Update: Viscous Heating for Helminth Deactivation in Fecal Sludge (University of Missouri – Kansas City, USA and UKZN, South Africa)

  • garyfoutchosu
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Auger-Die Reactor

Our lab test unit has just been built based on four months of CFD design and optimization. After some shake-down and calibration tests we’ll be starting experimentation within a few days! Our overall project is on schedule.

Gary L Foutch PhD PE
Anadarko Petroleum Corp Chair and Regents Professor
School of Chemical Engineering
Oklahoma State University
423 Engr. North
Stillwater, OK 74078
(405)744-9113
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Re: Destruction of Trichuris trichiura eggs by extrusion/viscous heating

Hello,

We ran our first set of experiments with baboon feces for the destruction of T. trichiura eggs in our extruder. The parasite was obtained from a population of baboons housed in El Reno, Oklahoma for medical research. Experiments were performed in a BSL 2 facility at the National Center for Veterinary Parasitology on the OSU – Stillwater campus.

For the extruder setup, we started with a larger gap (1.2 mm) and lower rpm that resulted in modest temperature increase to 42C. However, it is still a high sheer-rate environment. Measured egg destruction was approximately 93%. A reduced gap (0.75 mm) generated more heat (86C) but the destruction remained in the 93-99% range.

There were noteworthy challenges in these experiments. First, baboon hair is a dominant feature of the feces from their grooming habits. As a result, the observed RPM was lower and the temperatures near 200C for simulants were not achieved. Second, sheer stress tears up everything, not just eggs, resulting in a large amount of debris and also introduces air bubbles into the samples. This makes counting whole eggs microscopically challenging and leads to high uncertainty in these measurements.

We intend to repeat these experiments after devising methods to meet the challenges. However, these experiments will not be repeated prior to the RITT Fair.

Gary

Gary L Foutch PhD PE
Anadarko Petroleum Corp Chair and Regents Professor
School of Chemical Engineering
Oklahoma State University
423 Engr. North
Stillwater, OK 74078
(405)744-9113
(405)744-6338(fax)
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Re: Update: Viscous Heating for Helminth Deactivation in Fecal Sludge (University of Missouri – Kansas City, USA and UKZN, South Africa)

Dear all,
Today I would like to give you some more information about a research grant that Gary Foutch has been working on (see also his previous two posts from last year about his grant, just scrol up). Please find the basic details and some results below. I am sure that Gary will be happy to answer any questions or comments you may have.

Title of grant: Develop a simple auger-die assembly that treats fecal wastes
Subtitle (more descriptive title): Sanitation at high temperature and shear stress generated by viscous heating.

Name of lead organization: Oklahoma State University
Primary contact at lead organization: Gary Foutch
Grantee location: Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA

Developing country where the research is being or will be tested: ??

Short description of the project: We have built and tested a laboratory scale device that can heat fecal and simulant materials up to 190C by friction generated between a rotating inner core and a fixed outer core. Current efforts focus on reclamation of water vaporized from the waste.

Goal(s): The goal of this project is to develop a small-scale device in which an auger forces feces and other solid wastes device through a die that results in high temperatures and pressure that dewaters the waste and destroys microorganisms.

Objectives: Our focus has been on sanitization of solid waste for subsequent safe use, handling and transportation. The energy input into the solids is by mechanical forces that results in the mass self heating by friction. The temperature rise is sufficient to allow water to leave as steam for condensation and reuse.

Start and end date: Start: 1 May 2011, End: 31 Oct 2012 (followed by a Phase 2 which ended in December 2014)

Grant type: GCE Round 6 (size: USD 100,000)
Funding for this research currently ongoing (yes/no): Students funded currently with OSU endowment funds. Phase 2 submission in process.
Research or implementation partners: None

Links, further readings – results to date:
Documents in SuSanA library (including presentation and paper from FSM2 conference in Durban in Oct. 2012): susana.org/lang-en/library?view=ccbktypeitem&type=2&id=1752

Video from this conference:


Abstract from the paper:

We have demonstrated that viscous heating of faeces through an extruder works well. Our first prototype, designed by computational fluid dynamics to obtain performance data over a range of operating conditions, was tested in the laboratory with simulant materials. The laboratory-scale unit is 10 cm long with a rotating central core and a space with the shell wall adjustable from 0.75 to 1.25 mm. Experiments with 5 Pascal-second viscosity simulants and the smallest spacing achieve 200°C within 3-4 minutes.
Additional time to process the mass generated by an individual requires only a few additional seconds. At larger spacing the observed temperature is lower, but shear stress and pressure remain as microbial destruction mechanisms. If the unit is operated continuously the 10 cm size is sufficient to treat the mass produced by more than 1000 people. With the current geometry the simulant leaves the extruder as a moist, hot mass. While moist heat is effective in destroying microorganisms, water must escape to dry the
solid. A possible design variation that dries the solid includes spreading the mass into a thin layer for water evaporation. This concept will be addressed prior to completion of Phase 1. A challenge is that spacing between the shell and the core is small and objects, gravel or sand in faeces will require screening prior to extrusion. Alternative geometries are being considered for high-volume sludge processing and pit extraction applications. Extrusion may also be integrated with other treatment technologies if parasite destruction would benefit the overall process. A second-generation prototype is under construction for presentation at the Reinvent the Toilet Fair that is simpler and easier to visualize in a small-scale toilet application.


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  • garyfoutchosu
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Re: Auger-die assembly that treats fecal wastes at high temperature and shear stress (Oklahoma State University, USA)

In phase 1 we documented that extrusion technology could be effective in sanitizing fecal wastes. In phase 2 the Gates Foundation has asked us to confirm that the technology can destroy Ascaris. AJ and I have expanded out team to include Jim Smay and Mason Reichard. Jim, while in chemical engineering, has a BS in mechanical engineering and great insights in viscometry. Mason is in vet med and part of OSU's center of veterinary parasitology. We are being assisted by Jennifer Thomas, a postdoc in vet med, and two chemical engineering graduate students, Wali Islam and JD Podichetty. We will be testing Ascaris suum here at OSU in pig feces and then do experiments in South Africa with Ascaris lumbricoides found in human feces.

Gary L Foutch PhD PE
Anadarko Petroleum Corp Chair and Regents Professor
School of Chemical Engineering
Oklahoma State University
423 Engr. North
Stillwater, OK 74078
(405)744-9113
(405)744-6338(fax)
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Re: Auger-die assembly that treats fecal wastes at high temperature and shear stress (Oklahoma State University, USA)

Dear Gary,
Thanks for this update and congratulations on receiving Phase 2 funding for your work.

For the benefit of the other readers: Gary was one of three grantees who were recently announced to have received follow-up funding for their GCE grants, see here on the Impatient Optimist website of the BMGF:
www.impatientoptimists.org/Posts/2013/11...ets-from-Human-Waste
An Auger to Treat Waste, A Bicycle-powered Bioreactor & Fertilizer Pellets from Human Waste
BRIAN ARBOGAST
November 22, 2013

(all 3 of them have been discussed on the forum in the past, and I have encouraged the grantees to tell us about their follow-up funding)

The grant size of Gary's new grant is USD 172,177 according to the public grant database:
www.gatesfoundation.org/How-We-Work/Quic...s/2013/10/OPP1094897

Here is its description in laymen's terms from the above mentioned Impatient Optimist website:

Gary Foutch and AJ Johannes of Oklahoma State University in the U.S. propose to develop a small-scale device in which an auger forces feces and other solid wastes device through a die that results in high temperatures and pressure that dewaters the waste and destroys microorganisms. The device could reduce odor, insects, surface and ground water contamination, and the associated spread of diseases. They have designed a laboratory-scale extruder, which is a fixed shell containing a rotating inner core driven by a motor, and an air-driven plunger to push in the material and generate pressure. They tested its performance using different operating conditions. Preliminary results revealed that their method could destroy 99 percent of parasitic worm eggs in baboon feces. With this additional funding, they will develop and field test a next-generation stand-alone extruder that can effectively sanitize different types of solid sludge in the field, and is also capable of water recovery via evaporation. They will also design a sanitation module from their extruder that can be incorporated into the Omni-Ingestor technology, which is a modular system that combines sanitation with waste removal and transportation.


Gary, I have two questions for you:
1.
Could you please share with us your final report from Phase 1?

2.
What can you tell us about the methods you will use to enumerate Ascaris eggs. Have you looked at different methods and their pros and cons (like we discussed elsewhere on the forum e.g. here: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-ena...l-sludge-enumeration
and here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/17-fer...s-in-a-reuse-context )

Greetings,
Elisabeth

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Re: Auger-die assembly that treats fecal wastes at high temperature and shear stress (Oklahoma State University, USA)

For those who are interested in this research work by Gary Foutch and team on using shear stress to kill pathogens:

I saw that Gary's team has published two papers about this work.

Both papers are in the Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. This paper allows for open access publishing but the authors have to decide if they want to pay the extra cost or not. The following two papers are not open access, however interested people could try to contact the authors (or pay for the pdf file, of course):

First paper:
www.iwaponline.com/washdev/005/washdev0050402.htm

Effect of temperature and shear stress on the viability of Ascaris suum

J. E. Thomas, J. T. Podichetty, Y. Shi, D. Belcher, R. Dunlap, K. McNamara, M. V. Reichard, J. Smay, A. J. Johannes and G. L. Foutch

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA

ABSTRACT
Ascaris eggs are commonly used as a bioindicator to test the success of waste treatment systems. The ability to inactivate this organism's eggs indicates probable destruction of a variety of pathogens. The intent of these experiments was to determine operational parameters for a conical-augur device to treat human solid waste in a time-efficient manner (seconds), without exogenous chemicals (e.g. lime, an alkalizing agent) or an external heat source. Literature reviews and independent viscometry experiments established a target temperature range and residence time within the device. The ability of applied shear force to inactivate Ascaris suum, directly or indirectly, was assessed using viscometry. Shear force alone, as friction, failed to inactivate A. suum eggs. However, shear force was used to generate sufficient heat in a human-fecal simulant to inactivate A. suum eggs under a variety of test conditions. Target operating conditions for the conical-augur device were 70 °C with a 6-s residence time; increasing the temperature allowed for reduced residence time to achieve A. suum inactivation.

Keywords: Ascaris suum; rheology; viscous heating

+++++++

Second paper:

www.iwaponline.com/washdev/005/washdev0050521.htm

Designing a high-throughput viscous heater to process feces: heater geometry

Jagdeep T. Podichetty, Gary L. Foutch, A. H. Johannes, Jim Smay and Md. Waliul Islam

Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
Computing and Engineering, University of Missouri Kansas City, MO 64110, USA E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Materials Science and Engineering, Oklahoma State University Tulsa, OK 74106, USA

ABSTRACT
Viscous heating technology can destroy disease-causing microorganisms with no additional heat input. A laboratory-scale unit was constructed and tested with a simulant, and viscous heating achieved temperatures as high as 190°C. This study discusses additional variables – length and spacing – that are important to process design and optimization. The viscosity (μ) was described as a function of shear rate (γ̇); μ = 140 Pa s for t = 0 s and μ = 32*(γ̇)−0.6 Pa s for t > 0 s. The advantages of viscous heating to sanitize fecal mass are presented. The results show temperature gradient is more sensitive to changes in gap spacing than reactor length. For high throughput, the viscous heater length must be increased to provide fluid sufficient residence time to achieve the desired effluent temperature.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics; extrusion; feces; parasite; viscosity; viscous heating

++++++++++++


Gary had also presented at the FSM3 Conference in January 2015:

Viscous heating effect on deactivation of helminths in VIP sludge: Gary Foutch, University of Missouri, Kansas City, USA
presentation: www.susana.org/images/documents/07-cap-d...1/2-1-2-2-Decrey.pdf
Video of his presentation:

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  • garyfoutchosu
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Re: Grant update: Viscous Heating for Helminth Deactivation in Fecal Sludge

We've received follow-up funding (Phase 3) for this grant which started out as a GCE grant with USD 100,000 in 2011. So today, I'd like you inform you about our new grant: it is a continuation of our past projects and we're now in the process of scaling up:

Title of grant: Viscous Heating for Helminth Deactivation in Fecal Sludge (200 to 1000 Liters/Hour)
Subtitle: Scale-up of viscous heater technology
Name of lead organization: University of Missouri – Kansas City
Primary contact at lead organization: Gary L Foutch
Grantee location: Kansas City, Missouri
Country where the research is being tested: At UKZN in Durban, South Africa
Start and end date: January to December 2016
Grant type: Initially we were a GCE, now funded by Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, Global Development
Grant size: USD 336,733 (as per BMGF grant database here )

Short description of the project:

We were successful in destroying Helminth eggs, particularly Ascaris lumbricoides, in VIP sludge during Phase 2 using viscous heating. Our next step is to scale-up the equipment for larger flow rates. This year we will design, build and test equipment that can operate effectively at 200 and 1000 L/hr. Our computational fluid dynamics design is underway with construction of devices beginning in May and testing in Durban during late summer and fall. Viscous heating allows any viscous fluid to heat itself on the molecular level by passing it through a shear field. No additional heating is required, we have achieved experimental temperatures up to 190 C. For Ascaris, no eggs have survived 80 C effluent temperatures. Water addition is not desired.

Goal(s): Prove that viscous heating can work at scale.

Research or implementation partners: Oklahoma State University – Jim Smay, lead, and University of KwaZulu-Natal – Chris Buckley, lead

Links, further readings – results to date:

Documents from Phase 1 and 2 in SuSanA library: www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/1752

Important peer-reviewed journal articles from Phase 1 (note they are all behind a paywall, sorry about that (however, I can send you the pdf file on a one-on-one basis on request; just drop me a note using the contact button on the left); in 2016 we plan to publish more in open access mode):
  1. Podichetty, Jagdeep T., Md Waliul Islam, David Van, Gary L. Foutch, and A. H. Johannes. "Viscous heating analysis of simulant feces by computational fluid dynamics and experimentation." Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 4, no. 1 (2014): 62-71. washdev.iwaponline.com/content/4/1/62
  2. Woolley, S. M., C. A. Buckley, J. Pocock, and G. L. Foutch. "Rheological modelling of fresh human faeces." Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 4, no. 3 (2014): 484-489, washdev.iwaponline.com/content/4/3/484
  3. Belcher, D., G. L. Foutch, J. Smay, C. Archer, and C. A. Buckley. "Viscous heating effect on deactivation of helminth eggs in ventilated improved pit sludge." Water Science and Technology 72, no. 7 (2015): 1119-1126, wst.iwaponline.com/content/72/7/1119
  4. Thomas, J. E., J. T. Podichetty, Y. Shi, D. Belcher, R. Dunlap, K. McNamara, M. V. Reichard, J. Smay, A. J. Johannes, and G. L. Foutch. "Effect of temperature and shear stress on the viability of Ascaris suum." Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 5, no. 3 (2015): 402-411, washdev.iwaponline.com/content/5/3/402
  5. Podichetty, Jagdeep T., Gary L. Foutch, A. H. Johannes, Jim Smay, and Md Waliul Islam. "Designing a high-throughput viscous heater to process feces: heater geometry." Journal of Water Sanitation and Hygiene for Development 5, no. 3 (2015): 521-524, washdev.iwaponline.com/content/5/3/521
Current state of affairs: Scale-up design is underway.

Biggest successes so far: The technology works.

Main challenges / frustration: We need sufficient viscosity to generate heat and the sludge requires screening of tramp materials.

Questions or comments? Please put them in this thread.

Regards,
Gary

Gary L Foutch PhD PE
Anadarko Petroleum Corp Chair and Regents Professor
School of Chemical Engineering
Oklahoma State University
423 Engr. North
Stillwater, OK 74078
(405)744-9113
(405)744-6338(fax)
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