Decentralized sanitation a way to go for Ukraine?

  • BPopov
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Re: Decentralized sanitation a way to go for Ukraine?

Dear Roumiana

Thank you for interesting discussion too!
That’s right – I do not want to rely on authorities . I want to rely on communities))))
At the moment it looks for me like broad scale on-site individual waste water treatment with nutrient and water recycling is unrealistic since it may require too much user's involvement, is rather complicated and do not guarantee the quality, safety and pollution preventing. It is also something that is potentially illegal and against regulations in case of mixed flow or even grey water. Maximum what I expect on site is some grey water use for short periods in summer for the trees /shrubs and maybe some urine collection. I wish I am wrong. On the other hand most people probably will gladly connect to sewer on their street if it is offered for reasonable cost and service is provided. Local community small-scale farm integrated waste water treatment probably could provide this opportunity to have minimal level of centralization and at the same economic viability and necessary quality and procedures control as well as real sustainability in terms of recycling.

Thank you for making focus on matching the quantities of waste water produced by households and needed by WWTP! Also how it is related to available water supply on household level. Very important issues! What I think is that small-scale community based waste water treatment opens up possibility for feed back communications between users and WWT plant to ajust or modify activities on both sides. This is something hard to imagine with big centralized WWTP
I do not have precise data on willows water uptake at hand but can try to find. I am sure someone has done these researches in regard of willows in constructed wetlands or energy forests.
I have built recently a cold-climate heavily insulated biochar based vermifilter for a student hostel (24 PE) in Ukraine and experiment now with it. So far it doesn’t look for me like technology suitable for standard individual household for average Ukrainian family. For small scale WWTP, eco-farm or eco- dedicated Ukrainian family –definitely yes though.

Best,

Bogdan

Bogdan Popov
The Ecosolutions Forge
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  • goeco
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Re: Decentralized sanitation a way to go for Ukraine?

Hi Bogdan,
one important issue with regards to surface irrigation is that although you only have a few months of the year when it is really useful (summer), the rest of the year also provides benefits. Soil has "buffers" such as cation exchange capacity whereby nutrients are held from leaching until the plant roots take them up. Yes, water is not required all the time but storage until it is required might not be economic in most cases. However, the soil still acts as a filter preventing contamination of the water table even in periods where the irrigation is not required. For example here it rains all winter and the soil becomes saturated. The plants don't require the water because transpiration is minimal. Household systems still discharge treated wastewater on to the soil even when it is wet and raining. The idea is that surface discharge is better than trenches for preventing the treated wastewater from reaching water tables even when the soil is saturated because of the soils filtering and buffering capacity. Willows do not use any water at all during winter when we most want the water used. Like any plant, their water requirements are high only in summer when our wastewater is least likely to cause contamination. That is, we rely on soils rather than plants to be the buffer, soil stores the nutrients until when the plants want them. Plants offer a means for recycling the nutrients though, as in removal of crops or animals from the land for human consumption.
cheers
Dean

Dean Satchell, M For. Sc.
Go-Eco Sustainable Solutions
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  • BPopov
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Re: Decentralized sanitation a way to go for Ukraine?

Hi Dean!

You are absolutely right about making soil a buffer. That's why I am so interested in biochar modified soils.

Best,

Bogdan

Bogdan Popov
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  • BPopov
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Re: Decentralized sanitation a way to go for Ukraine?

Hello evrybody!
There are two very useful points became quite clear to me through the discussion
1) We should differentiate between irrigation and surface discharge for cold climate conditions . While irrigation that provides direct plant needs in water and nutrients may be practiced fot very limited period of the year in cold climate, surface discharge can be implemented for the most of the year (possibly whole year) and system can be designed for it through soil buffering strategies. Maybe it is better to talk about "soil surface treatment" which means the waste water is released above soil horyzon A but possibly below O horyzon en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Horizons.gif
2) The term “decentralized sanitation” can probably be only applied to on-site treatment, since whenever we have several users connected to sewer that brings WW to treatment we have some kind of centralization happening . In this latter case it is probably better to talk about “local” or “ small-scale” sanitation or even “community sanitation”.

Best,
Bogdan

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  • F H Mughal
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Re: Decentralized sanitation a way to go for Ukraine?

Dear Mr. Bogdan,

You say:

"Maybe it is better to talk about "soil surface treatment" which means the waste water is released above soil horyzon A but possibly below O horyzon."

Is the wastewater, you refer to here, is municipal treated wastewater, or it is untreated industrial wastewater?

Regards,
F H Mughal

F H Mughal (Mr.)
Karachi, Pakistan
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  • BPopov
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Re: Decentralized sanitation a way to go for Ukraine?

Dear Mr. F H Mughal!

I think in this topic we are mostly talking about wastewater produced in rural households.
Regards,
Bogdan

Bogdan Popov
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