Biogas from ABR

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  • AquaVerde
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Re: Biogas from ABR

Dear Anthony and dear All,

Party-Filter?


at: www.aqua-verde.de/page4.php?view=preview&image=63&category=6

Filtration of suspended solids (TSS) by effluent filter. This filter is part of the outlet of septic tank and sits inside tank. Original developed by Mr. Zabel (USA) www.zabelzone.com/Technical.html in the 50's to protect septic tank filtration systems against clogging by suspended solids. For the CWs we use it since 2009 for "policing" CWs against clogging. Mr. Maik HERRMANN of Aqua-Nostra CW-company used it first in Germany and called it "Police-Filters". The overflow from suspended solids from septic tank to CW occur most during party's and their high water consumption and "releasing" by guests. A funny female government officer told me after this explanation: " Aha, Mr. Schwager you have also "Party-Filters...". I like her funny idea more them dull "Obama-Filters". In other words if you run many parties without protecting the CW against suspended solids from septic tank, it will clog (colmate) over some time.

from Zabel's web page:

" It is thought that the combined action of the bio-mat growing on the filter discs, the improved effectiveness caused by the retention of the nutrients in the tank, and the reduction of organic solids in the effluent stream achieve these results. The higher concentration of nutrients and increased action help the tank remain fully functional even in cold weather climates."

Zabel effluent filters
Outlet filters (effluent filters): Effluent filters are a device that replaces the common outlet baffle. They are designed to trap and filter particles that are suspended in the liquid in your septic tank and prevent them from being flushed out into your leach field where they can clog the soil and cause an early failure of your field. We use either Zabel or Polyloc effluent filters. Both filters have a proven and documented history of performance and will provide an improved effluent quality that will promote a long field life. The cost of the filter and installation are gotten back by simply having your field last just one year longer than it would have without a filter. An effluent filter can save you thousands on a costly field replacement.

How the Zabel Filter Works
The Zabel Filter performs two primary functions n a septic system installation. It retains the solids in the tank and lowers the BOD (biological oxygen demand). This retention of solids and reduction of BOD's markedly improves the quality of the effluent and assists in the protection of the ground water.

The retention of 90% of the solids in the tank is achieved three ways.

First, all particles larger than 1/16" b]1.6 mm[/b are mechanically filtered as they attempt to move through the filter and leave the tank.

Second, the filter dramatically slows the velocity of the effluent over the disc dam allowing the particles that are negatively buoyant to fall to the bottom of the tank.

And third, particles attach themselves to the bio-mat growing on the filter discs. Anaerobic organisms cause the particles to disintegrate, lose their buoyancy, and fall to the bottom of the tank.


Field reports show BOD's have been reduced 45% or more.

It is thought that the combined action of the bio-mat growing on the filter discs, the improved effectiveness caused by the retention of the nutrients in the tank, and the reduction of organic solids in the effluent stream achieve these results. The higher concentration of nutrients and increased action help the tank remain fully functional even in cold weather climates.

Modulating Flow:
The flow Reducer Plate allows the engineer to predetermine the maximum outflow allowed into the dispersal system and thereby control the retention time of the tank. In most residential systems this is not an issue, but is important in some commercial applications.

Servicing the Filter:
The filter is virtually self cleaning. The continued action of the anaerobic organisms on the filter discs causes lodged particles to disintegrate and fall to the bottom of the tank. The filter usually only requires servicing at the normal inspection and pumping intervals required of a standard septic installation. Because the filter does not require an increase in the frequency of tank pumping or inspection, access to the tank does not have to be modified from the standard septic tank installation. A riser and lid are not required by the manufacturer.


"Field reports show BOD's have been reduced 45% or more."
This marketing-information I would not buy straight... I would check it several times by independent colleagues.

Up to now, I experienced with the narrow 0,4 mm slots of Party-Filter in last camber of ABR a higher level of suspended solids level, them in first camber (see above photo), same in ordinary 3-cambers septic tank. Without Party-Filter this "stopped" suspended solids would end up in the CW and will clog the CW over long time accumulation.

BORDA started to use this very simple Party-Filter in "their" ABRs in Afghanistan too, to protect effluent filtration.

On the mentioned catalog of DEWATS projects with high level of information akin to that presented in BORDA's Guide, unfortunately I can not help, but maybe others like Mr. N. Zimmerman and Mr. H-P Mang or BORDA or EWAG/SANTEC by them self. I am searching on this too, I am interested in successful tropical experiences on simple sewage "multistage biogas plant" like an ABR is in combination with CHP. But as well I am interested in unsuccessful experiences as they are very important, them only from own mistakes and from others you can really learn.
Like our children do so :) (si dye vle)

All the Best
Detlef
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  • Anthony
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Re: Biogas from ABR

Hi detlef,

Thank you for your enthusiastic marshalling of this discussion, i never expected to learn about constructed peatlands or bouncy-castle ABRs, but what is a große Party filter? (see aquaverde in thüringen).

It is great to see such an active community of researchers of ABRSs, DEWATS, Anaerobic Digestion, and everything in between. i wonder however if there is a catalogue of DEWATS projects from around the world, showing a level of information akin to that presented in BORDA's Guide to DEWATS (2009)? I am working on such a catalogue in Haiti, but the projects are 'pure' biodigester projects, i.e. no ABR's yet in service.

I will of course update the forum on the ABR Project which kickstarted this discussion, as it goes to site next month (si dye vle).

Best wishes to all,
Anthony
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Re: Biogas from ABR

Hi Anthony,
You started this discussion on Biogas-ABRs (HRARs)...
I am interested to hear from you and about possible upcoming results on ABRs.
Take care
Detlef
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Re: Reply: Biogas from ABR

FYI: nice explanations of anaerobic processes in relation to multistage ABR = HRAR technology

www-Source BALKWASTE: www.wastedb.eu/index.php?option=com_cont...=2&Itemid=21&lang=en
...the anaerobic fermentation of biowaste can be operated by one-stage or two-stage fermentation.

In the one-stage process (Table8) all fermentation stages (e.g. hydrolysis, acidification, acidification and methanogenesis) take place in one reactor; therefore, optimum reaction conditions for the overall process are not achieved, due to the different environmental requirements during the various stages of the fermentation. Therefore, the degradation rate is reduced and consequently the retention time increases. The basic advantage of one stage process operation is the relatively simple technical installation and operation of the anaerobic digestion plant, whereas the costs are lower.

In two-stage processes (Table8), the hydrolysis and acidification- acidification take place in one bioreactor, while methanogenesis is carried out in a separate reactors thus providing flexibility to optimize each of these reactions so that e.g. mixing and adjustment of the pH can be optimized separately, permitting higher degradation degrees and loading rates. In two-stage processes the retention time of the substrate is significantly decreased. However, such systems involve more sophisticated technical design and operation and subsequently higher costs.
In the first [stage] reactor, organic fraction is hydrolyzed producing dissolved organics, organic acids, CO2 and low concentrations of hydrogen. The reaction rate in the first reactor is limited by the rate of hydrolysis of cellulose.
In the second stage the highly concentrated water is supplied to an anaerobic fixed-film reactor, sludge blanket reactor, or other appropriate system where methane and CO2 are produced as final products. In the second reactor the rate of reaction is limited by microbial growth [methanogenesis] (Verma, 2002).


The ABR = HRAR is basically a simplified two-three-stage biogas reactor having not the disadvantage of more sophisticated technical design and operation and subsequently higher costs, as above mentioned. The ABR is a multistage biogas reactor with intentional simplifications, in order to achieve a higher overall robustness by accepting some efficiency droppings.
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Re: Reply: Biogas from ABR

Dear Nancoz,
Why not keeping us all informed on the subject via this forum?
This forum is living from open discussions and exchange of ideas...

I checked out your Autark Engineering company web page autark-engineering.ch : Congratulation! You and your colleagues put the ABR (CH: Schikanereaktor) in the right order, as the KEY (core treatment) as it is my own "belief" to do so too. See my little "try and errors" with some very small ABRs (6-30 pe) still without using biogas and ventilating methane to the atmosphere as all the septic tanks do so: www.aqua-verde.de/page4.php?view=thumbnailList&category=6

By my guessing + under our "cold" conditions, the use of biogas will be "possible" starting by 200 p.e.. The Engineer from BORDA Mr. Sasse said 1998s min. 20 m3/d and COD 1000 mg/l. What is your experiences under "our" cold conditions? The anaerobic treatment steps (Hydrolysis/Acidogenesis/Acetogenesis/Methanogenesis) need different pHs, Temperatures and HRT/SRT, How you "steer" this (keeping all systems simple as possible, by intention), just by different camber geometries and probably different heating temperatures for each camber?

All the Best
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Re: Reply: Biogas from ABR

Dear Antony

I saw your discussion on the plattform. I am a consultant for decentralized ww treatment and reuse systems, with special focus on anaerobic reactor technology. If you like mail me your questions regarding settler, ABR, ... on my email, I can help you.

Best Regards

Nanchoz Zimmermann Autark Engineering AG ipad email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
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Re: Reply: Biogas from ABR

Welcome Mr. Born, :)
I am very happy you are joining this open discussion forum on the ABR-subjects.

Would you advice your suggested "drum in drum solution for collecting the gas" as well for each ABR-compartment, e.g. from 2 to 4?

Have a nice holiday.

All the Best
Detlef SCHWAGER
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Re: Reply: Biogas from ABR

Dear Anthony,

why don't you use a drum in drum solution for collecting the gas for further applications (cooking, lighting etc.)

Best regards Jens

-- Prof. Dr. Jens Born CATS Green Process Engineering Flensburg University of Applied Sciences Kanzleistr. 91-93 D-24943 Flensburg

Phone: +49 461 805 1293 FAX: +49 461 805 1394 Cell: + 49 179 6855498 skype: jens.born

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. URL: http:\cats.fh-flensburg.de
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Re: Biogas from ABR

I started a new thread with the idea here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/35-bio...ilter-digesterq#5231

Lets continue only the ABR discussion here.

P.S.: A sustainable peat mining for such uses might actually improve the protection of peat areas which are otherwise in threat of draining for agricultural production in many areas of the world and drained peatlands are one of the largest non fossile-fuel sources of CO2 in the athmosphere.
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Re: Biogas from ABR

Thanks very much Julius,
Now I got you/it, You are very resourceful! :) If a next opportunity will come up I will try out a "constructed peat filter" a CP (Torf). You are heading in the right direction, maybe some more CPs will come up beside well known CWs !

Maybe for small decentralized wwtps (KKA)in an environmental sensitive area a gravity system like this could do it without permanent energy input: vented improved septic tank (ABR) as shown here
http://www.aqua-verde.de/page4.php?view=preview&category=6&image=58
connected to a much smaller CW after that a CP is doing the "rest".

On a large scale I would not recommend peat as the peat areas are important for the environment.

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Re: Biogas from ABR

AquaVerde wrote: Dear Julius, the studies are very interesting indeed, maybe "Methan-eating system" like those connected to a purposely simplified DEWATS will make it too complicate!?


Well, it is all speculation right now as the growth limiting factors of that bacterium are not understood yet. But potentially this could actually further simplify a DEWATS system, as I hinted at with the "constructed peatland" idea.

Edit: Ah, learned something new today: It seems like intermittently loaded aerobic peat-filters are actually already used to treat septic-tank effluents: www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/naturalresources/dd7669.html
www.envirolink.govt.nz/PageFiles/173/121...eatment-Gisborne.pdf
But if one properly understand the biology of those (including those methan-using bacteria) they could be probably improved further by developing a partially micro-aerobic version.
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Re: Biogas from ABR

Dear Colleagues,

The capturing of gas from brick made digesters is depending very much on the quality of plastering workman ship, which is often changing. Keeping this in mind I agree, it is much more difficult to get the ABR compartments real gas-tight. Therefor using prefab fiberglass systems seems to me will have at least an advantage to this problem, but will be to the disadvantage of local workers.

Have a look on the Malaysian study, in the first larger compartment of ABR during hydrolysis there is no Methane production and no need of gas capturing. Keeping the gases in plastic compartment separate is not very difficult. The 3 last compartments of ABR might have a simple gas storage above made from robust plastic textile. Gas pressure by digester will be enough to run a cooker and/or gas boiler even as a permanent flare. Without gas storage you will have better security too.

Is it financial not feasible to ship in the short-term a prefab to Haiti? Having one imported lively example running well, will generate in the long-term many "copy and paste" by local entrepreneurs in a positive sense.

On Methane you are just right on the numbers, but this would mean as well we have to stop all the old anaerobic septic tanks around the world and rotting of biomass in the forests. Taking this subject just by numbers further each cow "used" for industrialized meat production would need a flare ;-) Ruminant livestock e.g. cows can produce 250 to 500 L of methane per day. You may compare this possible Methane venting by improved septic tanks (ABRs) to the atmosphere with the rather "new business" the "Fracking" around the world, just watch GASLAND GASLAND
You are doing environmentally more good them harm if you generate some kind of better live to 2,600 pupil and their teachers by cleaning their daily business via biogas production.

By the way we have the same discussions on the same issue in Germany too. In my opinion just to distract us from the real environmental problems and polluters to the atmosphere and food chain.

Dear Julius, the studies are very interesting indeed, maybe "Methane-eating system" like those connected to a purposely simplified DEWATS will make it too complicate!?

All the Best
Detlef
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