Welcome to the thematic discussion on Sanitation and hygiene behaviour change programming for scale and sustainability

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  • TraceyKeatman
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  • Consultant working independently and also for 'Partnerships in Practice' on WASH and multi-stakeholder partnerships. Interested in sanitation and hygiene in urban areas, sanitation entrepreneurs and currently researching city sanitation planning.
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Welcome to the thematic discussion on Sanitation and hygiene behaviour change programming for scale and sustainability

Dear SuSanA colleagues,

I am delighted to welcome you to this discussion on Sanitation and hygiene behaviour change programming for scale and sustainability!

The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council Community of Practice on Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries (WSSCC CoP) and SuSanA are holding this joint 3-week thematic discussion. This is the first time the two networks have come together to host an online collaborative learning event. Both platforms have over 5,000 members each working in WASH and other related sectors; so this thematic discussion will be an opportunity to bring together these two global communities to share learning and to cross-fertilise ideas, identify best practice and explore links between research and practice on behaviour change.

The discussion will take place concurrently on both platforms; I will be acting as discussion coordinator to ensure that content is shared across both communities. The discussion will be split into three inter-linked sub-themes to further explore how behaviour change can be better understood and improved to ensure health and WASH outcomes are sustained.

Running for three weeks from Tuesday 22 September to Monday 12 October, the discussion will look at a number of key issues relating to sanitation and hygiene behaviour change programming and sustainability. Join us to post your questions, debate with lead experts in the field, and provide your insights and knowledge on the following issues:

Theme I – Programming for scale: What are some examples of successful scale-up? How did these models address the issues of inclusion and equity? In the cases of successful scale-up, were programmes initiated and sustained by governmental or non-governmental actors? What is the role of the private sector in implementing sanitation at scale?

Theme 2 – Sustainability for behaviour change: How can behaviour change become systematised and sustained? What are the behavioural determinants and behaviour change techniques we should be aware of? What constitutes an enabling environment for sustainability?

Theme 3 – ODF and slippage: How is ODF defined? What are some of the local strategies in place to strengthen sustainability of ODF – within communities and beyond? What are the patterns of slippage? How and when can slippage be monitored in large-scale programmes? Are there more innovative ways looking at not only the physically visible aspects – what about the health impact and the perceptions and views of communities?

Join me to discuss these issues with several thematic experts, including:
  • Suvojit Chattopadhyay, Consultant, focused on Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Mr. Poy Dy, Project Coordinator of Santi Sena (SSO), GSF sub-grantee, Cambodia
  • CLTS Knowledge Hub, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex
  • Clara Rudholm, Senior Programme Officer, Global Sanitation Fund
  • Carolien van der Voorden, Senior Programme Officer, Global Sanitation Fund
  • Matilda Jerneck, Programme Officer, Global Sanitation Fund

To encourage participation by Francophone colleagues, we will do our best to share the initial posts from our expert contributors in French as well as English. I will also share weekly summaries of discussions as well as a synthesis report of overarching findings at the end (in English and French).

However, for your posts, I can read other languages too! So please submit your comments in English, French, Spanish or Portuguese and I will ensure the points are summarised in English for all.

To start our discussion tomorrow (Tuesday 22nd), Suvojit Chattopadhyay will post some thought-provoking questions for us to consider on 'programming for scale'.

If you would like to read more about the concept of 'scaling up' or 'programming for scale', please take a look at definitions provided by: heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/25/2/85.full and by the African Youth Alliance (attached document).

I look forward to some constructive and in-depth discussions with many of you!

Many thanks,

Tracey

Tracey Keatman
Senior Consultant
Partnerships in Practice
Tracey Keatman
PiP – Senior Consultant
Partnerships in Practice Ltd.
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Site: www.partnershipsinpractice.co.uk
Twitter: @pipunltd

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  • TraceyKeatman
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    Topic Author
  • Consultant working independently and also for 'Partnerships in Practice' on WASH and multi-stakeholder partnerships. Interested in sanitation and hygiene in urban areas, sanitation entrepreneurs and currently researching city sanitation planning.
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Re: Welcome to the thematic discussion on Sanitation and hygiene behaviour change programming for scale and sustainability

Chers collègues,

Je suis ravi de vous accueillir dans une discussion sur « Programmes et durabilité en matière d’assainissement et de changement de comportement hygiénique : création d’habitudes, reprise des mauvaises pratiques et nécessité des programmes à long terme «

La Communauté de pratique pour l’assainissement et l’hygiène dans les pays en développement du Conseil de concertation pour l’approvisionnement en eau et l’assainissement (WSSCC CoP) et SuSanA organiseront un débat thématique pendant 3 semaines, au cours duquel sera abordée la question des programmes axés sur l’assainissement et le changement de comportement hygiénique ainsi que sur leur durabilité. Les deux réseaux se réunissent pour la première fois pour organiser un évènement d'apprentissage collaboratif en ligne. Les deux plateformes comptent plus de 5 000 membres travaillant tous dans le secteur du WASH ou dans des secteurs connexes. Ce débat thématique sera une excellente occasion de rassembler ces deux communautés internationales avec pour objectif de favoriser un partage d’apprentissage, d’échanger des idées, d’identifier les meilleures pratiques et d’examiner les liens existant entre la recherche et la pratique en matière de changement de comportement.

Ce débat thématique sera mené simultanément sur les deux plateformes et moi, comme coordinatrice s’assurera d’en partager le contenu entre les deux communautés. La discussion s'articulera autour de trois sous-thèmes interconnectés pour chercher à savoir comment mieux comprendre et améliorer le changement de comportement afin de garantir des résultats durables en matière de santé et de WASH. Chaque semaine, des experts thématiques encadreront et amorceront les débats :
  • 22-28 septembre – Thème 1 : Les programmes de déploiement à grande échelle - quels exemples illustrent bien le déploiement de programmes à grande échelle ? Dans quelle mesure ces modèles ont-ils pris en compte les questions d’inclusion et d’équité ? Dans les cas de déploiements à grande échelle réussis, les programmes ont-ils été lancés et maintenus par des acteurs gouvernementaux ou non gouvernementaux ? Quel rôle joue le secteur privé dans l’application de mesures d’assainissement à grande échelle ?

  • 28 septembre - 5 octobre – Thème 2 : La durabilité du changement de comportement -comment peut-on systématiser le changement de comportement et le rendre durable ? Quels déterminants comportementaux et techniques de changement de comportement devrions-nous connaître ? En quoi se caractérise un environnement propice à la durabilité ?

  • 5-12 octobre – Thème 3 : Éradication de la pratique de la défécation en plein air et reprise de cette pratique après intervention - comment peut-on définir l’éradication de la pratique de la défécation en plein air ? Quelles sont certaines des stratégies locales mises en vigueur pour renforcer la durabilité de la fin de la défécation en plein air au sein des communautés et au-delà ? Quels sont les schémas de reprise des mauvaises pratiques ? Dans le cadre des programmes à grande échelle, de quelle manière et à quel moment la reprise des mauvaises pratiques peut-elle être contrôlée ? Existe-t-il d’autres approches plus innovantes qui ne sont pas uniquement axées sur les aspects physiquement visibles — mais qui tiennent notamment compte de l’impact sur la santé, des perceptions et points de vue des communautés ?

Nous vous invitons à participer à ce débat auquel prendront part certains des experts thématiques suivants :
  • Tracey Keatman, Partnerships in Practice (coordinatrice)
  • Suvojit Chattopadhyay, consultant sur les questions de suivi-évaluation (M&E)
  • M. Poy Dy, coordinateur de projet pour Santi Sena (SSO), sous-bénéficiaire du GSF, Cambodge
  • CLTS Knowledge Hub, Institut des études pour le développement (IDS), Université de Sussex
  • Clara Rudholm, responsable principale de programme, Fonds mondial pour l’assainissement
  • Carolien van der Voorden, responsable principale de programme, Fonds mondial pour l’assainissement
  • Matilda Jerneck, responsable de programme, Fonds mondial pour l’assainissement

Des comptes-rendus hebdomadaires des discussions seront publiés sur les plateformes de SuSanA et de la CoP tandis qu’un rapport de synthèse regroupant les résultats de l’ensemble des discussions sera disponible à la fin de la période de débat.

Pour participer via un appareil mobile, veuillez-vous rendre à m.forum.susana.org/forum

Nous sommes impatients d’assister à des discussions constructives et approfondies !
Tracey Keatman
PiP – Senior Consultant
Partnerships in Practice Ltd.
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Site: www.partnershipsinpractice.co.uk
Twitter: @pipunltd

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  • sampson
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Re: Welcome to the thematic discussion on Sanitation and hygiene behaviour change programming for scale and sustainability

hi all ,
am happy to be part of this forum and hopefully my contribution shall help build a sustainable behavoiural change.
Before I continue, i had wish you explain the meaning of ODF and slippage concept.
warm regards
sampson
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  • TraceyKeatman
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  • Consultant working independently and also for 'Partnerships in Practice' on WASH and multi-stakeholder partnerships. Interested in sanitation and hygiene in urban areas, sanitation entrepreneurs and currently researching city sanitation planning.
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Re: Welcome to the thematic discussion on Sanitation and hygiene behaviour change programming for scale and sustainability

Hi Sampson - thanks for your message.

ODF literally means 'open-defecation free' - which is one of the key aims of the community-led total sanitation approach (CLTS). The approach seeks to change peoples' behaviours and practices of defecating outside (i.e. not in a latrine) and to encourage them to build / use latrines to protect themselves and others from faecal contamination. However, ODF is interpreted in different ways by different people and it can have a wider meaning which relates to having no visible faeces near homes or in the neighbouring environment. See en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_defecation#Open_defecation_free for a straightforward overview.

'Slippage' refers to when people return to defecating in the open, i.e. their behaviours / actions 'slip back' into previous or old ways of doing things. This is the challenge we face when trying to 'change' peoples' behaviours. We have to know if they are willing to change and how we can persuade them to do so.

These are of course just my interpretations! Once we begin the conversation on ODF and slippage in week 3 of this discussion, I am sure we will focus more on the definitions and the implications of having different definitions!

Thanks, Tracey
Tracey Keatman
PiP – Senior Consultant
Partnerships in Practice Ltd.
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Site: www.partnershipsinpractice.co.uk
Twitter: @pipunltd
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  • Elisabeth
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  • I'm passionate about SuSanA's role in the WASH sector since about 2005. I'm a freelance consultant since 2012 (former roles: program manager, lecturer, process engineer for wastewater treatment plants)
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Re: Welcome to the thematic discussion on Sanitation and hygiene behaviour change programming for scale and sustainability

Hi Tracey,
I am really glad that you gave the link to the Wikipedia article, because it was me and Joe who added that particular content there to Wikipedia. :-)

An even more detailed description of ODF (open defecation free) I put on the CLTS page here:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Community-led_tota...nitation#Definitions

(I was in two minds whether the definition of ODF should be on the page about CLTS or on the page about open defecation, or both).

The more detailed definition currently reads like this (open to improvement suggestions!):

"Open defecation free" (ODF) is a central term for community-led total sanitation (CLTS) programs and primarily means the eradication of open defecation in the entire community. However, it can also include the following additional criteria:[4]

  • Household latrines are hygienic, provide the safe containment of feces, offer privacy, have a lid on the defecation hole or a water seal and a roof to protect the user.
  • All household members and all members of the community use these toilets.
  • A handwashing facility is nearby with water, soap or ash, and is used regularly.
Even more stringent criteria which may be added to achieve "ODF status" for a community might include:[4]
  • Safe drinking water and storage
  • Food hygiene
  • Greywater disposal
  • Solid waste management
  • Provision of toilets at schools, markets and for passers-by

It's always good to clarify definitions at the beginning of a discussion. :-)

And actually I am still a bit confused about the focus of this discussion.
Roland summed it up nicely here under Topic 1 ( forum.susana.org/forum/categories/210-th...tion-to-engage#15092 )

But does that mean that we will reach access on scale with going to scale with hygiene education?


So what is it that we are scaling up? Purely those things that don't require hardware intervention? Actually, everything, even handwashing and stopping OD needs some form of hardware intervention. So that can't be it. When we say "scaling up (access to) sanitation", what do we really mean in this discussion? And isn't it necessary to differentiate between rural and urban contexts?
The link that you provided ( heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/25/2/85.full ) explains to me what "scaling up" means in the health sector, but not what "scaling up sanitation" means? From the title of the thematic discussion, I thought it's all about hygiene behaviour change (mainly handwashing and not doing OD when you have a toilet) - and not really about getting toilets to the people, right?

Regards,
Elisabeth
Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
Independent consultant located in Ulm, Germany
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Founder of WikiProject Sanitation: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_Sanitation
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  • TraceyKeatman
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  • Consultant working independently and also for 'Partnerships in Practice' on WASH and multi-stakeholder partnerships. Interested in sanitation and hygiene in urban areas, sanitation entrepreneurs and currently researching city sanitation planning.
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Re: Welcome to the thematic discussion on Sanitation and hygiene behaviour change programming for scale and sustainability

Hi Elisabeth,

Thank you for the post and clarifications. Great work too on the Wikipedia pages! Very clear and helpful descriptions and analysis. :)

I've tried to address some of your points raised in a little mid-week summary (#15160) on Theme 1 - Programming for Scale.

This question of definitions is also so important when 'scaling up' relates to working with others in partnerships (whether for sanitation or hygiene behaviour or components of each) because one organisation / stakeholder group can't do everything needed to reach wider scale alone. Unless all parties have an agreed, defined understanding of what it is they're trying to achieve together, it's unlikely they will achieve their goals. This sounds so obvious, yet is something that I've seen stymie projects / programme outputs and outcomes.

The hype and rhetoric of 'partnership' so often conceals the difficult realities of working with other organisations - yet, this is the mechanism we believe will help us reach scale on WASH and forms part of a conducive 'enabling environment' for 'sustainability'. I use these terms and concepts liberally, as I'm sure many others do too, but what they mean in practice is another thing altogether!

I think the practical, mechanistic, inter-personal challenges we face when working with people (other organisations, other sectors - the private sector, academia, the media for example - community groups, traditional leaders, etc) are often under-played or we assume we can work easily with others. From my perspective (and know I am biased from having spent many years working with multi-stakeholder WASH partnerships!), one of the key challenges for scaling up is that we have to get the people skills, our own behaviours and partnering right too!

Thanks again for your contribution... and for making me think more about definitions and their impact. It has provided me with a great opportunity to opine on one of my favourite topics! Human behaviours... and how they facilitate and simultaneously constrain us! ;)

All the best, Tracey
Tracey Keatman
PiP – Senior Consultant
Partnerships in Practice Ltd.
Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Site: www.partnershipsinpractice.co.uk
Twitter: @pipunltd
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