Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme - Phase 1 and 2

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Re: Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) -Technical Support Unit

Dear Harini,

Thanks for introducing this interesting project to us here on the Forum!

I looked it up a bit further and updated its entry in SuSanA's project database which now looks like this:
www.susana.org/en/resources/projects/details/295

I saw that the grant size by the Gates Foundation is close to 5 million USD. This sounds like a lot, although if you are doing full-scale implementation in two cities then it's not so much.

You told us that:

"The programme is being implemented in Trichy and two town panchayats in Coimbatore – Periyanaicken-Palayam (PNP) and Narasimhanaicken-Palayam (NNP), that represent the two most significant typologies in the State for scaling up – the first, a large city that is partially sewered; and the latter, a cluster of smaller town panchayats.
In both locations, the programme is implementing projects and interventions along the full sanitation cycle, and city sanitation and investment plans are being prepared, in consultation with all stakeholders."


Could you give us an update on the current status (the project started October 2015)? What are the main achievements so far? What are the main frustrations?

Which technologies are you looking at? Since CDD is one of the partners, I am expecting to see some DEWATS-type wastewater treatment systems... :whistle: (information for Forum newbies: We have a section on DEWATS here: forum.susana.org/35-anaerobic-treatment-...s-sanitation-systems )

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Elisabeth

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Re: Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) -Technical Support Unit

Hi Elisabeth,

Thank you for your interest in the TNUSSP. I have attached our brochure and programme leaftlets that provide the latest updates on the activities that we have been engaged with. We will be happy to answer any specific questions or queries.

Regards

Harini

Senior Specialist- Knowledge Management
Tamil Nadu Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP)
Indian Institute of Human Settlements (IIHS)
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Re: Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) - Practice Briefs

Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) supports the Government of Tamil Nadu and cities in making improvements along the entire sanitation value chain. The TNUSSP is implemented by a consortium of organisations led by the Indian Institute for Human Settlements (IIHS), in association with CDD Society, Gramalaya and Keystone Foundation. As part of the knowledge management initiatives of the project, three practice briefs has been produced that showcases the findings, learnings, and best practices from our work. These briefs are targeted mainly at FSM practitioners, researchers and academic institutions. All practice briefs and the full reports are available in the resources section of the TNUSSP website ( www.tnussp.co.in ).

TNUSSP PRACTICE BRIEF #1: Legal and Institutional Arrangements for Sanitation in Tamil Nadu - In order to achieve 100% sanitation and improve the public health outcomes in urban Tamil Nadu, TNUSSP undertook a legal, regulatory and institutional review across the sanitation value chain. This review mapped the institutional arrangements, laws, and regulations that govern sanitation in the State. Our findings show that the current legal and institutional arrangements take a technocratic view of the challenges in the full cycle of sanitation rather than a public health approach where the State is the ultimate custodian of ensuring environmental sanitation.
This practice brief, provides a summary of this review along with the key areas of improvement, and a road map to achieve 100% safe sanitation and improved public health outcomes.

TNUSSP PRACTICE BRIEF #2: Capacity Building for FSM in Tamil Nadu - Capacity building has come to occupy a pivotal position in the water supply and sanitation sector, as a means to achieving overall improvements. At present, the public sector and more specifically the sanitation sector in India today, is fraught with i) poor domain knowledge and capacity; ii) lack of established precedence for implementation of operational procedures by government agencies; and iii) lack of systems for orientation and incentives to implement positive changes such as enforcing the full-cycle of sanitation from containment to disposal/re-use on a regular basis instead of engaging in a one-time campaign on sanitation.
This practice brief, provides TNUSSP’s multi-pronged approach towards addressing the capacity building gaps along the full cycle of sanitation. Findings from our Training Needs Assessment of Masons and ULB officers, and capacity building efforts such as the domestic and international exposure visits, and orientation programmes for officers and de-sludging operators are also discussed in detail.

TNUSSP PRACTICE BRIEF #3: A Behaviour Change Communication Strategy - In Tamil Nadu, currently, a range of behaviour deficits exist along the full cycle of sanitation, at the stages of capture, containment, emptying, transport and re-use/disposal. However, communication strategies in the sanitation sector have been largely limited to promoting hygiene behaviours such as handwashing or stopping open defecation by promoting the use of toilets. While these efforts are important, there are several other behaviour modifications along the full cycle of sanitation that need similar, if not more attention.
This practice brief, summarises TNUSSPs Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) strategy, consisting of campaigns, events and materials to address multiple behaviour deficits along the sanitation value chain. The strategy has been conceptualised to include segmentation and targeting of those who tend to embrace changes and newness (innovators and early adopters), evoke the benefits of new behaviour and the cost of current unsanitary practices, as well as promote a positive, aspirational position to evoke adoption of the ‘new way’.

Senior Specialist- Knowledge Management
Tamil Nadu Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP)
Indian Institute of Human Settlements (IIHS)
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Re: TNUSSP's World Toilet Day 2017 Celebrations

The Sustainable Development Goal No 6 , as envisaged by the United Nation, promises clean water and sanitation to all member nations by providing universal access to sanitation and reducing the proportion of untreated wastewater by 50 per cent. In keeping with this broader aim, the International World Toilet Day celebrated across the world on November 19, was pegged around the theme of wastewater and its effective treatment.
The Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP), which works in the South Indian State of Tamil Nadu, observed the World Toilet Day with celebrations in three of its project sites – Tiruchirappalli, a tier-2 city and a cluster of two smaller towns Periyanaicken-palayam and Narasimhanaicken-palayam.
As part of the daylong celebrations, a Social and Behaviour Change Communication (SBCC) campaign was organised in the three locations. This included a travelling musical film on the full cycle of sanitation, public outreach programmes, release of communication material and pop quiz competitions.
A formal event was organised by the local government in Tiruchirappalli, while government officials along with the project staff flagged off a rally in Periyanaicken-palayam. The question ‘where does your poo go?’ was at the heart of the campaign and messages on safe handling and safe disposal of fecal matter were repeatedly broadcast to the public. The local media as well as the radio stations were roped into the programme and were effectively used to spread the message of safe sanitation and its impact on public health.
The campaign raised the curiosity of the public in the three locations who had not engaged with the question of what happens after one flushes the toilet, and helped in mitigating the sense of shame and disgust that is traditionally associated with issues around sanitation. The campaign also gave an insight to the project staff on the importance of dealing with different sections of stakeholders and making communication campaigns interesting and accessible to the target population. It also showed that positive messaging – in this case linking public health to safe sanitation – works better as a tool of motivation and follow-up action and goes a long way in creating an enabling environment which can facilitate behaviour change.

Senior Specialist- Knowledge Management
Tamil Nadu Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP)
Indian Institute of Human Settlements (IIHS)
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Re: Scoping Exercise to Support Sustainable Urban Sanitation in Tamil Nadu: Secondary Review - Draft Report

The Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) has completed the Phase One of its intervention and is moving towards the Second Phase of the programme. Several interesting initiatives were undertaken during the course of the two years which included surveys, research studies, capacity building initiatives, behavior change and communication programmes, production of audio visual material etc. We will be sharing these reports, documents and audio visual material from these initiatives on SuSanA over the course of this month. These materials can also be accessed on our website: www.tnussp.co.in

The first in the series of reports is the secondary review of urban sanitation in Tamil Nadu. This review provides a situational analysis of water and sanitation in urban areas of the State of Tamil Nadu, India. This study draws mainly from available secondary literature and data from the government and other public sources. The report also has details on the legal and institutional framework, the administrative structure of urban governance, and an analysis of the State finances, and the finances of the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in Tamil Nadu.

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Re: TNUSSP -Scoping Exercise to Support Sustainable Urban Sanitation in Tamil Nadu: Primary Study Report – Vol I & II

With a view to scope the tasks under the Tamil Nadu sanitation mission, Indian Institute for Human Settlements (IIHS) carried out a scoping exercise (study) in 2015 to gain an in-depth understanding of the current arrangements and practices in the full cycle of sanitation. The factors incorporated in the study ranged from design and construction practices of on-site sanitation systems to septage collection and waste disposal in Pammal Municipality and two town panchayats of Periyanaicken-palayam and Narasimhanaicken-palayam in Coimbatore. This report is based on primary data collection including in-depth interviews with select households, masons and contractors, private business operators, as well as government officials, supplemented by secondary sources like the Census of India. The study shows that there is considerable divergence between prescribed standards and actual practices with respect to toilet design, construction and containment structures. In the study locations, regulatory measures for de-sludging and conveyance have been lax leading to unsafe disposal in non-designated areas. Also, the lack of sewage treatment plants (STPs) or emptying points nearby seems to be the biggest constraint to safe treatment and disposal. The study also found that the institutional capacities of the urban local bodies (ULBs) are limited to address the deficits in the full cycle of sanitation.

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Re: Scoping Exercise to Support Sustainable Urban Sanitation in Tamil Nadu: Exposure Visit Report

In India, there is lack of demonstrated successful models with respect to Fecal Sludge Management (FSM). As part of the scoping exercise to support sustainable urban sanitation in Tamil Nadu, it was essential that exposure visits are organised for the Government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) officers to locations where there were demonstrated successful models in implementation of FSM practices. Government stakeholders gaining exposure to robust FSM models in another developing country, was therefore, envisaged as one of the key preparatory steps for the development and operationalisation of effective FSM systems in Tamil Nadu. Based on secondary review, Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia and Dakar in Senegal were proposed as sites for the exposure visit. This report presents key learnings from these two locations with respect to effective implementation of FSM systems, which can be operationalised in Tamil Nadu. For instance, in Malaysia, regulatory frameworks are efficient and there is a clear allocation of roles and monitoring system across the sanitation value chain. In Senegal, the collaboration between the government agency and the private and informal service providers to sustain FSM is noteworthy.

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Re: Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme - Phase II

We received funding for a second phase of our "Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme". Phase 1 is described above in this thread or here in the SuSanA project database: www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/projects/database/details/295 . Phase 2 started in March of this year and goes until July 2020. Phase 2 is described below:

++++++++++

Purpose

To strengthen institutional capacities for promoting inclusive sanitation.

Activities
To demonstrate measurable improvements along the entire urban sanitation chain in Tamil Nadu, and strengthen institutional capacities for promoting inclusive sanitation with a focus on improved access for the urban poor.

The key activities carried out in this phase of the programme are:
1. Technical Assistance to ULBs/ Regional Entities
2. Improvement in Sanitation Treatment Facilities
3. Model for Promoting Regulated De-sludging
4. Leveraging Resources and Influencing Schemes and Projects
5. Capacity Building
6. Knowledge Management and Peer-to-Peer Learning
7. Community Engagement
8. Gender Mainstreaming
9. Behaviour Change and Communication
10. Improvement of Public and Community Toilets
11. Improvement of Occupational Conditions of Sanitation Workers
12. Enabling Environment and Governance


Objectives

The long term vision of this programme is that urban Tamil Nadu will be poised to becoming a fully sanitised and healthy state, substantially eliminating open defecation, achieving improvements in services through the entire sanitation value chain, and able to safely dispose an increasing proportion of its human excreta, and re-use/ recover resources therefrom.

Further information

In the first phase (2015-2017), the programme sought to establish two model towns in Tamil Nadu as well as create an enabling approach for state-wide scale up. A two-pronged approach of focusing on two model urban locations to demonstrate on-ground city-wide sanitation transformation, while simultaneously creating a state-wide enabling environment, for the roll-out and scaling-up of innovations later on was adopted. The programme, created as a Technical Support Unit (TSU), worked closely with the Government of Tamil Nadu, and established an Advisory Committee (AC), headed by the Principal Secretary, and including representatives of the Gates Foundation (BMGF), to enable efficient co-ordination and faster approvals for the programme.

This second phase will build on the achievements of the first phase. Instead of taking up a selected number of ULBs for implementation support in an incremental manner, this phase will adopt the approach of state-wide scaling-up and demand-based advisory support to ULBs.

This work is funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation with a grant of US$ 3,617,559.

For further information please see: www.tnussp.co.in

Link to SuSanA project database: https://www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/projects/database/details/575

Senior Specialist- Knowledge Management
Tamil Nadu Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP)
Indian Institute of Human Settlements (IIHS)
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Re: Reply on - Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme - Phase 2

Kind Attn. P I C : SriHarini.

It is observed that there are 12 Nos objectives to be addressed.

As a person having passion on this specific subject on holistic sanitation principles and practices, and in general on this subject, wish to offer comments as below:

1. As regards OD it would be seen that still 25% of the urbn poor community opt to follow the old practice..

Hence it would be prudent to have these spaces as being used for OD as for Controlled OD.
ie have similar area wise space for alternating use.. ie..one in use and the other on O&M..ie operation and maintain practices..

All the human sludge are cleaned removed and co composted with bio mass cow dung as starter etc..and manure is created for use in agri farms etc..

The success is felt when the waste is utilised as resource and the project is sustained..

2. In many poor urban belts with no STPs, all ww gets released without any treatment for varied reasons with ULBs..

At all these locations it is best to design and plan STPs working on natural treatment..
The proposal as suggested, no doubt would sound not in order ie issuing a feeling of " No confidence on ULBs"
But the reality is to be sensed and aptly one has to initiate corrective action for ensuring better quality of living in communities.

Natural treatment at all streams to be carried out as the flow is maintained.
Wherever the effluent streams from communities meet the bigger drain channel at the location of confluene point have deep ponds done.

At this location if a road or a lane exists.it would serve for using a desilter, dredger dumper to clear debries ex community..etc.
These accumulations are valuable to be composted and used as manure.

3. If a cesspool in the flow channels exists it could be used for treatmnt process on Dewats principles and practices.

The remedied water is recycled for growing.. floats having plants- elephant grass..
This plant sp. is used for feeding live stock cattle. goats pigs and ducks etc.

4. 2 Nos SHG s are created one for growng feed. Another taking care of live stock for commercial interest etc The above notings are issued as guidance for doing environmental good and social benefits etc. in communities.
( Kind courtesy - CURE, Delhi Ngo)

Prof Ajit Seshadri.
Vels Unversity. Chennai. INDIA .

Prof. Ajit Seshadri, Senior Faculty in Marine Engg. Deptt. Vels University, and
Environment Consultant (Water shed Mngmnt, WWT, WASH, others) Chennai, India
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Re: Reply on - Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme - Phase 2

Dear Prof. Seshadri,

Thank you for your detailed message. Some of your suggestions are useful and we will definitely take it up for discussion internally. Apologies for the delay in replying to your message.

Regards
Harini

Senior Specialist- Knowledge Management
Tamil Nadu Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP)
Indian Institute of Human Settlements (IIHS)
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Re: Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) -Technical Support Unit

Kind Attn: Dear SriHarini {This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.}
I am introduced to this project recently. I am completely an outsider for this ‘domain’ and started examining various reports and material of the project. My experience is on large projects which do not have intense social interface. I realize that the ‘human’ component of the TNUSSP program is distinct and has maximum impact on final results. While the technology, process, quality control, measures and skill components are necessary agents of change.

I had spent quality time reading through material accessible online - from the TNUSSP web site and at forum.susana.org. I am yet to read the fine-print and every page of the various reports. Few aspects that need clarity from my present appreciation, are posted herein for your feedback.

TNUSSP web pages support a complete range of product write-ups, brochures and forms. The susana.org page provides necessary project specific documents. Both are missing information on project framework, financial summary, plan, technology, database and metrics.
How and where the Phase-1 performance is measured against?
How does the Phase-2 work program learn from the results in Phase-1?

The 4 main reports issued are :
i) TNSSSecondaryReviewDraft_final_02Jan18.pdf; (Only Draft)
ii) TNSSPrimaryStudyReport-Vol2_final_03Jan18.pdf;
iii) TNSSPrimaryStudyReport-Vol1_final_04Jan18.pdf; and
iv) TNSSExposureVisitReport_final_03Jan18.pdf.
IIHS or TNUSSP site has no other project specific document repository.
Is there an overarching Phase-1 summary presentation?

Every organization has its method of project planning and execution. The TNUSSP consortium led by IIHS and supported by partner agencies (Gramalaya, Keystone Foundation and CDD Society) have divided the work/ task components and completed them in Phase-1.
What tasks are identified?
How are the tasks scoped?
Where in the consortium (which member) executed the task?
How and where their accomplishments got integrated?

It is worthy to have a look at Project mind-map and the various completed, ongoing, partly accomplished, to-do studies.

The overall project is financed from BMGF. It is published as: i) Phase-1 (2015-17)=$4.68MM; and ii) Phase-2 (2018-20)=$3.6MM (~= IRS 32.7Cr+25.2cr=57.9Cr or 579MM). The Keystone Foundation has disclosed the financial support from IIHS ~ (?) Phase-1: ~6.2MM; Phase-2: ~6.6MM. An understanding of major project components and their financial implication is necessary. The end customer (Municipal Administration and Water Supply -MAWS Department) must be separately expending in a big way towards all major EPC projects, Operations, Maintenance etc.
What is the financial summary of Phase-1?
What is the financial plan for Phase-2?

The project is scoped with a very broad and overarching scope statement - “to provide public health benefits and city-wide sanitation improvements for urban populations in Tamil Nadu by demonstrating innovations in two model urban locations, as well as enabling a state-wide scaling up ”. Similar wide scoping is also published in the TNUSSP web page - “The programme aims to improve urban sanitation in Tamil Nadu by demonstrating innovations in two model cities— Coimbatore and Trichy — and then scaling it up across the state.”. The stated (specific or defined) Focus Areas also are broad and wide encompassing.
What are the study list, process components, development tasks etc. for the project?
Are each of them handled as a sub-project with its documentation and reports?

The top-down project framework with its component work items (tasks or studies) is needed to appreciate the complexity and work done. Such clearly presented information - “Plan” -vs- “Actual” along the workflow to the overall project objective is required. “Total Clean/Sustainable Sanitation Cycle ( Muzhu Sugadharam)” is laudable end goal. But all the steps towards it need to be specified. These need corroboration with achievements in Phase-1 and plan in Phase-2
I repeat message of Ms. Elisabeth on 11-May 2017 -
“What are the main achievements so far?
What are the main frustrations?”

Phase-2 is essentially a “Scale-up” and “Roll-out” of what is established in Phase-1. This needs to be very “Specific” and Quantifiable (At least, semi-quantitative). Lessons learnt, strategy and implementation aspects are important for Phase-2 to realistically achieve statewide implementation. Most of this is missing in reports.
What are established in Phase-1?
Which of them are ready and useful for Scale-up?
How much of Full Cycle of Sanitation (FCS) is addressed in Phase-1?

Value-Of-Information is a useful ranking tool to decide where to invest or in decision making for projects with tricky data sets. Value Chain analysis or McKinsey 7s Model may also be useful.
Are any specific management tool (s) deployed in this project management?

Database is the mechanism for transparency, accountability and management. A wide range of data becomes the foundation for the successful implementation and control of the sanitation systems. Volume-2 of the Phase-1 report showcases a number of forms and questionnaires. The Scoping Exercise collated a wide amount of data (largely GIS).
Has the Project data & collected data been made into a database for analysis and interpretation?

The team also would have accessed a number of scientific resources and data. Knowledge and communication material is also created as part of the project. Organizing and publishing them exclusively for use of public is important.
Are you examining knowledge dissemination portal?

I am still a learner in this socially important subject matter. I shall try to keep up to the learning demand and make my work visible and useful. I am posting my collection on the shared drive below:
drive.google.com/drive/folders/1UhXPPUVN...fC1TGN09?usp=sharing

I would appreciate getting a clear top-down picture of the project and its current status.
Thanks!

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Re: Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) -Technical Support Unit

Note by moderator: The answer by Gayathri was deleted by mistake, I have copied it back here:

Dear Mr. Guruswamy,

Thank you for your keen interest in our programme, which is well demonstrated by the range of questions you have posed.
Tamil Nadu Urban Sanitation Support Programme (TNUSSP) launched in 2015 aimed at achieving improvements along the entire sanitation chain in the state of Tamil Nadu by demonstrating innovations in two model locations as well as enabling state-wide scaling up. Indian Institute for Human Settlements (IIHS) leads a Technical Support Unit (TSU) that has been set up within the Municipal Administration and Water Supply Department, Government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF).

A two-pronged approach was adopted
1. Demonstration of innovation in two urban locations
• Trichy, a partially-sewered large city that needs Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) solutions as a complementary solution to become 100 per cent sanitation secure
• Periyanaicken-Palayam (PNP) and Narasimhanaicken-Palayam (NNP), a cluster of two small towns, that will use FSM as a stand-alone solution to demonstrate clustering of towns
2. Implementation of state-level policies and actions to support rapid scaling-up of innovations in all urban areas of the state by creating a state-wide enabling environment at the state level through policies, requirements and budgetary allocations.

Activities undertaken during phase I include
1. Conducting specific studies in Trichy, PNP and NNP across the sanitation chain, findings from which have informed the programme.
Access - Public/ Community Toilet Assessment in Trichy, PNP and NNP and Slum Vulnerability Assessment in PNP and NNP
Containment- Mapping of Households and containment systems in PNP and NNP and Storm Water Drain Pollution Study in Select Catchment Areas in Trichy, PNP and NNP
Collection and Transportation - Desludging Operators Study in Trichy, PNP and NNP
Treatment - Assessment of Fecal Sludge receiving facilities for Co-treatment in Trichy and Assessment of Waste Stabilisation Ponds in Trichy

2. Assistance to the GoTN in implementation of key projects: This included conducting feasibility studies, identifying key challenges and bottlenecks, developing risk mitigation and implementation strategies, engineering design and planning of projects and project management.

3. Capacity building through orientation/ training programmes on FSM for Government officers, engineers, desludging operators and masons

4. Developing a Behavioural Change Communication strategy to define the overall approach for behaviour change of multiple stakeholders. For implementing the strategy, various audio-visual tools have been developed and were used extensively during various training programmes. In addition, a range of behavioural change communication activities have been done in schools and for general public in Trichy, PNP and NNP.

5. Developing a Muzhu Sugadharam Information System to collect relevant data on septage management at the ULB level based on the Operative Guidelines on Septage Management. Towards this a Muzhu Sugadharam (MuSu) app has been launched which assesses the current state of the ULBs with respect to different parts of the sanitation chain and will also track progress overtime.

6. Documenting a range of studies (baselines, scoping study, assessments etc.) and lessons learnt from project planning and implementation

An Advisory Committee (AC), chaired by the Principal Secretary, Municipal Administration and Water Supply (MAWS), plays an important role in monitoring, reviewing and guiding the programme at the state level. In addition, there are working groups at the district level as well. Programme activities in Trichy are done in partnership with Gramalaya, and those in PNP and NNP are done with Keystone Foundation and CDD Society is the technical partner.

In terms of scoping, the broad programme approach for TNUSSP Phase I was defined by the Operative Guidelines on Septage Management issued by the GoTN in September 2014 and the Scoping study which was conducted by IIHS (which you have referred to).

The issuance of Operative Guidelines on Septage Management set the context for uptake of Fecal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) services. However, while the state had issued guidelines, operationalising it at the level of urban local body (ULB) required a higher degree of buy in. For one, network based system was being perceived as an ultimate solution. Secondly, FSM did not have a working demonstration model which could be easily related to. Thirdly, FSM was one among the many priorities which Government officers had to juggle with.

TNUSSP-I persisted with multiple approaches to help decision-makers start looking at FSSM as possible and good solutions for Tamil Nadu. This took time, but using a combination of advocacy material and events, exposure visits (domestic and international), capacity building and powerful communications, some of the key decision-makers at the state level as well as in ULBs, started looking upon FSSM solutions as possibilities to move forward with. Efforts during phase I have helped achieve a state of preparedness for the approaches tested to be scaled up to have significant and lasting impact on urban sanitation in Tamil Nadu.

GoTN identified Karunguzhi, a town panchayat in Kanchipuram district to demonstrate FSSM by constructing a Fecal Sludge Treatment Plant (FSTP). Operational since 2017, the plant has a treatment capacity of 23.4 kilo litre per day and serves the needs of Karunguzhi and the adjacent municipality of Madhuranthagam. The FSTP has been developed as an educational and resource centre.

GoTN moved forward on implementing the Operative Guidelines on Septage Management by developing a state-level strategy along with a State Investment Plan (SIP). Under this, the state and the UL) will be primary financiers for decanting stations and FSTPs. Increased treatment coverage is to be achieved by utilisation of existing treatment capacities and clustering. Co-treatment has been mandated at all Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) across the state. Towards this existing treatment capacities in 41 STPs across 69 ULBs will be leveraged and a cluster approach would be used to optimise utilisation. Further, new treatment capacities are planned through FSTP with GoTN passing order for construction of 49 FSTPs in 2018.

TNUSSP-II (2018-2020) aims at strengthening the institutional capacities for promoting inclusive sanitation in urban areas in Tamil Nadu, specifically aiming at gender sensitive interventions and aiming to improve access for urban poor. In parallel, it seeks to demonstrate measurable improvements in the full cycle of sanitation by up-scaling Fecal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) and non-sewered sanitation solutions state wide, as well as in select urban locations.

The key activities being carried out in this phase of the programme are:
• Technical Assistance to ULBs/ regional entities such as preparation of sanitation plans, assessment of techno-managerial systems, Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) and creation of fundable projects
• Improvement in Sanitation Treatment Facilities
• Model for Promoting Regulated De-sludging
• Leveraging Resources and Influencing Schemes and Projects
• State wide scale-up of capacity building initiatives by partnering with government and private organisations to conduct trainings
• Knowledge management and peer-to-peer learning by systematic documentation from the Tamil Nadu project
• Community Engagement
• Improvement of Public and Community Toilets building on the initial assessments done in phase I
• Enabling Environment and Governance

AC set up in phase 1, continues to guide the programme and is supplemented by a State Working Group which comprises of officers who are operationalising FSM and coordinates across various departments. The second phase builds on the lessons learnt from Phase I:
• Number of diagnostic studies conducted on the entire sanitation chain and on various stakeholders will be used in Phase II to design strategies for each component in the chain.
• Two different kinds of urban locations that represent the two most significant typologies in the state for scaling up - one a large Class I city that is partially sewered; and second, a cluster of smaller town panchayats were chosen in phase 1. Based on the experience in cities, the team will develop different models, including a cluster approach that can implemented in different ULB classes.
• Upon completion of FSTPs, requisite processes and documents will be put in place to enable the government to establish and maintain FSTPs.

At the state level, Muzhu Sugadharam Information System helps monitor progress on operative guidelines while at the programme level we have an overall results framework which is used to monitor progress.

Our website is the key mode through which we disseminate knowledge, while also leveraging out facebook and twitter accounts to disseminate outputs and engage with stakeholders. In addition, we regularly publish in various portals and our events and outputs are covered by the Indian press which is also linked up on the website.

All the data collected during the course of study are compiled as analytical reports, while GIS data collected is used for programme planning and implementation.

In addition to the few reports you have referred to, a range of knowledge products are uploaded on the site, which include strategy documents, practice briefs, reports, project apps, training material, and laws & regulations. Further, audio-visual outputs developed and apps & tools developed have also been uploaded. Please do take a look at the range of products that are available now. We do plan to continuously upload more knowledge products as they are finalised.

I once again thank you for your keen interest in our project and apologise for the delay in responding.
Thank you
Gayathri

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Dear TNUSSP Rep.
My well wishes to your program and remain sustained for community benefit.
At the outset of your intention on Phs 1 and 2, suggest you have all initiatives

1. To make use of wastes as resources.
Viz.
Re use water ex effluent from wwtp for secondary uses- industrial water, irrigation for agrivfarms, urban parks and gardens.
Solid sludges co composted to evolve soil nutrients and for barren -space developmnt for future farms.
Urban landfills to create primary process for rural farms.
2. To have all facilities taking care of wastes to be aesthetically attractive for ULBs to emulate practices at all spaces.
ULBs to be rewarded for all good deeds,

Well wishes for great progress in future .

Prof Ajit Seshadri .

Prof. Ajit Seshadri, Senior Faculty in Marine Engg. Deptt. Vels University, and
Environment Consultant (Water shed Mngmnt, WWT, WASH, others) Chennai, India
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