Results Emergency Sanitation WS in Delft: Specs 4 suppliers raised latrines, desludging/treatment/disposal faecal sludge


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  • AquaVerde
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Re: Results Emergency Sanitation WS in Delft: Specs 4 suppliers raised latrines, desludging/treatment/disposal faecal sludge

Sub-Subject: treatment/disposal faecal sludge
Thermopile Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR)? For ready deployable Biogas-SPEEDKITS for refugee camps
FP7 - Research Theme: Security, 2012-2016

Dear Jan,

With great interest I informed my self about your ongoing biogas project, SPEEDKITS for refugee camps.

May I draw your attention to an already existing much simpler (low-tech) bio-gas plant design, called Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR), it do not need much pumps or some stirring devices. An ABR can cope with shock loads and do not need expert O&M-staff, or any external power supply and pump, if at least a small gravity of 20-30 cm is available. The "Honey-Suckers" of the refugee camp could pump their contents direct in to the 20-30 cm raised inlet-camber of the ABR. The same "Honey-Suckers" could take from the lower outlet of the ABR the sludge to drying fields...

The ABR was initially developed by Prof. McCarty and co-workers at Stanford University, USA (McCarty, 1981).
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BORDAs Practical Guidebook (detailed manual) by Engineer SASSE: [ ] (with detailed equations)

Maybe you go for an ready made (insulated + heated for the thermopile temperature range) very simple Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) within a used 12' or 6'Container.

Or better you make your own ABR by stacking two fibreglass body's of ready made prefab ABRs from BORDA e.V., Bremen in an used and insulated sea-container. An additional heating and insulation between the two fibreglass body's could do it to the thermopile temperature range. Maybe add on top of your self-made thermopile ABR insulated airtight fabrics for simple gas storage above the ABR it self, or store gas in a separate used sea-container (with airtight fabrics) nearby.

Prof. McCarty's original ABR-Design is "Open-Source" and do not has a user restricting Patent attached. Even if it is by other developers and companies (like Conviotec GmbH and Consentis GmbH) now called "new + innovative" and "multi-chamber fermenter" M-ABR or CON2-Fermenter + CHP 45-75kWel. (costs 5,000EUR/kWel.). Despite they attached a Patent, it is still common practise = state of the art (Stand der Technik).

I hope my hands-on view as an "biogas-outsider" is helpfull to you and your project/research outcome.

Good Luck & Best Regards,

MSc. Tropical Water Engineering

stromlose Sanitärlösungen
Low-Tech Lösungen mit High-Tech Effekten
inspiriert durch C2C
T: 034774 70672

Zitat von Roger Cox (NL): C2C seems to be the first sound environmentally friendly moneymaking business-proposal. D.h. gesellsch., ökol. und wirtschaftl. Gewinn stehen nicht im Gegensatz zueinander, sondern ergänzen sich zu einem Prinzip, dass diesen Prinzipien, isoliert gesehen, bei weitem überlegen ist. [
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"simple" Sanitation-Solutions by gravity
Low-Tech Solutions with High-Tech Effects
"Inspired by Circular Economy and Cooperation"
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  • canaday
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Re: Results Emergency Sanitation WS in Delft: Specs 4 suppliers raised latrines, desludging, treatment/disposal faecal sludg


Constructed Wetlands, like Vegetated Sand Filters, work via gravity (and solar energy collected by the plants). I can imagine setting one up quickly for an emergency, even though efficiency will improve as the plants grow.

But I would more suggest UDDTs with interchangeable containers that get changed before they get too heavy for a person to easily carry. One very accessible option is the woven polypropylene sack, which would come to the emergency bearing food. More info in my paper on Simple UDDTs in

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday
Conservation Biologist and EcoSan Promoter
Omaere Ethnobotanical Park
Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador, South America
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  • JKMakowka
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Re: Results Emergency Sanitation WS in Delft: Specs 4 suppliers raised latrines, desludging, treatment/disposal faecal sludg

Thanks for posting these.

Overall it seem like quite a lot of thought has gone into these, however I see one point where the guideline seems to be a bit lacking:

In the document about the sludge treatment part D10 & 11 deal with the power-input. As it is generally understood that efficient waste-water treatment systems are most of the time quite energy intensive, the requirements given there seem both quite steep (gasoline for 3 months of generator operation has to be included?) and yet also very non-descript as by referring only to the potential including of a generator.
Given the importance of the energy input of this component, I think this needs to be given more thought.

For example, one could easily think of the system that could be operated without *electrical* power (thus no generator requirement) to increase reliability and exchangeability of integral parts just to name an example.
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Results Emergency Sanitation WS in Delft: Specs 4 suppliers raised latrines, desludging/treatment/disposal faecal sludge

As the new coordinator emergency sanitation at WASTE (see introduction below), I am proud to present the results of the emergency workshop in Delft (see link below) that has resulted in three separate documents on the 'specs', the requirements, that can be used to guide/challenge/invite the suppliers to come forward with solutions for: (1) raised latrines for emergency situations, (2) desludging equipment and (3) treatment and disposal of faecal sludge. Please have a thorough look at them and provide your feedback to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

It is obvious that these specs are not 'cast in stone' but meant as targets. If all goes according to plan, the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs might use them for a Call for proposals for Public Private Partnerships to design, prototype, field test and manufacture products to meet the challenges as part of one of the next rounds of the Sustainable Water Fund. (see )

Note by moderator (EvM): here is the link to the workshop presentations:

Introduction Jan Spit: Educated as a sanitary engineer at the Technical University in Delft (1982, Civil Engineering), completed a post-graduate course on business administration and Master Practitioner NLP. At the moment coordinating emergency sanitation projects at WASTE (Gouda, The Netherlands). Together with a.o. The Netherlands Red Cross Society and MSF, WASTE is participating in the S(p)eetkits project ( ) where WASTE takes the lead in the WASH activities. WASTE ( ) is an organization promoting the improvement of the living conditions in cities in developing countries. WASTE mobilizes and provides meaningful and effective support to transform waste into opportunity by mobilizing networks, ideas, knowledge and money. As a self-employed consultant a.o. for UNICEF in occupied Palestine territory, for the Dutch WASH Alliance in The Netherlands. In Indonesia for SHAW/Simavi project and for the Indonesian Infrastructure Initiative (AusAid). Previously for MWH (Indonesia, Surinam, India), Syncera, AgentschapNL (Egypt), Brabant Water (Hungary, Indonesia), IWACO (India, Indonesia) and UNCHS-HABITAT (Tanzania, Comoros).

Specific to SuSanA forum, I plan to contribute to the exchange of ideas and experiences in the field of emergency sanitation. At the moment focusing on effective ways in responding to sanitation in emergencies e.g. development of prototypes for raised latrines, superstructures, slabs, desludging and faecal sludge treatment and disposal. The SuSanA forum is also a great opportunity to investigate opportunities for the WASTE Sanitation Window (SaWi) where WASTE matches demands, interests, knowledge and funding with business solutions: from idea to market.

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