Solutions for planning sustainable sanitation for a dense settlement on hilly area

  • npopat
  • npopat's Avatar
    Topic Author
  • Posts: 5
  • Likes received: 1

Solutions for planning sustainable sanitation for a dense settlement on hilly area

The challenging conditions of topography and geology makes it difficult to plan a sustainable onsite sanitation for a dense settlement developed on a hilly terrain. Due to the rocky nature, containment system are not successful nor these can be easily connected to centralized sewer system. What are the suitable options available to convert existing system (Toilets
>Septic tank/Holding tank----> Effluent flowing in open).

Consultant-WASH
NIUA
You need to login to reply
  • JKMakowka
  • JKMakowka's Avatar
  • Just call me Kris :)
  • Posts: 924
  • Karma: 35
  • Likes received: 297

Re: Solutions for planning sustainable sanitation for a dense settlement on hilly area

Somewhat difficult to give an opinion on this if we don't know more about the setting and what is acceptable to the users...

But just a a starting point for discussion: convert existing septic systems into basic graywater treatment and switch to container based sanitation for the urine and fecal matter?

Microbiologist & emergency WASH specialist
WASH news aggregator at: news.watsan.eu
You need to login to reply
  • huchugladys
  • huchugladys's Avatar
  • Posts: 1
  • Likes received: 1

Re: Solutions for planning sustainable sanitation for a dense settlement on hilly area

Mwanza city government in Tanzania has taken a lead role to achieve sustainability by managing transition process from slum typical conditions to provision of urban basic services mainly water, sanitation and improved paths by constructing outdoor staircases. Mwanza city is using a multilevel model of governance which shapes processes of co-evolution using visions, transition experiments and cycles of learning and adaptation. The city is the first in Tanzania to implement simplified sewer as innovative sanitation technology which can be adapted and scaled to up and replicated in settlements which have the same topographical settings ( steep hills, characterized by large boulders of granite).

The Mwanza Water and Sanitation (LVWATSAN) integrated project exemplifies how city governments can adapt inclusive and sustainable incremental urban development planning strategy. The idea of improving sanitation service provision infrastructure and facilities by means of increasing access to basic sanitation is fundamental to showcase how basic service provision act as an enabler to provision of other basic services such as mobility and accessibility. Upgrading unplanned settlements in Mwanza exemplifies that there is a greater potential for achieving equitable access to sanitation in cities through interventions that explicitly aim to promote access to basic services.

Technology Interventions:
The city introduced the first simplified sewerage system (SS) in Tanzania on 30 November 2017 through integrating the design of the system with other forms of existing sewerage system while improving access for pedestrians by constructing outdoor staircases. The city’s simplified sewerage system has helped increase access to basic sanitation at the same time connecting low-income residents amongst themselves and to their city by way of putting accessibility as a priority during construction of SS system. Whereas SS piping route followed existing paths, it meant that access paths became narrower for pedestrians and physically unsafe as the pipes are laid above ground covered with concrete making walking difficult. Therefore, during construction, all paths which had become narrower due to their multi-function as both paths for walking and sewer pipe routes; were improved by building outdoor staircases. In instances where SS pipe routing covered the whole path, alternative paths nearby the houses were upgraded to outdoor staircases to ensure that individual households have easier, safer and wide enough spaces for walking and accessing their houses. Therefore, the project not only increased access to basic sanitation, but at the same time ensured enhanced accessibility and mobility by means of improving access paths and replacing them with outdoor stair cases.
The following user(s) like this post: JKMakowka
You need to login to reply
  • npopat
  • npopat's Avatar
    Topic Author
  • Posts: 5
  • Likes received: 1

Re: Solutions for planning sustainable sanitation for a dense settlement on hilly area

Grey water from these settlements is let to flow in open drains (constructed). Only waste from Toilet Flows into Septic tanks. The term used here is septic tanks but they are just lined tanks which are not constructed as per standards. Thus big tanks holding waste which is not emptied for almost 10-15 years. The effluent from these tanks also flows out in open drains.

Could you elaborate on container based sanitation systems?

Consultant-WASH
NIUA
You need to login to reply
  • JKMakowka
  • JKMakowka's Avatar
  • Just call me Kris :)
  • Posts: 924
  • Karma: 35
  • Likes received: 297

Re: Solutions for planning sustainable sanitation for a dense settlement on hilly area

That sounds very interesting. Do you have some pictures of the construction of these staircases with simplified sewers in them?
Any issues with too much slope?

Also, what is the plan for dealing with the solids in the household retention tanks? Manual emptying and transport also on these staircases?

I think from a solid waste etc. perspective many of such places would really benefit from simple electric cargo only cable cars.

Edit: see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Container-based_sanitation
But this sounds more like the above described simplified sewers would do.

Microbiologist & emergency WASH specialist
WASH news aggregator at: news.watsan.eu
You need to login to reply
  • npopat
  • npopat's Avatar
    Topic Author
  • Posts: 5
  • Likes received: 1

Re: Solutions for planning sustainable sanitation for a dense settlement on hilly area

Thanks for sharing this. Could you share a case study or something to have more insights?

Consultant-WASH
NIUA
You need to login to reply
  • naresh0597
  • naresh0597's Avatar
  • Posts: 5
  • Likes received: 1

Re: Solutions for planning sustainable sanitation for a dense settlement on hilly area

Consider using Bio-Digester Systems...more details on our website www.biodigester.in

This message has an attachment file.
Please log in or register to see it.

You need to login to reply
  • goeco
  • goeco's Avatar
  • Self employed innovator with an interest in wastewater treatment systems and recycling of nutrients
  • Posts: 215
  • Karma: 6
  • Likes received: 110

Re: Solutions for planning sustainable sanitation for a dense settlement on hilly area

"Biodigester" tanks are just septic tanks with proprietary additives. Stay away from snake oil. Also stay away from anaerobic systems that do not harvest the methane and that require fecal sludge removal/management.

Another solution, rather than separating greywater systems from container-based systems for fecal waste, is primary vermifiltration at the household level for both blackwater and greywater (to remove and digest the solids), connected to simplified sewers that transport solid-free primary treated wastewater to semi-centralised vermifiltration units for secondary treatment and safe land-based disposal.

cheers
Dean

Dean Satchell, M For. Sc.
Go-Eco Sustainable Solutions
www.go-eco.co.nz
You need to login to reply
  • naresh0597
  • naresh0597's Avatar
  • Posts: 5
  • Likes received: 1

Re: Solutions for planning sustainable sanitation for a dense settlement on hilly area

We beg to differ.....Bio-Digester Systems and Septic Tanks are completely different in design and construction. If we were to go by your logic then adding the proprietary additives in septic tank should work....the fact is they do not work and are washed out within a matter of few days ...which means the design and construction of Bio-Digester Systems is completely different from Septic Tanks.

More details are available on our website www.biodigester.in

Please also find attached our technical brochure for your information.

This message has an attachment file.
Please log in or register to see it.

You need to login to reply
  • goeco
  • goeco's Avatar
  • Self employed innovator with an interest in wastewater treatment systems and recycling of nutrients
  • Posts: 215
  • Karma: 6
  • Likes received: 110

Re: Solutions for planning sustainable sanitation for a dense settlement on hilly area

Keep in mind that npopat requires a system for a dense settlement on a hilly area. The biodigester is only a primary treatment system, so could be used as an alternative to the primary vermifilter, but simplified sewers and a semi-centralised secondary treatment system would still be required, preferably using only gravity and with land disposal of the treated wastewater outside of the dense settlement. I doubt the household-scale biodigester would be cheaper than a primary vermifilter per person, but this is an option, along with the current septic tanks for removing the solids so that low-cost simplified sewers can be used.

This biodigester can only be claimed to be more efficient than a septic tank for primary treatment. Thats all. This means that the capacity is smaller for the same level of treatment, or that treatment is better for the same capacity. Nothing more. Claims that both capacity is reduced AND treatment is improved are misleading. It's one or the other, not both... i.e. does a biodigester at one third of the capacity of a septic tank give the same treatment level?

This design may be an improvement from the standard septic tank, in that the compartments are smaller and there are three within each tank instead of two. The "poly grass matting" dividing each compartment would provide better bacterial attachment sites than a concrete wall, but this is still just an anaerobic "septic tank" for primary treatment. In series they become a "dewats". Capacity is required because anaerobic treatment has efficiency limitations, that is it isn't fast compared with aerobic.

The claim is that one cubic metre capacity biodigester is sufficient for basic primary treatment for 6-10 people, one third of the capacity of a septic tank. Show me the independant study published in a reputable journal with data showing that capacity reduction factor, benchmarked against the conventional septic tank with identical influent flows. If this system achieves a genuine cost reduction over the conventional septic tank and achieved the same treatment levels then I'd be the first to agree that the "bacterial reservoir" design is a step forward.

However, claims that no sludge removal is required are absurd. Sludge is inevitable in anaerobic systems.

I do like the biogas outlet in this design, which offers the option to harvest and use the methane, unlike conventional dewats.

The special bacterial culture... well just another income stream for the business. There is no doubt that belief is a very powerful marketing tool.

There are many inaccuracies presented on the website which invite scepticism. Sorry, but septic tanks are not aerobic. Ringworm or tinea is not a type of intestinal worm infection. The list goes on... this is a sales/marketing website, not one presenting objective facts.

cheers

Dean

Dean Satchell, M For. Sc.
Go-Eco Sustainable Solutions
www.go-eco.co.nz
You need to login to reply
  • naresh0597
  • naresh0597's Avatar
  • Posts: 5
  • Likes received: 1

Re: Solutions for planning sustainable sanitation for a dense settlement on hilly area

Please have a look at the attachment wherein the test results of the effluent discharged by our Bio-DIgester Systems is tabulated.

It would be interesting to read your comments / observations on these test results.

This message has an attachment file.
Please log in or register to see it.

You need to login to reply
  • goeco
  • goeco's Avatar
  • Self employed innovator with an interest in wastewater treatment systems and recycling of nutrients
  • Posts: 215
  • Karma: 6
  • Likes received: 110

Re: Solutions for planning sustainable sanitation for a dense settlement on hilly area

Hi naresh0597,
what I am trying to explain is that claims are not the same as independently verified findings. In promoting your product you are directly comparing performance of your "biodigester" with the conventional septic tank. This may arouse suspicion on the objectivity of the comparison.

Only by undertaking an independent scientific investigation, using exactly the same influent quantity and quality, and measuring the effluent across a sufficient sample size and over time, can you objectively compare two treatment systems. I could claim that snake oil is twice as effective at treating arthritis than green lipped mussel extract. That claim is meaningless because I do not also consider the effect of dose. Then, even if I "proved" the efficacy with my own data and used that in my marketing media, I cannot expect to be taken seriously by a community that wants the truth. I'm not saying the biodigester is no better than a septic tank, I just want to see good evidence of its effectiveness.

cheers
Dean

Dean Satchell, M For. Sc.
Go-Eco Sustainable Solutions
www.go-eco.co.nz
You need to login to reply
Share this thread:
Recently active users. Who else has been active?
Time to create page: 0.952 seconds