Latrines Design - is there is a good book or guidelines you can recommend for the design of single and twin pit latrines, ventilated improved pits and fossa alternas

  • sofmo88
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Latrines Design - is there is a good book or guidelines you can recommend for the design of single and twin pit latrines, ventilated improved pits and fossa alternas

Hello, I'm new on this forum and I would like to get some help regarding the desing of latrines.

I would like to know is there is a good book or guidelines you can recommend for the design of single and twin pit latrines, ventilated improved pits and fossa alternas( see attachment 1) that includes all the design parameters and recommendations.

Thank you very much!

Sofía Murillo Ortiz
Envrionmmental Engineer
Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social
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  • F H Mughal
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Re: Latrines Design - is there is a good book or guidelines you can recommend for the design of single and twin pit latrines, ventilated improved pits and fossa alternas

Dear Sofia Murillo,

Please have a look at the attached publications.

Good luck!

F H Mughal

F H Mughal (Mr.)
Karachi, Pakistan

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  • ben
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Re: Latrines Design - is there is a good book or guidelines you can recommend for the design of single and twin pit latrines, ventilated improved pits and fossa alternas

Dear Sofia,

Here is a design we developped in Cambodia.
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/1409

Best,

Ben
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  • canaday
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Re: Latrines Design - is there is a good book or guidelines you can recommend for the design of single and twin pit latrines, ventilated improved pits and fossa alternas

Dear Sofia,

Welcome to the forum.

I would suggest you also read Peter Morgan's books on ecosanres.org, especially this one:
www.ecosanres.org/toilets_that_make_compost.htm

You may also like to consider ArborLoos (and other models in this Ecompendium):
ecompendium.sswm.info/sanitation-technol...l-and-cover-arborloo

Have you considered Urine-diverting Dry Toilets?
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urine-diverting_dry_toilet
inodoroseco.blogspot.com/

Please tell more about yourself and the work you are doing.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday

Conservation Biologist and EcoSan Promoter
Omaere Ethnobotanical Park
Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador, South America
inodoroseco.blogspot.com
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Re: Latrines Design - is there is a good book or guidelines you can recommend for the design of single and twin pit latrines, ventilated improved pits and fossa alternas

Dear Sofia

Welcome to the forum!
The 2nd edition of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies provides some basic design considerations for all of these technologies, as well as further readings with more detailed design guidelines. You can download this publication for free at www.sandec.ch/compendium . The 1st edition is also available in French and Spanish .
You may also access the Compendium technology factsheets online in the eCompendium . The eCompendium has specific pages on single pit , single ventilated pit , double ventilated pit , twin pit for pour flush , Fossa Alterna and other sanitation technologies - each with links to further readings such as design guidelines.
Last but not least I can also recommend the SuSanA Library and the SSWM Library with thousands of open access documents related to sanitation.

Kind regards,
Lukas

Lukas Ulrich
Project Manager
Small-Scale Sanitation Scaling-Up (4S) – www.sandec.ch/4S
Eawag: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
Sandec: Department Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development
Dübendorf, Switzerland and Bangalore, India
www.eawag.ch www.sandec.ch
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Re: Latrines Design - is there is a good book or guidelines you can recommend for the design of single and twin pit latrines, ventilated improved pits and fossa alternas

Thanks to everyone, I'll check all the info you sent me.

To answer Mr. Canaday's question :

I'm an Jr. Environmental Engineer, I'm from Costa Rica and I work for a social security public institution. We are designing a health center facility with a wastewater treatment system in an Indian Reservation in Costa Rican mountains known as Talamanca, due to cultural reasons we want to build several letrines so the population can improve their sanitation conditions.

Best regards to all

Sofía Murillo Ortiz
Envrionmmental Engineer
Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social
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Re: Latrines Design - is there is a good book or guidelines you can recommend for the design of single and twin pit latrines, ventilated improved pits and fossa alternas

Hi Sofia

If you access the Compendium factsheets via the SSWM Toolbox Implementation Tools section (this is the page about wastewater treatment, scroll down to "user interface" or "on-site storage and treatment" to click on the icons to access the factsheets on the different technologies) you will have the same content, with some additional text blocks, more further readings and related topics links about non-technical issues related to sanitation infrastructure construction.

Cheers, Dorothee

Dorothee Spuhler
WG1 Co-lead
Working with Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management (SSWM) based at seecon, Switzerland
www.sswm.info / www.seecon.ch
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  • cecile
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Re: Latrines Design - is there is a good book or guidelines you can recommend for the design of single and twin pit latrines, ventilated improved pits and fossa alternas

Dear Sofia,

In order to get the "best" design, do not forget to also ask the beneficiaries and the ones in charge of maintance to design their ideal latrine as well ... You will end up with additional guidelines to take in account in your design :-) and make it user friendly.

Best regards,

Cecile

Cécile Laborderie
MAKATI Environnement
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Re: Latrines Design - is there is a good book or guidelines you can recommend for the design of single and twin pit latrines, ventilated improved pits and fossa alternas

Hi Sofía,

I like Cecile's idea of discussing design options with the beneficiaries, among other things showing them various books, including the Eawag Compendium (which exists in Spanish). It is extremely important that they be involved in the whole process and understand the need for making a change and the importance of hygiene. It is especially important that they not feel that the type of toilet was imposed on them.

I highly suggest that you try out various options with the community members, to see which one they like best.

Since example and follow-up are so important, but budgets for them are usually too limited, I suggest you look for Costa Rican and foreign volunteers who can live in the communities and set an example on proper use and management, help build, educate the users, and follow-up on the toilets. They may also have time to give some classes in the local schools and help out with other community projects.

Is there anything on the internet about these communities?
What do they currrently do? Open defecation in the forest?
What is the rate of fecally transmitted disease and parasitism?
What ethnic groups are involved?

It should be hilly terrain, but does the soil absorb water? Or is it all clay and absorbs nothing?

Personally, I would suggest emphasizing dry options and avoiding water-based options, so as to not need, waste or contaminate precious clean water. This is especially important in dispersed settlements, where water systems are often lacking or unreliable.

I think that a good option to consider is the ArborLoo, since feces never need to be manipulated (until they are converted into delicious fruit on the tree), water is not needed, and reforestation is achieved in the communities that likely have low population density. If the soils are clay-rich, do not absorb liquids, and there are problems with smell, urine diversion could also be applied (and this could go via perforated hoses buried in the ground among fruit trees or banana plants). I invite you to see this largely recycled model we did here in Ecuador:
inodoroseco.blogspot.com/2012/08/scroll-...nglish-en-abril.html
This could be built with whichever materials one likes, as long as the structure remains light enough to easily move it to a new hole whenever needed.

(You are working in a beautiful, biodiverse place. I volunteered to carry out the first bird survey in the Hitoy-Cerere Reserve in 1986.)

The community members you are working with may like to discuss this issue, for example via Skype, with indigenous people here in Ecuador who have improved their sanitation ... including my wife, who is an indigenous Shuar woman (and an expert in medicinal plants).

If you would like me to have a look at any of the project documents in Spanish, feel free to send them to me.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday

Conservation Biologist and EcoSan Promoter
Omaere Ethnobotanical Park
Puyo, Pastaza, Ecuador, South America
inodoroseco.blogspot.com
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Re: Latrines Design - is there is a good book or guidelines you can recommend for the design of single and twin pit latrines, ventilated improved pits and fossa alternas

A couple options from what we have developed in Cambodia. I echo the other comments, use these designs for inspiration. It is absolutely essential that you talk to users and supply chain actors to see what latrine types/features/materials/etc. they prefer.

Blake
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Re: Latrines Design - is there is a good book or guidelines you can recommend for the design of single and twin pit latrines, ventilated improved pits and fossa alternas

A couple options from what we have developed in Cambodia

Blake

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Re: Latrines Design - is there is a good book or guidelines you can recommend for the design of single and twin pit latrines, ventilated improved pits and fossa alternas

A couple options from what we have developed in Cambodia. I echo the other comments, use these designs for inspiration. It is absolutely essential that you talk to users and supply chain actors to see what latrine types/features/materials/etc. they prefer.

Blake

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