What are the differences and similarities between the treatment of FS through the Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) and FSTP?

  • nasirsahar
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STP vs. FSTP

Hi everyone!

May you suggest or offer some readings that may provide clarification on: ---

1. What are the differences and similarities between the treatment of FS through the Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) and FSTP?
2. Apart from CLUES & San-21, what are other methods for FSM planning?
3. Why should Faecal sludge not be discharged into sewerage network if sewage flows to STPs and treatment happen there?
4. Plan & Budget Components of an FSM project?
5. Is any review/compendium available on FSM projects worldwide? that may provide details of everything not only limited to technology?
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  • rahulmankotia
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Re: STP vs. FSTP

The link below is an aggregator of case studies in FSSM. Hope this would be of help
www.cseindia.org/mount/home

There are a lot of guidelines and practitioners guide on FSSM developed by a lot of agencies which can answer most of your queries you mentioned.
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  • vitorhfdiogo
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Re: STP vs. FSTP

Hi Mr. Nasiruddin,

I believe that the answer to most of these questions can be found in this book, specially regarding the questions 1 and 3:

www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resource...library/details/3591

I would also strongly recommend you to read this one, that covers lots of treatment technology aspects and bring some very useful information on existing systems:

www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resource...library/details/3439

And also, since you're from India, I believe this other material would help you with question no. 4:

stepsforsanitation.org/2019/02/techno-ec...ed-systems-in-india/

About the case studies, I would suggest you to go through the FSM Conferences Case Studies. (for example www.susana.org/en/knowledge-hub/resource...library/details/2760 ) You can find them in the knowledge hub.

Good luck with your research!
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  • muench
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Re: STP vs. FSTP

Hi Nasir,

The others have already given you good references to read for your questions. I just wanted to quickly add something on your question 1 and 3:
1. What are the differences and similarities between the treatment of FS through the Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) and FSTP?

A faecal sludge treatment plant (FSTP) would have more similarities with the "sewage sludge treatment processes" of a sewage treatment plant, as faecal sludge is much thicker in consistency than sewage. The Wikipedia article on sewage sludge treatment is quite good: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sewage_sludge_treatment
So if your local sewage treatment plant has a good sewage sludge treatment process with spare capacity (probably unlikely), maybe the sludge line could be used to process additional fecal sludge that you could deliver there by tanker.

3. Why should Faecal sludge not be discharged into sewerage network if sewage flows to STPs and treatment happen there?

I think there can be situations where this is possible to discharge faecal sludge in the sewer. It depends on how much faecal sludge you have compared to the sewage flow. If the faecal sludge proportion is low compared to the wastewater flow, and the sewers and STPs are not overloaded it could work. There needs to be enough velocity in the sewers though to sweep along the additional solids.
On the other hand, it may seem illogical to dilute the faecal sludge with water when later on you will have to apply processes to dewater the faecal sludge again.

Hope these pointers help a little bit. Why did you ask?

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  • muench
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Re: STP vs. FSTP

I came across this presentation which fits well into this thread. It was presented at FSM5 in February 2019 ( fsm5.susana.org/en/downloads/conference-materials )

The title was “Co-treatment of Faecal Sludge and Sewage at STPs” ( fsm5.susana.org/images/FSM_Conference_Ma...P_ASCI_18Feb2019.pdf )
by Prof. V Srinivas Chary, Dr. Y. Malini Reddy, Prof. Balasubramanian from Administrative Staff College of India

It basically confirms what I said above: if the sewage treatment plant has spare capacity then it can deal with fecal sludge as well.
Two slides from the presentation:





Apparently there is lots of spare capacity in India's sewage treatment plants. Why is that? Presumably because many are new and have been built with future population growth in mind? Or is it because households are less likely to connect their houses to sewers than expected? Or construction of sewers has not kept up with construction of sewage treatment plants?

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Elisabeth

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  • nasirsahar
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Re: STP vs. FSTP

Thank you for this valuable information. I will go into the website link and explore, though, I generally find that dedicated FSTPs being built in India do not address household wastewater. FSTPs only address Faecal Sludge, while STPs treats wastewater that addresses everything, thats one point which demotivates Authorities to adopt dedicated FSTPs.

However, many authorities adopting co-processing. Concern only is to understand if treatment through STP adequately addresses pathogen removal from the sewage?
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  • nasirsahar
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Re: STP vs. FSTP

There are mixed reasons for the spare capacities of STPs as you presumed as well. More critical among many reasons are internal politics of authorities dealing with STPs, illegal connections are hidden and many other reasons.

Working with many ULBs, I came across the experience that authorities themselves are not aware of how many actual connections their sewer systems had.
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  • DhwaniShah
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Re: STP vs. FSTP

Hi Mr. Nasiruddin,

I am Dhwani Sheth. I have been working at Centre for Water and Sanitation since past three years.

Our centre has been established a decade ago.

We have been working on FSSM since past eight years and have prepared various materials on FSM planning along with various tools like SaniPlan and online applications like SaniTab and SaniTrack on FSM planning.

I would suggest you to go through our website, specifically urban sanitation page: www.pas.org.in/web/ceptpas/urbansanitati...AccessChecking=false

We have also prepared sanitation toolkit-IFSM toolkit : which will guide you how to plan for FSSM- starting from planning to technology selection to financial planning and possibility of private sector involvement.

I am sure, this will answer many of your questions.

Here you will find materials which are tried and tested onsite, as we are supporting the government of Maharashtra and working in cities of Maharashtra.

Have a good learning experience.!

Good day.

Thank you.
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  • nasirsahar
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Re: [SuSanA Forum] What are the differences and similarities between the treatment of FS through the Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) and FSTP? (Faecal sludge treatment technologies)

Hi Dhwani Sheth,

This is awesome to connect with you and thanks a lot for sharing the resource links of PAS. I am much more concerned about some practical aspects that most of local authorities question in order to find a response. By the way, these resources will help as well. Should you feel find convenient you may email me ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ) some more resources as I am looking to facilitate the training of ULB Staffs and Private operators.

Kind regards,
Nasir
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  • LucyStevens
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Re: [SuSanA Forum] What are the differences and similarities between the treatment of FS through the Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) and FSTP? (Faecal sludge treatment technologies)

I wanted to bring this very practical guide to your attention, as I think it might provide you with some of the answers you're looking for:

It's called 'Faecal Sludge and Septage Treatment: A guide for low- and middle-income countries' - but Kevin Tayler. Kevin has a vast amount of experience of working in the contexts you describe over the past 35 years.

The book is available for FREE DOWNLOAD from Practical Action Publishing here: www.developmentbookshelf.com/doi/book/10.3362/9781780449869

Also, if you would like us to put you in touch directly with Kevin, he might well be willing to give you some pointers.

Many thanks, Lucy Stevens
Head of Urban Services (WASH and Waste Mgt), Practical Action
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  • nasirsahar
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Re: [SuSanA Forum] What are the differences and similarities between the treatment of FS through the Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) and FSTP? (Faecal sludge treatment technologies)

Hi Lucy Stevens,
this is really a wonderful resource book by Kevin Tyler. Few Months back, I was in touch with Kevin Tyler, and got some of good tips for FSM.

I would surely go through this resource.

Regards, Nasir
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