Details on waterless urinals for women? - and for female pupils in schools in Africa

  • CWendland
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Details on waterless urinals for women? - and for female pupils in schools in Africa

Dear SuSanA Community,

we have request from several partners concerning waterless urinals for women. I am interested in knowing details, with special focus on design about them. I would appreciate if you could share your information with me or suggest a suitable person whom I can contact for details.

Also wanted to know what is the material used for making the membrane in waterless urinals and how to dispose the membrance after its use etc.

Best regards,
Balan

Dr. K. Balachandra Kurup
Programme Director
International Institute of Waste Management (IIWM)
Bhopal/India

WECF - Water and Sanitation Specialist
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  • secretariat
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Re: Details on waterless urinals for women?

Dear Claudia,

According with Erik, member of Knowledge Point,

Urinals Technology for man and women are essentially the same, what differs is the ergonomic design.


See his complete answer here knowledgepoint.org/en/questions/3448/det...s-urinals-for-women/

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Evelyn (on behalf of the SuSanA secretariat)

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Re: Details on waterless urinals for women?

Hi Balan,

It is feasible to make waterless urinals for women very simply with standard plastic funnels that are roughly 25 cm in diameter. This is placed at a roughly 45° angle extending from the floor upward. The woman (or man) squats with feet on both sides of the funnel. If a new structure is being built, a hole can be made in the floor to receive the funnel. If adapting an existing room, ''foot rests'' roughly 12 cm high could be made to allow the hose to exit via the wall and not the floor. I attach a photo of this (which is a UDDT, but the urine part is the same).

The hose could reach to the bottom of a jug or barrel for the storage of the urine until it is transported and used as fertilizer. The hose could also be perforated and buried among fruit trees, etc., to take advantage of the urine immediately and automatically.

Odors are not an issue with this model, but one could have a spray bottle with water in which citrus peels have been fermented in and apply small amounts on the funnel.

A small piece of plastic mesh in the ''throat'' of the funnel keeps garbage out.

No membrane needed.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday

Conservation Biologist and EcoSan Promoter
Omaere Ethnobotanical Park
Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador, South America
inodoroseco.blogspot.com
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  • balan52
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Re: Details on waterless urinals for women?

Dear Chris, Thanks for your feed back. Would it be possible to send me a drawing or design for enabling me to approach a factory to manufacture the waterless urinal. I have talked to them several times and they are requesting for a drawing. Could you please help me, warmest regards, Balan
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  • bsoutherland
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Re: Details on waterless urinals for women?

When available, biochar and urine work well together. Char provides odor control and splash control in an open bucket. Urine inoculates char for direct introduction into garden. Since char is ad-sorbing instead of ab-sorbing, less char is needed than un-charred biomass that is often used to absorb urine in composting toilets.
BTW, Char also keeps feces odor free. A simple retort that turns crop waste into char provides heat to render feces safe for fertilizer or for briquette binder. This approach to pathogen kill off shortens processing time from months to minutes.
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Re: Details on waterless urinals for women?

Where do you get the biochar?
What are your suggestions for local production of biochar?
How to make sure that the production is not generating unhealthy smoke and the biochar quality is ok (without containing toxic substances)?
Claudia

WECF - Water and Sanitation Specialist
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Re: Details on waterless urinals for women?

Dear Balan,

One of the advantages of that which I propose is that all of the parts already exist and do not need to be specially manufactured. The funnel we use is the standard 25-cm-diameter, plastic funnel that costs approximately US$2.50 (see attached). This funnel is easy to use and channels the urine into a thin hose that goes to the bottom of the storage container ... or is perforated and buried among fruit trees ... thus a seal to keep odors from coming up from the sewer is not necessary. A mesh bag of biochar (as bsoutherland suggests) could be placed in the funnel, but is generally not necessary.

I also attach a drawing of a simple female waterless urinal. The words are in Spanish, but you will likely understand (and I encourage you to ask any questions you may have). Note that there is a handle for the user to hold on to for support and equilibrium. The floor is 3-cm-thick ferrocement with ceramic tiles, or whatever floor you prefer. I propose building without roofs, to allow for more fresh air, light, cleansing with each rain, and sterilization with each strong sun. The funnels can be removed for cleaning, replacement, or safe storage when the institution is closed.

Please let me know if I can be of any further help.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday

Conservation Biologist and EcoSan Promoter
Omaere Ethnobotanical Park
Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador, South America
inodoroseco.blogspot.com
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  • bsoutherland
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Re: Details on waterless urinals for women?

Claudia,
Charcoal fines are a byproduct of lump charcoal production and can be purchased cheaply from manufacturers or vendors. I prefer to make biochar from crop waste. There are many types of retorts for making biochar. A few are listed here: www.biochar-international.org/technology/opensource
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Re: Details on waterless urinals for women?

Dear Chris, Thanks for the mail for the design of Ladies water less urinals. Please note that since the urine is used a N rich liquid fertilizer I doubt whether the urine of women during menopause is advisable/applicable to fruit/crop plant or trees. Kindly advise.

best regards,Balan
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Re: Details on waterless urinals for women?

Dear Balan,
I think you meant during menstruation not menopause? You are worried about the menstrual blood mixing with the urine?
I can tell you don't worry because the amount of blood compared to the amount of urine is insignificant and does not hamper any urine reuse activities.

There is a nice factsheet from 2006 from WECF addressing exactly this issue which I like very much:

WECF (2006). Ecological sanitation and hygienic considerations for women - Fact Sheet. Women in Europe for a Common Future, Netherlands and Germany
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/426

More about menstrual hygiene management (but not specifically about urine and menstrual blood and reuse) can be found here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/24-men...l-hygiene-management

So technically/scientifically there is no issue here; however perhaps some people have additional cultural taboos around menstrual blood in urine during reuse activities. If anyone has experiences on this, please share (could also start a new thread on this).

Regards,
Elisabeth

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Re: Details on waterless urinals for women?

Dear Balan,

As Elisabeth explained, women's urine is excellent for the soil, regardless of whether they are in menstruation or menopause, roughly the same as men's urine. The point is to apply it correctly in the soil, as G. Sridevi demonstrated in her PhD thesis in India.

bioresonline.org/archives/A144.pdf

One key datum is that large amounts of urine can be mixed into bare soil, more than one week before planting the crop, as this allows time for the soil microbes to assimilate the nitrogen, without plants being there yet that could get overdosed. When plants are there, dosing of urine must be more carefull.

If people are worried about handling women's urine that may contain menstrual blood, this is all the more reason to consider installing perforated hoses buried in the ground, so the urine is dispersed in the soil immediately without anyone having to have contact with it. In this, I recommend having a separate perforated hose for each urinal, in order to disperse the urine more and to avoid connections that could get plugged.

Please tell us more about the situations that you are planning for. Is there room for banana plants and fruit trees? Or is it in a densely populated inner-city? In the latter case, farmers should be found who would like to receive the urine as fertilizer.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday

Conservation Biologist and EcoSan Promoter
Omaere Ethnobotanical Park
Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador, South America
inodoroseco.blogspot.com
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  • toiletrevolution
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Re: Details on waterless urinals for women?

Hello,

Uridan, based in Denmark, make this waterless urinal for women:

www.toiletrevolution.com/products/waterless-urinals/compass/

There is an oil based trap that prevent odours from the sewer. The manufacturer says that this oil lasts 15000-20000 uses. Here is video on you tube showing how it works.
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