Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme - Studies and Assessments in several cities in Tamil Nadu, India

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Re: Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) -Technical Support Unit

Note by moderator: The answer by Gayathri was deleted by mistake, I have copied it back here:

Dear Mr. Guruswamy,

Thank you for your keen interest in our programme, which is well demonstrated by the range of questions you have posed.
Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) launched in 2015 aimed at achieving improvements along the entire sanitation chain in the state of Tamil Nadu by demonstrating innovations in two model locations as well as enabling state-wide scaling up. Indian Institute for Human Settlements (IIHS) leads a Technical Support Unit (TSU) that has been set up within the Municipal Administration and Water Supply Department, Government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF).

A two-pronged approach was adopted
1. Demonstration of innovation in two urban locations
• Trichy, a partially-sewered large city that needs Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) solutions as a complementary solution to become 100 per cent sanitation secure
• Periyanaicken-Palayam (PNP) and Narasimhanaicken-Palayam (NNP), a cluster of two small towns, that will use FSM as a stand-alone solution to demonstrate clustering of towns
2. Implementation of state-level policies and actions to support rapid scaling-up of innovations in all urban areas of the state by creating a state-wide enabling environment at the state level through policies, requirements and budgetary allocations.

Activities undertaken during phase I include
1. Conducting specific studies in Trichy, PNP and NNP across the sanitation chain, findings from which have informed the programme.
Access - Public/ Community Toilet Assessment in Trichy, PNP and NNP and Slum Vulnerability Assessment in PNP and NNP
Containment- Mapping of Households and containment systems in PNP and NNP and Storm Water Drain Pollution Study in Select Catchment Areas in Trichy, PNP and NNP
Collection and Transportation - Desludging Operators Study in Trichy, PNP and NNP
Treatment - Assessment of Fecal Sludge receiving facilities for Co-treatment in Trichy and Assessment of Waste Stabilisation Ponds in Trichy

2. Assistance to the GoTN in implementation of key projects: This included conducting feasibility studies, identifying key challenges and bottlenecks, developing risk mitigation and implementation strategies, engineering design and planning of projects and project management.

3. Capacity building through orientation/ training programmes on FSM for Government officers, engineers, desludging operators and masons

4. Developing a Behavioural Change Communication strategy to define the overall approach for behaviour change of multiple stakeholders. For implementing the strategy, various audio-visual tools have been developed and were used extensively during various training programmes. In addition, a range of behavioural change communication activities have been done in schools and for general public in Trichy, PNP and NNP.

5. Developing a Muzhu Sugadharam Information System to collect relevant data on septage management at the ULB level based on the Operative Guidelines on Septage Management. Towards this a Muzhu Sugadharam (MuSu) app has been launched which assesses the current state of the ULBs with respect to different parts of the sanitation chain and will also track progress overtime.

6. Documenting a range of studies (baselines, scoping study, assessments etc.) and lessons learnt from project planning and implementation

An Advisory Committee (AC), chaired by the Principal Secretary, Municipal Administration and Water Supply (MAWS), plays an important role in monitoring, reviewing and guiding the programme at the state level. In addition, there are working groups at the district level as well. Programme activities in Trichy are done in partnership with Gramalaya, and those in PNP and NNP are done with Keystone Foundation and CDD Society is the technical partner.

In terms of scoping, the broad programme approach for TNUSSP Phase I was defined by the Operative Guidelines on Septage Management issued by the GoTN in September 2014 and the Scoping study which was conducted by IIHS (which you have referred to).

The issuance of Operative Guidelines on Septage Management set the context for uptake of Fecal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) services. However, while the state had issued guidelines, operationalising it at the level of urban local body (ULB) required a higher degree of buy in. For one, network based system was being perceived as an ultimate solution. Secondly, FSM did not have a working demonstration model which could be easily related to. Thirdly, FSM was one among the many priorities which Government officers had to juggle with.

TNUSSP-I persisted with multiple approaches to help decision-makers start looking at FSSM as possible and good solutions for Tamil Nadu. This took time, but using a combination of advocacy material and events, exposure visits (domestic and international), capacity building and powerful communications, some of the key decision-makers at the state level as well as in ULBs, started looking upon FSSM solutions as possibilities to move forward with. Efforts during phase I have helped achieve a state of preparedness for the approaches tested to be scaled up to have significant and lasting impact on urban sanitation in Tamil Nadu.

GoTN identified Karunguzhi, a town panchayat in Kanchipuram district to demonstrate FSSM by constructing a Fecal Sludge Treatment Plant (FSTP). Operational since 2017, the plant has a treatment capacity of 23.4 kilo litre per day and serves the needs of Karunguzhi and the adjacent municipality of Madhuranthagam. The FSTP has been developed as an educational and resource centre.

GoTN moved forward on implementing the Operative Guidelines on Septage Management by developing a state-level strategy along with a State Investment Plan (SIP). Under this, the state and the UL) will be primary financiers for decanting stations and FSTPs. Increased treatment coverage is to be achieved by utilisation of existing treatment capacities and clustering. Co-treatment has been mandated at all Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) across the state. Towards this existing treatment capacities in 41 STPs across 69 ULBs will be leveraged and a cluster approach would be used to optimise utilisation. Further, new treatment capacities are planned through FSTP with GoTN passing order for construction of 49 FSTPs in 2018.

TNUSSP-II (2018-2020) aims at strengthening the institutional capacities for promoting inclusive sanitation in urban areas in Tamil Nadu, specifically aiming at gender sensitive interventions and aiming to improve access for urban poor. In parallel, it seeks to demonstrate measurable improvements in the full cycle of sanitation by up-scaling Fecal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) and non-sewered sanitation solutions state wide, as well as in select urban locations.

The key activities being carried out in this phase of the programme are:
• Technical Assistance to ULBs/ regional entities such as preparation of sanitation plans, assessment of techno-managerial systems, Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) and creation of fundable projects
• Improvement in Sanitation Treatment Facilities
• Model for Promoting Regulated De-sludging
• Leveraging Resources and Influencing Schemes and Projects
• State wide scale-up of capacity building initiatives by partnering with government and private organisations to conduct trainings
• Knowledge management and peer-to-peer learning by systematic documentation from the Tamil Nadu project
• Community Engagement
• Improvement of Public and Community Toilets building on the initial assessments done in phase I
• Enabling Environment and Governance

AC set up in phase 1, continues to guide the programme and is supplemented by a State Working Group which comprises of officers who are operationalising FSM and coordinates across various departments. The second phase builds on the lessons learnt from Phase I:
• Number of diagnostic studies conducted on the entire sanitation chain and on various stakeholders will be used in Phase II to design strategies for each component in the chain.
• Two different kinds of urban locations that represent the two most significant typologies in the state for scaling up - one a large Class I city that is partially sewered; and second, a cluster of smaller town panchayats were chosen in phase 1. Based on the experience in cities, the team will develop different models, including a cluster approach that can implemented in different ULB classes.
• Upon completion of FSTPs, requisite processes and documents will be put in place to enable the government to establish and maintain FSTPs.

At the state level, Muzhu Sugadharam Information System helps monitor progress on operative guidelines while at the programme level we have an overall results framework which is used to monitor progress.

Our website is the key mode through which we disseminate knowledge, while also leveraging out facebook and twitter accounts to disseminate outputs and engage with stakeholders. In addition, we regularly publish in various portals and our events and outputs are covered by the Indian press which is also linked up on the website.

All the data collected during the course of study are compiled as analytical reports, while GIS data collected is used for programme planning and implementation.

In addition to the few reports you have referred to, a range of knowledge products are uploaded on the site, which include strategy documents, practice briefs, reports, project apps, training material, and laws & regulations. Further, audio-visual outputs developed and apps & tools developed have also been uploaded. Please do take a look at the range of products that are available now. We do plan to continuously upload more knowledge products as they are finalised.

I once again thank you for your keen interest in our project and apologise for the delay in responding.
Thank you
Gayathri

++++++++++++

Dear TNUSSP Rep.
My well wishes to your program and remain sustained for community benefit.
At the outset of your intention on Phs 1 and 2, suggest you have all initiatives

1. To make use of wastes as resources.
Viz.
Re use water ex effluent from wwtp for secondary uses- industrial water, irrigation for agrivfarms, urban parks and gardens.
Solid sludges co composted to evolve soil nutrients and for barren -space developmnt for future farms.
Urban landfills to create primary process for rural farms.
2. To have all facilities taking care of wastes to be aesthetically attractive for ULBs to emulate practices at all spaces.
ULBs to be rewarded for all good deeds,

Well wishes for great progress in future .

Prof Ajit Seshadri .
Prof. Ajit Seshadri, Faculty in Marine Engg. Deptt. Vels University, and
Head-Environment , VigyanVijay Foundation, Consultant (Water shed Mngmnt, WWT, WASH, others)Located at present at Chennai, India
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Re: Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) -Technical Support Unit

Dear TNUSSP Executive- Ms. Gayathri,

Continuing my post on providing information to communities on natural treatment of waste water - sewage and septage mixed flow, in open drain to a water body.

The logistics is that a community of 100-120HH average 5 persons ( 500- 600 px) use around 80-100 Litres per day per head , amount to around total flow of sewage 50- 60 kl,

In the flow anerobic tanks are done, similar to septic tanks, followed by similar tanks with boulders and stones, and it flows in single stream to a pond- water body.

In the water body, floats are provided with plants - elephant grass. Intended to be used as feed for dairy, poultry and others.
The plants and its foliage in floats are duly harvested.

One SHG takes care of the produce- greens, to be given to another SHG on a commercial basis, on payment.
Other SHG takes care of commercial produce of dairy- milk, others, poultry- eggs and others,

All these are done on compliance tests, Health and hygiene standards are maintained.
All the above practices are sustained, and communities are maintained satisfactorily.

Similar practices as indicated are generally planned to be carried out by an Ngo at Delhi.
This example can be applied with due variance, in your sites at TN.

Well wishes,
Prof Ajit Seshadri, Chennai
Prof. Ajit Seshadri, Faculty in Marine Engg. Deptt. Vels University, and
Head-Environment , VigyanVijay Foundation, Consultant (Water shed Mngmnt, WWT, WASH, others)Located at present at Chennai, India
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Re: Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) -Technical Support Unit

Dear Prof. Seshadri

Thank you for both your posts. Your detailed suggestion on providing information to communities on natural treatment of wastewater is indeed very useful and has been shared with our team.

We would like to thank you for your good wishes and look forward to continued engagement with our programme.

Best regards,
Gayathri
Consultant- Knowledge Management
Tamil Nadu Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP)
Indian Institute of Human Settlements (IIHS)
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Re: Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) -Technical Support Unit

Ms. Gayathri.
TNUSSP- TSU.

Respected Madam.

I am very pleased of your appreciative gesture.
I shall thank you to feel free to be in touch for any requirements,in this regard.
With well wishes for doing good in communities.

Prof Ajit Seshadri. Chennai. INDIA.
Prof. Ajit Seshadri, Faculty in Marine Engg. Deptt. Vels University, and
Head-Environment , VigyanVijay Foundation, Consultant (Water shed Mngmnt, WWT, WASH, others)Located at present at Chennai, India
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Re: Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) -Technical Support Unit

I spotted an interesting presentation that was made by people from the TNUSSP project at the FSM5 Conference in Feb 2019:

Emptying and De-sludging Practices - An Occupational Safety Needs Assessment Study

by: Mamta Gautam, Mamta Mantri, Rajiv Raman, Kavita Wankhade, Srinithi Sudhakar
fsm5.susana.org/images/FSM_Conference_Ma...nal-Safety-FSM-5.pdf

Some content from the presentation:

Rationale and Objectives
• In-depth analysis of current de-sludging practices (including measures
for occupational safety) to understand resultant safety and health
hazards for desludging workers
• Understand the underlying reasons (knowledge, behavior etc.) for
occupational practices and existence of hazards
• Understand the relevance and sufficiency of legally-mandated Personal
Protective Equipment (PPE) and understand challenges for usage
• Develop a set of preliminary set of recommendation for improvement of
Occupational Safety Standards (OSS)




Regards,
Elisabeth
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Re: Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme - Studies and Assessments in Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India

The Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP), launched in 2015 aims to achieve improvements along the entire urban sanitation chain in the state of Tamil Nadu in India by demonstrating innovations in two model urban locations - Tiruchirappalli city and Periyanaicken-palayam and Narasimhanaicken-palayam town panchayats in Coimbatore district. TNUSSP also implements state-level initiatives to support rapid scaling-up of innovations in Fecal Sludge Management in all urban areas of Tamil Nadu. 

Tiruchirappalli: Studies and Assessments

Tiruchirappalli, a major city corporation in Tamil Nadu, is a partially sewered city that is implementing Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) solutions to become 100 per cent sanitation secure. It has been ranked among the top few cities in India with improved sanitation since 2010. As a demonstration city, approaches and challenges from Trichy will provide the basis for state-wide scaling up in other city corporations. It has also been selected for the City-wide Inclusive Sanitation (CWIS) programme. 



Various diagnostic studies were conducted to understand the state of sanitation in Tiruchirappalli (Trichy), which
are presented below.

An Assessment of Community and Public Toilets in Tiruchirappalli

This report presents the findings of a rapid assessment survey carried out across 400 community and public toilets in Trichy to assess their current state and understand the various models used for their operations and maintenance. 

Link to report


Desludging Operators in Tiruchirappalli: An Overview

Trichy is serviced by nearly 30 private desludging operators and few urban local body-owned trucks. This report presents their business models, operational practices and challenges based on in-depth interviews.

Link to report  

Sanitation Situation Assessment: Tiruchirappalli

This report examines Trichy’s sanitation situation through a comprehensive understanding of existing sanitation arrangements and highlights key deficiencies that can be addressed by a proposed action and investment plan.

Link to report

Sewage and Fecal Sludge Treatment in Tiruchirappalli: Current Status, Proposed Plans and Recommendations for Improvement

An assessment of the coverage of sewerage network and the effectiveness of the Panjapur Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) in Trichy  for existing and future loads was carried out. The implications of the proposed extension of the sewer network were studied, with respect to the existing and proposed sewage treatment facilities. Institutional arrangements for operations and maintenance of the network, decanting stations, and STP were also studied. This report presents the findings of the assessment along with an action plan, outlining clear prioritisation, based on a cost benefit analysis.

Link to report

Assessment of Fecal Sludge Decanting Stations in Tiruchirappalli

The Sewage Treatment Plant at Trichy has been used to co-treat fecal sludge. An assessment was carried out at the
decanting stations in the city to check the adequacy of existing facilities, identify areas of improvement, and develop a methodology to assess the feasibility of converting pumping stations to fecal sludge receiving facilities. This report elaborates on the findings and recommendations of the study.

Link to report

For more about our work:  Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme | Home (muzhusugadharam.co.in) 
Consultant- Knowledge Management
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Indian Institute of Human Settlements (IIHS)
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Re: Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme: Studies and Assessments in Periyanaicken-Palayam and Narasimhanaicken-Palayam, Tamil Nadu, India

The Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP), launched in 2015 aims to achieve improvements along the entire urban sanitation chain in the state of Tamil Nadu by demonstrating innovations in two model urban locations – Tiruchirappalli city and Periyanaicken-palayam  (PNP) and Narasimhanaicken-palayam (NNP) town panchayats in Coimbatore district. TNUSSP also implements state-level initiatives to support rapid scaling-up of innovations in Fecal Sludge Management in all urban areas of Tamil Nadu. 

Periyanaicken-palayam and Narasimhanaicken-palayam: Studies and Assessments

Periyanaicken-palayamNarasimhanaicken-palayam
There are 528 Town Panchayats in Tamil Nadu, and the Government of Tamil Nadu has decided to implement FSM as a standalone option in these towns. Based on a scoping study, PNP and NNP are two contiguous town panchayats chosen as demonstration
ULBs by the Government of Tamil Nadu to demonstrate Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) as an economical and effective means to attain total sanitation and also provide a basis for state-wide scaling up.
 
Various diagnostic studies were conducted to understand the state of sanitation in PNP and NNP, which are presented below.

City Sanitation Plan: Periyanaicken-Palayam

 PNP is one of the cluster towns selected for implementing fecal sludge management in Tamil Nadu. This document presents the City Sanitation Plan for PNP curated from the sanitation situation analysis which included identifying major components of sanitation (water supply, stormwater drainage and solid waste management), related gaps and issues, and possible
solutions. 

Link to report 
[/b]
City Sanitation Plan: Narasimhanaicken-Palayam 
NNP is one of the cluster towns selected for implementing fecal sludge management in Tamil Nadu. This document presents the City Sanitation Plan for NNP curated from the sanitation situation analysis which included identifying major components of sanitation (water supply, stormwater drainage and solid waste management), related gaps and issues, and possible solutions.

Link to report 
Assessment of Community and Public Toilets in Periyanaicken-palayam and Narasimhanaicken-palayam

 This assessment of Community Toilets and Public Toilets in PNP and NNP aimed to profile the facilities in terms of their existing infrastructure, waste management practices, operation & maintenance practices and also understand user perspectives. The findings provide an overview of these facilities along with the
gaps and identify potential ways of addressing them.

Link to report 
[/b]
Desludging Operators in Periyanaicken-palayam and Narasimhanaicken-palayam: An overview

 Safe collection and disposal of fecal sludge is a critical component of FSM in which desludging operators play a central role. Consultations were conducted with desludging operators to understand the current desludging practices, business models, regulatory and policy framework within which they operate, along with their working conditions, issues and challenges in desludging and disposal. This report summarises the findings of the consultations and offers suggestions for streamlining desludging operations. 

Link to report 
Sanitation Situation in Periyanaicken-palayam and Narasimhanaicken-palayam: Access, Containment and Emptying
 A geographic information system (GIS)-based sanitation mapping of households and establishments in PNP and NNP was undertaken to understand the nature of containment and on-ground de-sludging practices to enable effective planning. It also included the preparation of a GIS-linked database of households and establishments covering key FSM parameters. These spatial and non-spatial inputs which support the Town Panchayats in effective decision-making across the sanitation chain are presented in this report.

Link to report 
Scoping Study on Menstrual Hygiene Management in Periyanaicken-Palayam and Narasimhanaicken-Palayam
 Improper disposal of menstrual waste is a notable challenge in Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM). TNUSSP conducted a scoping study in four slums in PNP and NNP to understand and address the issue of MHM among adolescent girls and women residing in slums or slum-like informal settlements. This report presents the findings of the study. 

Link to report 
Vulnerability Assessment of Slums in Periyanaicken-Palayam and and Narasimhanaicken-Palayam

 To understand the vulnerability of the slums, all 11 slums in PNP and NNP were profiled using a range of indicators including location, migration, housing, water, sanitation, drainage, electricity, demography, and health-seeking behaviour, among others. This assessment helped categorise and prioritise slums in terms of their vulnerability, and design and implement programmes for their improvement.
 
Link to report 
[/b]
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Indian Institute of Human Settlements (IIHS)
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Re: Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme - Studies and Assessments in several cities in Tamil Nadu, India

Dear Gayathri,
Thank you for sharing this inspiring and  interesting set of work here and elsewhere ( here and here  for example) 

From your posts, we know that TNUSSP has been supporting towns in Tamil Nadu since 2015 and success stories are already emerging. It would be great if you could tell us about the similarities and  variations (if any) observed across towns by geography and/or size, how the work areas were identified in each town (do they vary in each town?) and how it has evolved over the years. 

Thanks
paresh
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Re: Creating an Enabling Environment for Fecal Sludge Management: Baseline and Engineering Studies

The Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) launched in 2015 aims to achieve improvements along the entire urban sanitation chain in the state of Tamil Nadu, India by demonstrating innovations in two model urban locations – Tiruchirappalli city and Periyanaicken-palayam  (PNP) and Narasimhanaicken-palayam (NNP) town panchayats in Coimbatore district.

Towards implementing the programme in Tamil Nadu, and model urban locations, baseline and engineering studies were conducted. Further, additional studies to inform the programme was carried in non-typical terrains. The entire range of baseline and engineering studies conducted are presented below. 

Tamil Nadu State Baseline Study: Technical Assessment of Sanitation Chain
 TNUSSP carried out a baseline study in 36 urban local bodies across seven different agro- climatic zones to develop an understanding of the sanitation situation across the various region in the State of Tamil Nadu. Surveys and interview with a range of stakeholders - household members, masons, public toilet and community toilet operators, desludging operators, treatment facility operators and farmers informed this study, the findings of which are presented in this report. 

Link to report 

Suitability of on-site Sanitation Systems across Tamil Nadu
On-site sanitation systems (OSS) remain the dominant household arrangement across the state of Tamil Nadu for urban sanitation. Given that these OSS are spread over different hydrogeological zones, factors such as aquifer systems, soil drainage characteristics,  groundwater levels and flood hazard areas have a bearing on their suitability.

A study was undertaken for the state of Tamil Nadu to understand how these factors collectively determine the suitability of OSS systems. This report presents the findings of this study.

Link to report 

Baseline Studies for Urban Sanitation: Tiruchirappalli, Periyanaicken-palayam, Narasimhanaicken-palayam
 Baseline studies were undertaken in Tiruchirappalli city, PNP and NNP town panchayats with an aim to profile households, establishments and schools in these locations in terms of their arrangement for toilets, existing containment types, collection, conveyance, and disposal mechanism along with water supply and waste management arrangements. The findings from the study provide an overview of the gaps across the sanitation chain in the study locations and help in programme planning and implementation.

Link to report 

Kilakarai Baseline Study for Urban Sanitation
 Kilakarai is a coastal town in Ramanathapuram district of Tamil Nadu. TNUSSP carried out a baseline study in Kilakarai municipality to understand the current situation of access to sanitation and  arrangements made for fecal sludge management in households and establishments. The findings from the study provide an overview of the gaps and challenges across the sanitation chain in Kilakarai. 

Link to report 

Kodaikanal Baseline Study for Urban Sanitation
 Kodaikanal is a town in the hills of Dindigul district in the state of Tamil Nadu. TNUSSP carried out a baseline study in Kodaikanal municipality to understand the current situation of access to sanitation and arrangements made for fecal sludge management in households and establishments. The findings from the study provide an overview of the gaps and challenges across the sanitation chain in Kodaikanal.
 
Link to report 

Compendium of Innovative Technologies for Urban Sanitation
 This is a Compendium of technology options for various components in the urban sanitation chain. This Compendium is contextual to the geographic and economic conditions for the state of Tamil Nadu and aims to provide the user with a broad range of innovative sanitation systems and technologies that can be implemented on the ground.

This document is designed to act as a reference guide and decision support tool for technical professionals of the urban local bodies, sanitation practitioners, and urban planners to select the appropriate technological intervention.

Link to report 
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