Industrial wastewater is a major challenge in processing industries. In fact, some processing projects have not been implemented due to the high costs or difficulties associated with their industrial wastewater treatment. Large-scale environmental initiatives have taken place in many countries, resulting in strict environmental regulations on industrial wastewater discharge. While operators may have installed industrial wastewater treatment systems to meet local regulations when built, they needed expensive upgraded programs to meet new challenging limits and tighter regulations introduced later. Some could not even reach those tight limits after vast modifications.
Industrial wastewater usually contains a range of organic and inorganic matters in varying concentrations. Many materials are toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic or almost nonbiodegradable. This means that the wastewater also contains a range of substances that cannot be easily degraded.
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