Key documents for the sub-category on Behaviour change and user psychology issues

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  • Elisabeth
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Key documents for the sub-category on Behaviour change and user psychology issues

For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/10-gen...d-sub-category-level

++++++++++++++

This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category.
It contains a recommendation for new people regarding the most important five documents in the thematic area of "Behaviour change and user psychology issues".

The selection of documents was based on advice by Tracey Keatman and by Hansi Mosler. Note the documents selected are mainly focused on maintaining ODF (open defecation free) behaviours - except the publication by Mosler - see also the comment at the end of this post.

We are open to feedback if others think that other documents or links should be selected here.

Recommended top five documents in the thematic area of "Behaviour change and user psychology issues", in reverse chronological order:

(1)
Neal, D., Vujcic, J., Hernandez, O., Wood, W. (2015). The Science of Habit - Creating disruptive and sticky Behavior Change in Handwashing Behavior. USAID/WASHplus Project, Washington D.C., USA
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2380

In this white paper, we unpack the role that the “psychology of habit” plays in explaining why the success of handwashing interventions focused only on reflective drivers may be short lived. We also recommend specific ways to leverage habit, creating more “disruptive” handwashing behavior change that is maintained over time. Hygiene-related behaviors are prime candidates for habit formation because they involve relatively unconscious “reflexive” actions that are triggered automatically by familiar contextual cues. These are key features of habits. Indeed, evidence shows that simple context cues, such as the physical availability of soap and the presence of other “nudges” (such as a conveniently located handwashing station) can be powerful determinants of whether people maintain handwashing behaviors over time.


(2)
Cavill, S., Chambers, R., Vernon, N. (2015). Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights. Sustainability and CLTS: Taking Stock (Issue 4). CLTS Knowledge Hub at the Institute of Development Studies (IDS), Brighton, United Kingdom
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2179

Sustainability is one of the most burning subject matters that subsumes many of the issues in CLTS. In the issue, some priority areas for learning are identified: How to phase in sanitation marketing; Post-ODF engagement of government, NGOs, donors and others; How to ensure equity and inclusion; How to transform social norms; Monitoring, learning, changing.


(3)
Contzen, N., Mosler, H-J. (2015). Compilation of methodological fact sheets on behavior change. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), Dübendorf, Switzerland
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2397

These six fact sheets about methodologies deal with the RANAS (Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self‐regulation) approach that is an often used method for designing and evaluating behavior change strategies. The factsheets contain a brief description of the approach ready to use for practitioners


(4)
Mosler, H.-J. et al. (2015). Compilation of intervention fact sheets on data-driven behavior change. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag), Dübendorf, Switzerland
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2396

These five fact sheets about interventions present case studies from Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, and Uganda and show the effects of different strategies that were applied in order to achieve behavior changes.


(5)
O’Connell, K. (2014). What Influences Open Defecation and Latrine Ownership in Rural Households?: Findings from a Global Review. World Bank, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) Working Paper, Washington DC, United States
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2362

The programmatic approach combines Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), behavior change communication, and sanitation marketing to generate sanitation demand and build up the supply of sanitation products and services at scale. This Working Paper is one in a series of knowledge products designed to showcase project findings, assessments, and lessons learned through WSP’s Scaling Up Rural Sanitation initiative.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here:
Behavior change is a huge topic in public health. The selection here is focussing on two behaviors that are regarded as critical in the WASH sector: changing from open defecation to toilet use; and handwashing (is this too limiting? Are there others?).

We had in the past identified key documents in those two particular areas of behaviour change already (but not with a focus on psychology issues), namely:
Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection? We can update it from time to time.

Regards,
Elisabeth
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  • F H Mughal
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Re: Key documents for the sub-category on Behaviour change and user psychology issues

(edit on 7 Dec by moderator: the document mentioned in this post has now been included in the list of five key documents)

Dear Elisabeth,

I came across a WASHplus publication, titled:

The Science of Habit - Creating Disruptive and Sticky Behavior Change in Handwashing Behavior

The 24-page publication is attached. The abstract reads:

Handwashing with soap is a highly effective method for reducing the risk of diarrheal disease, yet interventions to alter this behavior often fail or achieve only short-term success. In this paper, we propose that the “science of habit” can partly explain the challenge of handwashing behavior change. Integrating basic science insights from psychology, cognitive science, and behavior change research, we propose six principles for creating greater initiation and maintenance of handwashing change. For each principle, we outline the supporting science and provide examples of potential tactical implementation in field settings. In addition, we highlight ways in which habit thinking can be integrated with interventions that focus on more reflective, conscious drivers of change such as knowledge, social norms, and strong emotions.

Regards,
F H Mughal
F H Mughal (Mr.)
Karachi, Pakistan

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  • Elisabeth
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Re: Key documents for the sub-category on Behaviour change and user psychology issues

Thanks, Mughal! This looks like an excellent publication; it is brand new as well. I hadn't yet seen it before.
Here is also the URL for it:
www.washplus.org/resources/reports/2015/...icky-behavior-change

I have added it to be one of the 5 key documents for our "sticky post".

I am planning to send an e-mail to the SuSanA Working Group 12 (nutrition) mailing list later today to ask for their opinions, too. I was actually wondering which of our working groups has the most interest in behavior change. It could be Working Group 4 (as it includes hygiene in the title), but I think it's more likely WG 12 as nutrition has a lot to do with behavior change, hygiene and handwashing. Perhaps one day, we should clarify this better in our working group structure and their descriptions.

For people who are new to SuSanA: please see here information about the 12 working groups (WGs) of SuSanA:
www.susana.org/en/working-groups/overview

Regards,
Elisabeth
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Re: Key documents for the sub-category on Behaviour change and user psychology issues

Thanks Mughal & Elisabeth to share this excellents references on behaviour change!
I notice that the Amma campaign, mentioned on "The science of habit" excellent publication, is based on Evo-Eco behaviour change theory from the Hygiene Centre, LSHTM (ABC methodology, already mentioned by Elisabeth). Please, add it on the top 5 (or 6!) documents in the thematic area of Behaviour change and user psychology issues!

Regarding the question of which working groups has the more interest in behaviour change, I'm quite sure that almost all groups have an interest in this issue of behavioral change because it is a means to achieve access to sustainable and appropriate sanitation and public health. Why not keeping this thematic transversal (it is already in a thematic discussion serie)?
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Re: Key documents for the sub-category on Behaviour change and user psychology issues

Dear Claire,

Thanks for your input. What exactly do you mean by the Amma campaign? Is there a document that you have in mind or should we link to a project website? I am a bit confused.

About the other issue on which SuSanA working group should be the main "champion" for behavior change, I will start a new thread on that shortly, so we can discuss it further there.

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Elisabeth
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Re: Key documents for the sub-category on Behaviour change and user psychology issues

(edit on 6 Jan. 2016 by moderator: the documents mentioned in this post have now been included in the list of five key documents as number 3 and number 4, respectively)

Dear all,

these documents are really valuable for implementation. However they do not contribute to our understanding of behavior change (with the exception of ours). By this I mean that we need to know which behavioral factors in the mindsets of people have to be changed to realize behavior change.

CLTS is successful but we do not know why and therefore we do not understand why CLTS works in some cases and in others not. What does CLTS change in the mindsets of people? Is it perceived social pressure, evoked disgust, or shame that changes in mindsets when attending a CLTS session?
These questions remain for all our interventions the same: which behavioral factors do we have to tackle to achieve behavior change?

Our RANAS approach (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-Regulation) gives a methodology at hand with which the decisive behavioral factors can be determined and then the matching behavior change techniques can be selected. In the attachment you will find a brief description of the approach ready to use for practitioners (Methodological Fact Sheets). I also added some fact sheets about successful interventions with the approach (Intervention Fact Sheets).

All the best, Hans


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Prof. Dr. phil. et dipl. zool.
Hans-Joachim Mosler
Eawag, Environmental Social Sciences
Environmental and Health Psychology
Überlandstrasse 133
CH-8600 Dübendorf / Switzerland

www.eawag.ch/en/department/ess/main-focu...th-psychology-ehpsy/

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Re: Key documents for the sub-category on Behaviour change and user psychology issues

www.superamma.org/

(in response to Elisabeth's question above:

What exactly do you mean by the Amma campaign? Is there a document that you have in mind or should we link to a project website?

)
Hanna Woodburn
Acting Secretariat Director
Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing
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@WASH_Hanna
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Re: Key documents for the sub-category on Behaviour change and user psychology issues

Kindly include these 2 documents in the list.

These are from WASH Behaviour Change Research that highlight the critical aspects of self perception barriers and low aspirational status - emerging from low caste, class and ethnicity - often overlooked by western researchers.

1. Formative Research on Behaviour Change in WASH :  http://indiawashforum.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Sanitation-Behaviour-Change-Formative-Research-2016.pdf
2. Behaviour Change in WASH Research :  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268147261_Formative_Research_on_Sanitation_and_Hygiene_Behaviours_Current_Status_Knowledge_Attitudes_Barriers_and_Enablers
Depinder Kapur is a senior Development and WASH expert and is currently leading the Sanitation Capacity Building Platform of National Institute of Urban Affairs in New Delhi that is focussed on non sewered sanitation systems( scbp.niua.org). He has worked with AKRSP, SPWD, CARE(Director NRM), Oxfam(Program & Advocacy Director), WaterAid India(Country Head) and WSSCC(National Coordinator).

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Re: Key documents for the sub-category on Behaviour change and user psychology issues

Hi Depinder,
Thanks for pointing out those two publications from India which you co-authored. They are both already in the SuSanA library in this entry which is great:  www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resource...library/details/2989

So they are part of the key documents because they will come up when users search for documents containing the keywords "behavior" or "behaviour" in the SuSanA library.

I don't recommend including them in the Top-5 though (see post from 27 Nov 2015 in this thread; scroll up or down) because the Top-5 are supposed to be of broad, general significance, maybe dealing with a range of countries but not specific to just one country. It's five years ago though since I created that list so it would be good to update it with new publications if they're available and better than the existing ones.

Also note that I want to keep it to 5 maximum. So if we want to add more, we need to remove some from the Top-5. Which ones would we want to replace with which newer ones? I'm open to suggestions.

Regards,
Elisabeth
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Re: Key documents for the sub-category on Behaviour change and user psychology issues

Hi Elisabeth and Group 13 coordinators,

I can only recommend that atleast one of the 2 documents i have shared - preferably the Formative Research on WASH Behaviour Change 2016 report - that should be included in the top 5 documents for the Behaviour Change Group.

Because it is based on original research that identified "self perception and low aspiration as core barriers to WASH Behaviour Change". That this is not there in any WASH Behaviour Change "top 5" documents. Most of which are generic knowledge pieces and dated. 

Yes you are right I had shared these 2 documents earlier as well and I expected some response from Group 13. Since that has not come and in the spirit of De colonisation of WASH knowledge - I am making this suggestion again. My interjection in April 2020 for making the Capacity Development Group more inclusive bore fruit in June 2020 thanks to the BLM movement and the advocacy from Euphresia. 

It should be the job of the Working Group on Behaviour Change - Group 13 - to review the 2 documents I have shared for including in the top 5 documents. If there are better research/documents then fine, but request that what i have submitted is atleast considered and the old top 5 list updated anyway. 
Depinder Kapur is a senior Development and WASH expert and is currently leading the Sanitation Capacity Building Platform of National Institute of Urban Affairs in New Delhi that is focussed on non sewered sanitation systems( scbp.niua.org). He has worked with AKRSP, SPWD, CARE(Director NRM), Oxfam(Program & Advocacy Director), WaterAid India(Country Head) and WSSCC(National Coordinator).

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Re: Key documents for the sub-category on Behaviour change and user psychology issues

Yes, I agree with you, Depinder. This should be a job for the Working Group 13 leads. I'll alert them to this thread.
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Re: Key documents for the sub-category on Behaviour change and user psychology issues

Dear all,
Thank you for your great insights. I do fully agree that we need to review the top 5 recommended documents and prioritise based on current science and emerging evidences into the sector. Ideally, the top 5 documents should at least cover the following areas within behaviour change: 
- Science behind behaviour change - 1
- How to conduct formative research (identification of behavioural determinants, motives, barriers, touch points) - 2
- How to design behaviour change intervention package (such as documents related to creative process to design the hygiene intervention package) or learning from effective behaviour change programme - 3
- How to effectively deliver behaviour change programme (it can be learning from scale implementation of the programme within WASH or integration into health, education, nutrition or private sector) - 4
- How to effectively monitor and evaluate  behaviour change interventions - 5

Thank you for the suggestions from various colleagues already. We will review the existing documents and suggestions. We will review, amend / upload the top 5 documents soon.  

Regards
Om
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