History of Indian sanitation and paradigm shift required for rural sanitation


  • Chandana
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  • I am a Environmental Engineer, currently pursing PhD in Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay. I am working on Faecal Sludge Management for a town. I am looking for collaboration to provide solution for FSM by experimental investigation on FS from different onsite containment and paper publications.
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History of Indian sanitation and paradigm shift required for rural sanitation

Dear All,

I have published a paper on"History of Indian sanitation and paradigm shift required for rural sanitation" in 2nd international conference on “Rural Technology Development and Delivery (RTDD)”.

Following text from the paper added by the moderator:

Though sanitation was given importance since early Harrapan civilizations, in recent times India has to struggle to convert into open defecation free country.  This paper systematically reviews the philosophical shift in independent Indian sanitation policies and creates a timelines of sanitation events.  During 1947-1980, water and sanitation programme were launched together, 244 Urban Water Supply Schemes, 65 Urban Sewerage Schemes and 228 Rural Water Supply Schemes were approved. However, it is very clear from the ratio of sanitation schemes to water schemes that, water supply coverage has been given more importance than sanitation, hence this period can be considered as Water Supply Coverage era. During 1981-2008, realizing the importance of sanitation in development of India, separate schemes for sanitation were launched. Massive subsidies were provided by government for construction of toilets for eradication of open defecation (OD) and this time period can be referred as Eradication of OD era. Though government tried to subsidiaries the toilet construction cost, in 2006 WHO declared that 74 % rural India still follows OD. In this context, from 2008, India focused on construction of toilets all over India and 2008-2019 can be considered as Toilet Construction era of Indian sanitation. Currently, millions of toilets are constructed in India, however, these toilets lack the required management systems for the collection, emptying, transportation and safe disposal of the faecal sludge (FS) produced (i.e., human waste accumulated in OSS. This review shows that, there is paradigm shift required from construction of toilets to sustainable sanitation chain management in India.  

Keywords: Sanitation history; Indian sanitation schemes; Faecal Sludge Management
I have completed my BE in civil engineering with a distinction in 2011.
From 2011-2013 I worked as a software engineer in IBM.
later I completed my master in environmental engineering in NIT Warangal . My Mtech thesis was done in NEERI, Nagpur on "Indoor air pollution in micro-environments".
In 2015. I joined academics as Assistant professor and worked on issues like the design of landfill, MSW management, Air pollution, Decontamination of geomaterials, etc.
Currently, I am doing my PhD in faecal sludge management.

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