Sanitary system to replace septic tank or municipal system

  • JKMakowka
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Re: Sanitary system to replace septic tank or municipal system

Biogas production after heat disinfection will be a bit difficult and for sure require some outside source of the needed methanogenic bacteria.
What you could think of is direct "thermophilic" biogas production, which is quicker and somewhat pasteurizes the waste also.

Biogas slurry is also not necessarily a better fertilizer as disinfected fecal sludge as most of the organic components are lost to the methane production and thus the "soil conditioning" properties of it are mostly lost.

Edit: if you are working with a vacuum sewer: a while ago I was working on a concept of combining that with a ATAD (autothermophilic aerobic digestion) system, as the exhaust of the vacuum-pumps could be used to aerate the sludge. Never got anywhere near to testing it, but the concept seems feasible.

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  • F H Mughal
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Re: Sanitary system to replace septic tank or municipal system

Septic tanks here are, quite often, circular in shape, made of sulfate-resistant cement. This prolong the life of the structure. In rural areas, the septic tanks are connected with soakpits. The effluent from the soakpits diffuses in the subsoil. This is only done in the rural areas with sparse settlements and, where there is no sewerage system.

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  • paulv
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Re: Sanitary system to replace septic tank or municipal system

I have been studying a bit and now have a concept process that uses the following equipment:

Low water use marine toilet with macerator pump
Process container with hot water coil and venting
Hot water heater and hot water reservoir separate from drinking water
Controller to monitor heat, control valves, control hot water pump

I wanted to know how costly this would be to run, so I did a calculation. My target treatment heat was 70C for one hour. I did not include the cost to maintain the hot water heater at its temperature, which is an important missing piece of information. There is no attempt to address efficiency losses.

The processed human waste could then be composted or used in a biogas digestor, with the resulting resource used for fertilizing gardens on site.

Cost to Disinfect Human Waste Per Day by Heat Treatment

1.5 Waste per person per day (kg)
1.0 Persons using toilet
6.0 Flushes per day
1.0 Liters per flush
7.5 Kg waste per day

16.0 Starting temperature (C)
70.0 Hold temperature (C)
60.0 Hold time (minutes)

7.5 Process Kgs
1,000.0 Calories per Kg-degree
7,500.0 Calories per Process-degree
54.0 Change in Temperature (C)
405,000.0 Calories
4.2 Joules per calorie
1,694,520.0 Energy (joules)
360.0 joules per Watt-hour
4,707.0 Watt-hours
4.7 kW-hours
0.1 $/Kw-hour
$0.47 Cost per day ($USD)
$0.05 Hold Time Adjustment (10%)
$0.52 Heat Treatment Cost per Day Per Person

$15.60 per month per person. As a comparison, my current sewage bill is $37.62 per month for 2 persons.

This is not a sustainable method, but I wanted to show a conservative number for the cost of heat treating human waste.

Some ways to improve the efficiency would be to use a urinal for males, to reduce the flush water volume, to use a solar oven for heat and to use biogas rather than electricity.

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  • KeithBell
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Re: Sanitary system to replace septic tank or municipal system

JKMakowka wrote: Biogas slurry is also not necessarily a better fertilizer as disinfected fecal sludge as most of the organic components are lost to the methane production and thus the "soil conditioning" properties of it are mostly lost.


That's excellent information. Contrary to popular belief, I am a JK fan. B)

Isn't biogas slurry also considered a danger, i.e., causing chronic botulism in cattle and wildlife such as birds? Biogas production selects gram-negative spore-formers (pathogenic clostridia) while killing their competition, leaving an imbalanced ecosystem. This issue seems overlooked in the AD industry poised for explosive growth.

I'd like to see priority placed on aerobic composting. This recent news talks about the HotRot system:
www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business...sustainable-solution

Here are two animated videos describing their modular system now in operation in NZ:

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  • paulv
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Re: Sanitary system to replace septic tank or municipal system

What do you think of this compost bioreactor system?

It is not intended for human waste composting, but should work.

mb-soft.com/public3/globalzl.html
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  • AquaVerde
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Re: Sanitary system to replace septic tank or municipal system

Paul may you check your link!

Copy: Information

Access to this page has been denied.
The computer administrator has forbidden access to pages of this type.

Requested URL: mb-soft.com/public3/globalzl.html
Category/categories: Illegal drugs

Note from Moderator: We were able to access this link; however, perhaps browsers with different security settings/ networks are not able to access this page. Paul, is there another format where this information is available? (Posted by Roslyn)

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  • paulv
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Re: Sanitary system to replace septic tank or municipal system

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  • KeithBell
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Re: Sanitary system to replace septic tank or municipal system

I've always thought we here in the so-called developed world will learn sanitation lessons from the developing world. So, I've been trying to design a program here in Florida, USA to address over 200,000 leaking septic tanks which pollute a major marine estuary, the Indian River Lagoon now in peril.

This program is aimed at single family homes, unlike the large programs normally addressed on the forum, i.e., Durban, South Africa, where I've read 90,000 compost toilets have been installed. I'd like to learn how successful this program has been as I've seen mixed reports.

What I'd like to see here in Florida is a combination of dry toilets and urine diversion and municipal pickup service. In order to accomplish this, I'm drawn to the Envirolet vacuum flush systems where the remote storage tanks are placed outside for municipal emptying.
www.envirolet.com/vf.html

This way the individual homeowner isn't responsible for disposal and waste can be effectively processed as fertilizer. At this point, I'm not certain how waste can be removed from individual tanks for transport to a central compost facility such as the HotRot system I posted above.

I appreciate your input!
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  • paulv
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Re: Sanitary system to replace septic tank or municipal system

Human Waste Resource Recovery Proposal

docs.google.com/document/d/10jI7glsHbm46...XAw/edit?usp=sharing

Heat Treatment Disinfection of Human Waste and Use of
Human Waste as a Fertilizer Resource

A Proposal to Develop a Human Waste Resource Recovery System
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  • paulv
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Re: Sanitary system to replace septic tank or municipal system

The two main design goals for the system are that it should provide organic fertilizer suitable for use on food plants, and it should be a system that has a good chance of being approved for use by Underwriters Laboratories, the EPA, state environmental departments, state plumbing code agencies, and local health code authorities.

The goal is that this system would be available as an alternative sewage treatment method in cities and rural areas. There will be a need to establish the minimum size of garden areas to distribute the resulting fertilizer, so as not to overload the garden with nutrients.

Eventually, I would hope that the system would be a design that could be installed by local plumbing contractors using a number of generally available parts and fittings. The current design includes a microcontroller with two solenoid valves and temperature sensors, however this is a simple system that could be provided at low cost. For example, an Arduino microcontroller commonly used by hobbyists would be adequate.

If successful, this system would allow human waste to be recycled into plant life and food in the local area, which is a big improvement from municipal wastewater treatment or septic tank systems, which generally do not complete the process of turning sewage waste into fertilizer for plant growth. By separating human waste and its pathogens from greywater, this system will allow greywater to be used locally for plant irrigation with minimal treatment. Use of this system would create a garden area which is fertile and irrigated, ideal for plant life. This would enhance the local habitat around each dwelling and can be used to provide food. The waste recovery system can be part of a closed loop of food production for humans, recycling human waste into fertilizer, recovering water for irrigation, and to close the loop, gardening for human food. The inputs into this system are human energy in gardening, sunlight and rainwater.

This project is being developed under an open source hardware license to provide any person the rights to construct the system. I wish to encourage experimentation and expect that there may be many paths to achieving the design goals.

I am seeking collaborators to help move the proposal forward by identifying initial research questions that need to be answered, and by testing parts or all of the proposed system. There is a need for a location to test a complete system. Eventually, there will be a need for funding to submit the system to the various agencies involved with establishing codes.
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  • smecca
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Re: Sanitary system to replace septic tank or municipal system

Paulv, What region of the US are you considering for this system. The GSAP Microflush technology meets most of the requirements you have, but I need to know more about the context of the installations.
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  • AquaVerde
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Re: Sanitary system to replace septic tank or municipal system

Dear Keith and dear Paul,

In my opinion around peoples houses all systems have to be SIMPLE as possible, without much technical and power consuming components, just a simple treatment for greywater:

-just collecting faeces and urine from dry systems. see examples

source: www.holzapfel-konsorten.de

- Transport via "normal" honey-suckers.
- centralized treatment plants for collected faeces and urine may be much more sophisticated their, if possible via AD-step (biogas) and additional aerobic step and P-recovery or via composting facilities.

Best Regards,
Detlef

See in German language: holzapfel-konsorten.de/fileadmin/user_up...TTCGW/TTCGW-Wohn.pdf

The combined hopper for faeces and urine is a new development covered by patents for separated storage of faeces and urine in ONE hopper.
Faeces and urine of up to 10,000 uses of toilette's can be stored without any maintenance or odors, without any additives and without any connection to electricity, water or sewer. The volume of the hopper and the disposable quantity is very small, due to a concentrated and separated storage of both substances.
Faeces are neither visible nor smellable, the user has no contact to the substances. This is the crucial point of improvement in comparison to TTC toilets (compost toilets)...

read more in English language: www.holzapfel-konsorten.de/fileadmin/use...e-01-11_engl_web.pdf

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