Animal Sanitation - regulations in developing countries on the control of aerosols from spraying wastewater, or animal feces?


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  • F H Mughal
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Animal Sanitation

Animal Sanitation

Output from toilets in less developed areas is carted away and dumped elsewhere. In civilized areas, people have septic tanks, where the toilet’s effluent undergo anaerobic digestion, and then move onwards to soak pits. In major urban, there is sewerage system for sewage conveyance.

Animals are less fortunate to have their feces treated. In rural areas of Sindh, Pakistan, women take the animal feces (manure), make cakes and put them on walls for sun drying. It is almost a hallmark in rural areas - a peculiar sight! The dried feces are used as fuel for cooking foods. In some areas of United States, animal feces are used for irrigation.

Manure is commonly characterized by commercial laboratory analysis for total solids, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K). Abbreviations – N,P, and K – are common. Many microorganisms are beneficial, non-pathogenic, and do not pose a threat to the humans. However, some microorganisms are pathogenic and may pose a health risk to humans (also known as zoonotic pathogens). While most strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli) are harmless to humans, strains such
as enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which includes E. coli 0157:H7, can cause illness in humans.

The American practice of using animal feces for irrigation creates aerosols. Because of high civic sense in US, I assume that high precaution is taken, while using animal feces on lands in US. In Sindh, partially-treated wastewater is used for greenbelts and lawns. This creates aerosols. As is the practice here, there is no proper safeguard. There are no regulations here on control of aerosols.
Could the forum users point out regulations in developing countries on the control of aerosols from spraying wastewater, or animal feces?

F H Mughal
F H Mughal (Mr.)
Karachi, Pakistan

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