SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Mon, 28 Jul 2014 06:15:53 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: High-throughput microbial gene detection seems like the future? - and technology used to identify dysbiosis - by: KeithBell What other resistant organisms are we growing based on this technology? By the way, it's interesting that high clostridia counts are known in the imbalanced guts of autistic children, an insidious gut-brain connection.

Here's the latest PCR study where it's concluded biogas plants:
" . . . could present a biohazard risk of clostridia for humans and animals."

"The increasing number of biogas plants in Germany presents a danger of spreading pathogenic clostridia to arable land."
Detection of pathogenic clostridia in biogas plant wastes July, 2014]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Sun, 27 Jul 2014 21:28:08 +0000
Re: City Partnerships for Urban Sanitation Service Delivery (BMGF and DfID funded) - by: Roshan
out of them 11 were selected on the basis of city and utilities commitment, their follow up project, nature of the project etc.

Bangladesh – Dhaka city corporation and Faridpur city
Nepal – Lalitpur sub metropolitan city
India – Warangal, Chitradurga and three small towns in Maharastra
Liberia – Monrovia city corporation
Sierra Leone- Freetowon city
Uganda – Kampala city authority
Malawi – Blantyre city
South Africa - eThekwini Municipality

They are willing to try and demonstrate new service and business model for sustainable sanitation (particularly on Fecal Sludge Management) delivery. We will get more on their detail proposal which they are preparing. Of course most of the cities need local support to draft proposal and conduct study for next phase.

I will write you more once we receive second phase proposal from all 11 selected cities/utilities.

Upscaling, sanitation governance, institutional aspects, sanitation policies Sun, 27 Jul 2014 07:34:28 +0000
  • water and sanitation/hygiene are now separate subgoals
  • the inclusion of the words "equitable" and "those in vulnerable situations"
  • a specific reference to ending open defecation
  • a quantifiable subgoal of "halving the proportion of untreated wastewater" by 2030, and
  • acknowledgement of the role of local communities in water and sanitation management.

If you are cynical you might conclude that the publicity surrounding the rape and murder of the two girls in India (see the discussion in the SuSanA Forum) has influenced the inclusion of ending open defecation in SDG subgoal 6.2, while the root of the problem remains unaddressed. Women's groups regret that the proposed SDGs "fall short of women’s aspirations for a strong set of transformative goals needed to achieve gender equality, women’s human rights, sustainable development in harmony with nature, and an end to inequalities". If you are not (or less) cynical, you might say that it is a result of the good work of UN Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson who launched the End Open Defecation campaign.

So what got left out? First, specific references to the human right to water and sanitation and to extra-household WASH (schools, health centers and refugee camps). One could argue that these issues are already covered by terms like "universal access", "equitable" and "for all" including "women and girls and those in vulnerable situations".

Secondly, as IRC's Catarina Fonseca mentions in her blog, missing in an emphasis on the actual provision of water and sanitation services rather than just infrastructure. She also points to the fact that there is still of lot of work needed to make all the targets smart and measurable.

Will the water SDG end up in the final list next year? Even though there is a strong UN and civil society lobby - led by the likes of UN-Water and End Water Poverty, respectively - we can't be complacent. In her blog, Catarina lists what sector organisations need to do keep the pressure on.

Here is the full text of Proposed Goal 6: Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

6.1 by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all

6.2 by 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all, and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations

6.3 by 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater, and increasing recycling and safe reuse by x% globally

6.4 by 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, and substantially reduce the number of people suffering from water scarcity

6.5 by 2030 implement integrated water resources management at all levels, including through transboundary cooperation as appropriate

6.6 by 2020 protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

6.a by 2030, expand international cooperation and capacity-building support to developing countries in water and sanitation related activities and programmes, including water harvesting, desalination, water efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse technologies

6.b support and strengthen the participation of local communities for improving water and sanitation management]]>
Global political processes Sun, 27 Jul 2014 07:30:37 +0000
Re: High-throughput microbial gene detection seems like the future? - and technology used to identify dysbiosis - by: muench
As you brought of botulism, a disease which some people fear could be spread via clostridium botulinum in digestate from biogas plants (your example of dairy farms in Germany), I would like to point you to an existing thread on the forum where this was discussed:

Further discussions on this link - which is suspected by some but also rejected by many others - should be discussed there. I am not an expert in biogas systems but the detailed arguments by biogas specialist Heinz-Peter Mang in response to a statement by Prof. Ralf Otterpohl in 2012 put my mind at ease on this issue.

Please see the other thread (link above) if you are interested in this issue.
Heinz-Peter really went through quite some trouble to list all the relevant literature and studies from Germany on this topic. Well worth reading.

Health, hygiene and disability issues Sat, 26 Jul 2014 21:55:37 +0000
Re: Tips for writing posts that other people will enjoy reading - by: muench If everyone read this thread, together with the rules page (, and adhered to it, then our forum would become an even more awesome place!

Mughal, your point was well taken. I have modifed Tip Number 1 now to be:
Include as much background information and context as possible with your post, particularly when asking a question, but also when your post is about a comment, opinion, description of new ideas and so forth.

In addition, Dorothee made the suggestion of:
But in the future: I guess it is more efficient we post here and there a message highlighting only one trick - e.g. "trick of the week"

I quite like that idea and will see if I can implement it. Perhaps not every week but every other week or at least once per month.

It helps if users sent in their questions that they have always wanted to ask but are perhaps too shy to put it on the forum. You could send such a question by e-mail to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it or send it directly to me by using the contact button to the left of this post.

Questions about using the forum Sat, 26 Jul 2014 20:27:32 +0000
Re: Tips for writing posts that other people will enjoy reading - by: fppirco
Thanks for your informative issues ,particular it will be very useful because all participants in this forum all from various nationality with various cultures , various Education levels ,something may be is polite and true in one culture but it may be impolite and not to be normed in other culture .
your comments put principal frame .

Thank you .

Questions about using the forum Sat, 26 Jul 2014 19:14:39 +0000
Re: Tips for writing posts that other people will enjoy reading - by: F H Mughal
This is an interesting output of yours. Good work and nice efforts!

Just one minor point: you start off with the point of "asking a question." This may be a bit confusing to the new users, who would think that this forum is only for asking questions. Please re-phrase your point # 1. Tell the users that they can use the forum for many purposes (comments, new ideas, innovative solutions, etc).


F H Mughal]]>
Questions about using the forum Sat, 26 Jul 2014 18:55:54 +0000
Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies - by: F H Mughal
"This second, revised edition of the Compendium presents a huge range of information on sanitation systems and technologies in one volume. By ordering and structuring tried and tested technologies into once concise document, the reader is provided with a useful planning tool for making more informed decisions.
Part 1 describes different system configurations for a variety of contexts.

Part 2 consists of 57 different technology information sheets, which describe the main advantages, disadvantages, applications and the appropriateness of the technologies required to build a comprehensive sanitation system. Each technology information sheet is complemented by a descriptive illustration."


F H Mughal]]>
New publications Sat, 26 Jul 2014 18:45:16 +0000
Re: Restrictions on the use of urine in agriculture in the UK? - by: joeturner Fertiliser / soil conditioner Sat, 26 Jul 2014 17:03:45 +0000 Re: Non-plastic removable container for UDDT (for project in Southern India) - by: canaday
Recycling of cover material is imminently practical, as no solids need to be transported long distance, to or fro, with who knows what vehicle and who knows what petroleum (or donkey power). It also inoculates the new feces with at least some of the same soil microbes that broke down the feces of the previous cycle. If we have reliable treatment (via heat, sun, thermophilic composting and/or long storage), no significant amounts of pathogenic microbes will remain and there is minimal health risk. Remember that any system can be used incorrectly (like having flush toilets dump straight into rivers where people swim and drink).

In my experience, recycled cover material controls smell and flies much better than the mix of sawdust and ashes that we used before. I am also convinced that this gets even better year after year, likely due to accumulation and natural selection of the soil microbe species present and potentially even some evolution, given that microbes evolve so quickly. See the scientific papers cited in this interview, for support for the idea that finished compost is one of the best materials for covering the smell of composting or landfills:

The limitations to this recycling are mental and cultural, due to fecophobia (irrational fear of feces) and the illogical belief that "once feces, always feces" (and that the entire planet is gradually being converted to feces), since no one would identify its origin by smell, color or texture. In addition, it mostly consists of the original cover material, since the feces largely disintegrate, with their water evaporating out and their microbes killing each other until they occupy very little volume.

If users are concerned about pathogens still persisting, they will remember to wash their hands, which they currently often do not. The recycled cover material can also be added mechanically, avoiding direct contact with the user.

Yes, one can check "finished biosolids" for Ascaris Helminth eggs by looking at them with a microscope and these eggs are quite characteristic, with their golden color and bumpy surface. There are techniques to concentrate the eggs and increase one's chances of finding them, which is the subject of another current thread:

Last year, a student intern did one, isolated 3M PetriFilm trial for E. coli in the one-year-old recycled cover material by mixing it into water and applying the normal procedure for water samples. During incubation, 2 blue spots developed, indicating that 2 E. coli bacteria were present -- roughly an order of magnitude acceptable for a swimming pool. (I can look up more detail on this trial, if anyone likes.)

Update. I no longer mix wood ashes into the recycled cover material, since I do not want to kill the beneficial microbes. Also, most people do not have access to large amounts of ash ... which might best be used as fertilizer (including mixed with urine). I do mix in some 10% rice hulls, to replace lost volume through decomposition of the sawdust originally used as cover material and to increase air flow through the pile. (Other resistant, bulky, food-processing wastes, such as crushed egg shells, squash shells or manioc fibers, could also be excellent to mix into cover material.) I also sometimes replace lost volume with dry organic soil, in order to maintain a one-year detention time (longer than probably necessary, for peace of mind and further drying).

There is more detail on this recycling in previous posts:

Thanks for asking, Stew. Keep sending any questions you may have.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Sat, 26 Jul 2014 11:20:15 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: BJimenezC
Taking advantage of the orientation you have provided us, I would like to share with you a paper related to PCR method for the identification of Ascaris. We think it would enrich the blog:

Brian M. Pecson, José Antonio Barrios, David R. Johnson and Kara L. Nelson (2006) A real-time PCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs using the first internally transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72(12):7864.


Worldwide, 1.4 billion people are infected with the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides. As a result, Ascaris eggs are commonly found in wastewater and sludges. The current microscopy method for detecting viable Ascaris eggs is time- and labor-intensive. The goal of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to determine the levels of total and viable Ascaris eggs in laboratory solutions using the first internally transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rRNA. ITS-1 rDNA levels were proportional to Ascaris egg cell numbers, increasing as eggs developed from single cells to mature larvae and ultimately reaching a constant level per egg. Treatments causing >99% inactivation (high heat, moderate heat, ammonia, and UV) eliminated this increase in ITS-1 rDNA levels and caused decreases that were dependent on the treatment type. By taking advantage of this difference in ITS-1 rDNA level between viable, larvated eggs and inactivated, single-celled eggs, qPCR results were used to develop inactivation profiles for the different treatments. No statistical difference from the standard microscopy method was found in 75% of the samples (12 of 16). ITS-1 rRNA was detected only in samples containing viable eggs, but the levels were more variable than rDNA levels and ITS-1 rRNA could not be used for quantification. The detection limit of the rDNA-based method was approximately one larvated egg or 90 single-celled eggs; the detection limit for the rRNA-based method was several orders of magnitude higher. The rDNA qPCR method is promising for both research and regulatory applications.

These results are the unique experiences we had with PCR technique.

Health, hygiene and disability issues Fri, 25 Jul 2014 21:23:16 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: BJimenezC
Enabling environment Fri, 25 Jul 2014 21:10:27 +0000
Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) in IDP camps in Uganda - article in Disaster Prevention and Management journal - by: AParker

Apologies that it's not open access. I'll look into the possibility of posting a pre-publication version online.

Article citation: Alison H. Parker, Jen A. Smith, Tania Verdemato, Jeanette Cooke, James Webster, Richard C. Carter, (2014) "Menstrual management: a neglected aspect of hygiene interventions", Disaster Prevention and Management, Vol. 23 Iss: 4, pp.437 - 454


Purpose – Effective menstrual management is essential for the mental and physical well being of women. However, many women in low-income countries lack access to the materials and facilities required. They are thus restricted in their activities whilst menstruating thus compromising their education, income and domestic responsibilities. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach – This study describes the menstrual management challenges faced by women in an emergency situation in Uganda. Totally, 50 interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with women from villages, internally displaced person (IDP) camps and schools so that the menstrual management of the host population could be compared with the IDPs.

Findings – This study showed that in IDP camps there was a significant lack of materials including soap, underpants and absorbing cloth, and facilities like latrines and bathing shelters. As a consequence women in IDP camps suffer with poor health and diminished dignity. There is also a lack of education about menstruation and reproductive health and practices are strongly influenced by cultural taboos.

Originality/value – This is the first time that the menstrual management of women in IDP or refugee camps has been studied.
Announcements Fri, 25 Jul 2014 15:33:25 +0000
Re: High-throughput microbial gene detection seems like the future? - and technology used to identify dysbiosis - by: KeithBell Anaerobic digestion (AD) is another area studied using new molecular techniques, helping us understand in fine detail how we are shifting flora balance with this waste disposal technology. My fear is both AD and WWTP damage ecosystems on the microbial level akin to deforestation. Why not concentrate on more natural systems, i.e., aerobic composting? AD is poised for explosive growth in the global marketplace. Sexy biogas technology generates electricity in disregard of long-term collateral damage.

In this swine manure AD study, first of its type, clostridia was not surprisingly found dominant. Is this why anaerobic digestion of waste is associated with chronic botulism in the environment?
Multiple approaches to characterize the microbial community in a thermophilic anaerobic digester running on swine manure: A case study

I'd like to read the full paper of this new AD study which states anaerobic digestion sludge samples
"were different from other microbial communities from activated sludge, human faeces, ocean and soil."
How were they different and what are the ramifications?
Metagenomic analysis of sludge from full-scale anaerobic digesters operated in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

Do operators of AD plants understand these issues? I've read many dairy farms in Germany were destroyed by chronic botulism in the environment when residual waste was allowed contact with livestock. This is a very controversial, hot topic.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Fri, 25 Jul 2014 14:19:17 +0000
Mobile Luxury Loos - Loowatt Demonstrates the New Loowatt Event System at Latitude Festival 2014 (Great Britain) - by: vgardiner
Loowatt demonstrated the Loowatt Event System, a mobile off-grid, energy-generating luxury loo system, at Latitude Festival 17-20 July, 2014 in Henham Park, Suffolk. We were really excited to tell the public about our waterless, chemical-free luxury loos. To read more about the toilet system, please visit our website.

Excited festival-goers from around the world attended the family friendly and environmentally-conscious event.

The Loo Unit offers a clean, well-appointed interior including mirrors, porcelain sinks and LED lighting and is equipped with luxury soap and lotion.

We had customers queuing to experience the Loowatt Event System for free. The children especially loved our unique waterless “flushing” mechanism.

We estimate we saved around 8,000 liters of water during the festival. The Loowatt luxury loo is 100% waterless, using biodegradable liner to package the waste.

The Loowatt team was onsite nearby to answer any questions and to keep the toilets pristine.

Customers were impressed by the clean, odourless, and luxury experience. Read some of their testimonials below:

‘This is the best and most well conceived and executed idea and solution I have come across for a very long time. Clean, comfortable, innovative + well made = marvelous.’ – Geoffrey

‘Great! (There is) no smell of anything. Was lovely being in a sealed ‘cocoon’ & in a world of your own for a couple of minutes, much as I love being at this festival.’ – Phillipa

‘What a pleasant experience to have at a festival! Lovely clean toilets and such a unique system. Perfect for large events and after speaking to the representative – perfect for disaster areas where clean sanitation facilities are essential.’—Mhorag

Are you looking for off-grid luxury loos for your event or festival? Please contact us. We would love to hear from you.]]>
Mobile or portable solutions, public toilets Fri, 25 Jul 2014 14:09:55 +0000