Mass flow analysis / black water characteristic Arba Minch Ethiopia

  • VerenaGer
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Mass flow analysis / black water characteristic Arba Minch Ethiopia

Dear all,

I am interested in any suggestion for good references on nitrogen, phosphorus, total solids and water contents in human faeces and urine for different regions in the world, particularly Ethiopia.

I am currently working on my master thesis about quantifying mass flows and cost ranges for a broad range of sanitation system options for Arba Minch Town in Ethiopia. My work is part of the GRASP project by Dorothee Spuhler at Sandec/Eawag Switzerland ( GRASP projecttinyurl.com/eawag-grasp ). We have developped a generic model that can quantify phosphorus, nitrogen, water, and total solids (as indicator for energy) losses and recovery rates at the scale of a urban area for all possible sanitation system configuration based on locally appropriate technology options. To apply this model to different settings in Arba Minch the amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, water and total solids entering the systems through faeces and urine have to be defined.

Do you know where I can get data/information for that?

More explicitly I am looking for estimations for the following data for Arba Minch (or similar areas):
• Nitrogen content of excreta and/or blackwater [g/cap/d]
• Phosphorus content of excreta and/or blackwater [g/cap/d]
• Total solids content of excreta and/or blackwater [g/cap/d]
• Water content of excreta [L/cap/d]
• Water used by pour flush toilets [L/cap/d]

I appreciate any comment and information.
Thank you very much.

Verena

Civil engineering and water management student
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  • mekonnen145
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Re: Mass flow analysis / black water characteristic Arba Minch Ethiopia

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  • VerenaGer
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Re: Mass flow analysis / black water characteristic Arba Minch Ethiopia

Hi Mekonnen!
Thanks a lot for the information, I checked some of the ROSA report. Unfortunately I think the link/website is not working.

Regards,
Verena

Civil engineering and water management student
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Re: Mass flow analysis / black water characteristic Arba Minch Ethiopia

www.researchgate.net/profile/Kinfe_Kassa/info

Ask Kinfe Kasa from Arba minch university.
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  • muench
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Re: Mass flow analysis / black water characteristic Arba Minch Ethiopia

Dear Verena,

About the reports by ROSA in Arba Minch: Maybe they have decided to abandon the project's website as it's about 10 years ago that the project was concluded. If that's the case then I hope the main reports have been included in the SuSanA library. I just did a search for ROSA and found these:
www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resource.../library?search=ROSA

Regarding wastewater characteristics, there is this interesting report by Dennis:
Communal wastewater characteristics and population equivalents in developing countries
forum.susana.org/wastewater-characterisa...developing-countries

But if you are looking at excreta, rather than at wastewater, then N and P content in excreta is not that variable. You could just use literature values. It's only dependent on diet, i.e. mainly on more meat consumption or less.

Mariska had once asked a similar question here:
Calculation of N and P from dietary protein intake
forum.susana.org/98-resource-recovery-fr...protein-intake#22854

And water content of urine is 100%, isn't it? Water content of feces is around 80%, see those early publications from Sweden.
www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resource.../library/details/187
Joensson, H., Richert Stintzing, A., Vinneras, B., Salomon, E. (2004). Guidelines on the Use of Urine and Faeces in Crop Production. Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden

Amount of flush water with pour flush should be 1-3 L right? (I'd look it up in EAWAG compendium). Less if they use a SaTo pan, if I remember right.

Please let us know how you get on with your research. If you are working under Dorothee you are in the best hands! :-)

Oh and there was a previous forum thread about the situation in another town in Ethiopia which might help as well:
"Is anyone working on an SFD (shit flow diagram) for Addis Ababa in Ethiopia?"
forum.susana.org/204-shit-flow-diagrams-...is-ababa-in-ethiopia

Elisabeth

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  • VerenaGer
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Re: Mass flow analysis / black water characteristic Arba Minch Ethiopia

Dear Elisabeth,

thank you very much for your detailed information and I want to apologize for my late response (mainly due to vacations and struggles with the internet connection).

The links were very helpful.

In the end I chose to use values based on the approach of Jönsson and Vinneras 2004 , the dissertation of Franziska Meinzinger (2010) , and different reports of projects done in Arba Minch like the CLARA and the ROSA project.

Other information, especially the report by Dennis is helpful to compare and verify the chosen values.

I did not finish the work yet, but I'm happy to share more details as soon as I'm finished.

Verena

Civil engineering and water management student
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