governments have been unable to offer adequate coverage of sanitation services, and community-based organizations are doing very little that is relevant to the issue. This gap offers a viable business opportunity for private sanitation service providers. Of these two urban areas, Karonga Town has no formal private sector services, but Mzuzu City has pit emptying and solid waste collection services, plus some small-scale manufacturers of pre-made pit
latrine slabs. The paper explores these activities, considering their accessibility to low-income customers. It closes with suggestions regarding the potential for building on what is currently available.



Rochelle Holm
Rochelle Holm, Ph.D., PMP
Mzuzu (Malawi)

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  • Chaiwe
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hello Alix,

Kindly look through the attachments within this thread:  forum.susana.org/194-cities-planning-imp...-dar-es-salaam#27887 .  
The content shared during the City-city knowledge exchange visits to Kampala and Tanzania detail Tanzania's prevailing regulatory frameworks and intended plans.

If you require some contact information to assist you further, do not hesitate to let me know.

Chaiwe
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Chaiwe Mushauko-Sanderse BSc. NRM, MPH
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  • Alix
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hello Chaiwe, 

Nice to read you!
Thanks for sharing and for your support.

Would you have additional information from Tanzania or a document to share?

Best, 
Alix
Alix Lerebours
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WEDC
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hello Alix,

It is great to see that you are making headway with your PhD research. I had the privilege of looking at some details you had shared a while ago and found your research objectives particularly interesting for many countries within the African context. For example, Zambia has recently developed a by-law on onsite-sanitation and a new regulatory framework on onsite-sanitation (2018), Uganda was ahead in this process and now Tanzania is following closely behind. The institutional frameworks and other enabling factors now have to be well consolidated to ensure that these new laws and regulations are implemented.  

I think your research and many of its kind offer necessary insights into what is possible and what bottlenecks exist. Therefore, it would be great if you could continue to provide us with insights into your outcomes.

You might already have seen this document: Urban Onsite Sanitation and Faecal Sludge Management: Framework for Provision and Regulation in Zambia, but I will share the link none-the-less for others that may not have but are following this topic:  www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resource...library/details/3327  

EXTRACT:

In developing the framework for provision and regulation of urban onsite sanitation services, the National Water and Sanitation Council of Zambia (NWASCO) was mandated to facilitate and coordinate the consultative process under the Ministry of Water Development, Sanitation and Environmental Protection (MWDSEP).

The objective of this publication is to assist in the creation of a regulatory framework for onsite sanitation and faecal sludge management that supports the proper functioning of an integrated management system covering the whole sanitation chain. The regulation of service provision will ensure that faecal matter generated in onsite facilities is effectively contained, collected, transported, treated and disposed of in a safe manner to protect public health and the environment.

Regards,
Chaiwe
SuSanA Forum Moderator
Skat Foundation (With financial support by GIZ and SIRWASH up to November 2023)

Chaiwe Mushauko-Sanderse BSc. NRM, MPH
Independent consultant located in Lusaka, Zambia
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  • Elisabeth
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Hi Alix,
I am just wondering if the publication discussed in this thread on  Institutional arrangements for regulating non-sewered sanitation (NSS)  is relevant for your work? If so, you might like to provide some inputs into the discussion there.

I wonder if we are making it harder for people to find stuff by using similar terms for the same thing, i.e. FSM (faecal sludge management) and now NSS (non-sewered sanitation).

Regards,
Elisabeth
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  • Alix
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Re: Regulation of emptying and transport services for faecal sludge (pits and septic tanks)

Thank you Paresh and Elisabeth.
I'll check out the links you provided.

Yes, I went through the Susana Library (although I probably missed interesting things, there is so much!). I already have some information and documents about initiatives in the Philippines, Zambia, Senegal, South Africa, some in India... 
I know regulation of sanitation is currently a hot topic among governments and development agencies / organisations. However, there is not much academic research published on it, so I'm hoping to gather enough information to start the trend.

Regarding the SFD posts, I worked for the SFD Project. My PhD is not directly related, although some elements of the SFDs are feeding my research and knowledge of sanitation planning.

Best, 
Alix
Alix Lerebours
Doctoral researcher
WEDC
Loughborough University, UK

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