What happened to Rural Sanitation Promotion?

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  • Depinder Kapur is currently Senior Fellow at Shiv Nadar University, as Faculty in the Masters in Water Science and Policy Course.
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What happened to Rural Sanitation Promotion?

What happened to Rural Sanitation promotion? Seeing rural sanitation as a toilet construction challenge is shortsighted certainly but what about behaviour change theory and practice? 

A decade ago, Community Led Toilet Sanitation(CLTS) Approach was lauded as the way forward for community and individual behaviour change, ultimately leading to creating demand for toilets, their construction and use in rural areas. It was tested/applied in India, South Asia but also Africa, Middle East, you name it, everywhere and anywhere.

In India, the CLTS approach was used sparingly, first subsumed by the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan in 2008-09 that offered collective village/block/district level rewards and individual household subsidy for toilet construction. Later from 2015 the Swachh Bharat Mission offered an even more attractive individual subsidy for toilet construction and we were officially ODF in 2019.

How have South Asian Countries and African countries managed with CLTS?
The WSP report of 2011 had the following to say about a scale up strategy that was going global :
"The World Bank, African Development Bank, Asian Development Bank, and UNICEF are financing further scale up of the programmatic and service-delivery models in Indonesia and Tanzania, and governments and development partners in Laos People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), Madagascar, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Ghana, and Uganda have begun to replicate and adapt this approach. "

How have these countries fared with CLTS as a rural sanitation promotion strategy? Is it better than the Indian experience of not applying incentives and subsidies?
Depinder Kapur is a Senior Fellow at Shiv Nadar University, Delhi. He has lead the Sanitation Capacity Building Platform(SCBP) of National Institute of Urban Affairs learning, research and advocacy on decentralized and non sewered sanitation( scbp.niua.org). His professional engagements have been with AKRSP(Program Officer Forestry), SPWD(Sr. Program Officer), CARE(Director NRM), Oxfam(Program & Advocacy Director), WaterAid India(Country Head) and WSSCC(National Coordinator) and as an independent consultant.

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  • depinder
  • depinder's Avatar
    Topic Author
  • Depinder Kapur is currently Senior Fellow at Shiv Nadar University, as Faculty in the Masters in Water Science and Policy Course.
  • Posts: 120
  • Likes received: 60

Re: What happened to Rural Sanitation Promotion?

Can someone from African countries please respond. Will be good to hear how CLTS has contributed to scaling up of toilet use in rural and urban areas.

The experience of India has been of a mix of several approaches, not just CLTS. 
Depinder Kapur is a Senior Fellow at Shiv Nadar University, Delhi. He has lead the Sanitation Capacity Building Platform(SCBP) of National Institute of Urban Affairs learning, research and advocacy on decentralized and non sewered sanitation( scbp.niua.org). His professional engagements have been with AKRSP(Program Officer Forestry), SPWD(Sr. Program Officer), CARE(Director NRM), Oxfam(Program & Advocacy Director), WaterAid India(Country Head) and WSSCC(National Coordinator) and as an independent consultant.

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