SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sat, 23 Aug 2014 15:21:28 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Reply: UDDT Squat pan needed for Myanmar Project - by: canaday
It is good to know that your project continues, despite complications.

I am surprised that you have not found a Chinese supplier of plastic squat pans yet. Are imports into Myanmar complicated? What is the cost per square meter of the most economical ceramic tiles?

In the mean time, you may like to start demonstrating that UDDTs are a viable option, yourself and with selected community members, by applying this minimalist design:
(and follow the link to Part 2)

People need to see and smell that UDDTs work and that the final "biosolids" are just beautiful soil, so it is good to get a headstart on this demonstration.

I also recommend this Minimalist UDDT as a test for each family of users, before a fancier, more permanent unit is built for them, to make sure that they really understand the concept and are ready to apply it. This would greatly reduce the rate of misused or disused units ... plus no one would want to be crossed off the list for being messy or not being able to follow instructions. (In the normal case, toilets are given to the users and we just hope that they have understood everything ... and many times UDDTs sit there like white elephants because no one dares to make the first deposit, since this is a new system that they are unfamiliar with.)

I look forward to your update on the project.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Sat, 23 Aug 2014 09:41:46 +0000
Re: Biodigesters in Africa - by: GrahamK
I am taken aback by the implications of your comments!
Are you really suggesting that most Africans are incapable of building and managing even simple biogas digesters? Not capable of doing tasks that thousands of Indians are quite capable of carrying out?

You do not seem to be aware of recent progress with polythene digesters in Africa such as is shown by Energypedia:

PTDs have certain weaknesses compared to the masonry models. But the fact that these plastic tube digesters are successfully operating in some areas of Kenya (mostly without subsidy support) shows that the technology should not be discarded.
Instead, it should be followed more closely to see where and under which conditions it can be an alternative option for households in Kenya and other countries in the region, who are interested to invest in biogas.

There is also an excellent report from 2010 covering several countries but I can find nothing more recent.
It seems fairly obvious that plastic tube digesters need to be properly cared for by the owner so some training is required which commercial firms are reluctant to offer.

I can find nothing about progress with smaller waste food/crop digesters as found in India though some are sold in Kenya.

Where can I find out more about small-scale biogas activity in African countries?]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Sat, 23 Aug 2014 08:26:49 +0000
Re: Reply: UDDT Squat pan needed for Myanmar Project - by: davidsutton Thanks for your advice and apologies for delay in response, and really appreciate your comments. just these past 6 months have been a nightmare with work and legal issues.
I am pretty sold on obtaining plastic squat pans but still need to find a supplier.
Ill post a update in a few days on my struggles so far.
Once again humble apologies for delayed reply
Kind regards David]]>
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Sat, 23 Aug 2014 04:44:45 +0000
Re: Looking for a mould for producing UDDT locally in Moldova - by: davidsutton Thanks for your response and sorry for delay, had a few issues to resolve over past 6 months.
I have decided to pursue the plastic squat pans for Myanmar installations
Still no joy in finding a supplier for these. Currently chasing up a few leads but best prospect is to get a die made for plastic injection and manufacture in the country. I just need to settle on a design.
If you know of any proven squat pan types id appreciate the link
Kind regards and thanks again
Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Sat, 23 Aug 2014 04:12:13 +0000
Re: Evidence-based sanitation advocacy in India to promote latrine use - by: ggalli Thanks, for this. Had already followed your great work and the SQUAT report, and shared it internally within my organisation.

I have a question for you or your colleagues. The topic is named 'evidence-based sanitation advocacy' yet you end your post by saying that the biggest challenge is 'convincing politicians to emphasize latrine use, rather than construction'. Can you explain me what the reasons are why it is so difficult to convince politicians in India even though you have produced good evidence to back up your claim?

I am asking because more and more I am wondering whether we are wasting our time in generating more data and evidence. Political decisions are not made on basis of data, but on pressure, money and power. Maybe it is time to switch our strategy and start to get more 'dirty' (pun intended).]]>
Enabling environment Fri, 22 Aug 2014 15:10:34 +0000
Re: Registration open for the 18th SuSanA meeting in Stockholm - by: secretariat
We are happy to tell you, that there are good news regarding the 18th SuSanA Meeting!

Friday venue: Room K12, Stockholmsmässan, Mässvägen 1, SE-125 80 Älvsjö, Sweden
Saturday venue: Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Linnégatan 87D, 115 23 Stockholm, Sweden

We can proudly confirm the most of our presenters already, please see the following list of names:

  • Arne Panesar (GIZ)
  • Thilo Panzerbieter (GTO)
  • Jakob Granit (SEI)
  • Neil MacLeod(EWS)
  • Graham Alabaster (UN-Habitat / WHO)
  • Christian Zurbrugg (Sandec/ Eawag)
  • Themba Gumbo (UNDP Cap-Net)
  • Juliet Waterkeyn (Africa AHEAD)
  • Darren Saywell (Plan International)
  • Peter Hawkins (WSP)
  • Madeleine Fogde (SEI)
  • Katherine Cross (IWA)
  • Trevor Surridge (GIZ)
  • Hans Merton (Akvo)
  • Arno Rosemarin (SEI)
  • Dorothee Spuhler (seecon)
  • Claudia Wendland (WECF)
  • Katja Neubauer on behalf of Sherina Munyana (Water for People)
  • Leif Wolf (KIT)
  • Karl Lellouche (ACF)
  • Robert Gensch (GTO)

Additionally the restaurants for dinner are chosen:

Friday dinner at 20:00 at Restaurant Hellströms Bar
Saturday dinner at 18:30 at Restaurant Sjöcaféet

We are looking forward to see you there!

(posted by Friederike)]]>
Events Fri, 22 Aug 2014 14:57:33 +0000
Evidence-based sanitation advocacy in India to promote latrine use - by: SangitaVyas
Today I would like to tell you about a sanitation grant by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation that I am involved with at the r.i.c.e. Institute (Research Institute for Compassionate Economics):

Title of grant: SQUAT (Sanitation Quality, Use, Access, and Trends): Evidence based sanitation advocacy for India
Subtitle (more descriptive title): To promote evidence-based sanitation policy-making in India that can reduce open defecation and improve children’s health by promoting latrine use
Name of lead organization: Research Institute for Compassionate Economics (r.i.c.e.)
Primary contact at lead organization: Sangita Vyas
Grantee location: Amston, CT (Connecticut, USA)
Developing country where the research is being or will be tested: India
Start and end date: February 2013 – July 2015
Grant type: Global Development (e.g. Global Challenges Explorations, Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, Other)
Grant size in USD: $262,340 (as per grant database:

Short description of the project:

Open defecation imposes enormous costs on children’s health and human capital, and is exceptionally widespread in India. We believe that there is convincing evidence of the benefits for health and human capital of safe latrine use. What is needed now is (1) to convince policy-makers of this, and (2) a better understanding of the local political economy, social forces, and economic factors that constrain or promote latrine use.

Ultimately, our goal is to influence Indian policy, such that the government – at its various levels – might better pursue an end to open defecation, especially in rural India, which is r.i.c.e.’s focus. We note that we can only be a small part of this large process. However, many policy-makers still do not recognize sanitation as a top priority; others are missing opportunities to make programs more effective; and nobody fully understands, including we ourselves, how rural communities can be best encouraged to use latrines. Thus, there is a need for basic persuasion of the urgency of safe excreta disposal; for advocacy of more effective policies, based on latrine use, not construction; and for research into the social, institutional, and political mechanisms that might successfully promote latrine use.


Policy advocacy goals:

1. Sanitation as a policy priority. Although the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) has been a “flagship program” of the Indian government, there is still much scope for increasing the prominence of sanitation as a policy priority. A key part of this will be emphasizing the link between sanitation and stunting, commonly called “malnutrition.” Many activists who worry about children’s health advocate a “right to food;” others seek to promote medical care, or even access to water (rather than safe excreta disposal in particular); none of these promote the crucial public good of ending open defecation. Among those who do, there is debate over whether negative externalities imply that eradication of open defecation is necessary for a locality to see health effects.

2. Focus on latrine use, not construction. Too much of the policy discussion centers on building latrines, however building latrines has not significantly reduced open defecation over the past 15 years in India. Information, education, and latrine use promotion need to be the cornerstones of any successful program to end open defecation.

3. Central measurement of latrine use. Recognizing that any goal that is not measured is not achieved, the government should establish an independent, accountable mechanism of monitoring latrine use, not latrine construction.

4. Latrine use requires a ground staff. Rural sanitation teams at the block and district level require a new, dedicated staff responsible only for behavior change and promotion of latrine use, not for latrine construction.

o Conducting a new survey on sanitation attitudes and behaviors in rural north India
• SQUAT report based on findings
• Short contributions from many stakeholders
• “Launch party” conferences in Delhi and two state capitals (probably UP and Bihar, or maybe MP, three very poor Indian states where we have experience and connections)

o Conference jointly produced with the Delhi School of Economics and World Bank Water and Sanitation Programme about stunting of Indian children
o Newspaper articles authored by and not authored by rice staff, in English and Hindi press
o Continuing to meet with policy-makers in Delhi to advocate policy goals and report findings
o Meeting with 15-25 District Magistrates or District Panchayati Raj Officers (or similar local officers) note that this will work towards both research and advocacy goals
o Meeting with relevant state officials in at least two states
o Presentation at LBNAA (IAS academy)
o Encouraging other advocates (e.g. World Bank WSP, UNICEF) to cite our research and to promote our messages
o Offering to help the government design systems for useful monitoring data collection

Research or implementation partners: Delhi School of Economics

Links, further readings – results to date:

A policy brief summarizing the findings of the SQUAT Study can be found here:
SQUAT Study’s website:
r.i.c.e.’s website, the home of our blog:
NY Times article covering our research:
The Economist article covering our research:

Current state of affairs:

In August 2013, we organized a conference on stunting. Leading scholars of child height—economists, epidemiologists, nutritionists, and pediatricians—and government officials came together to discuss why children in India are so short? Height is an important indicator of overall health and human development because the same good health that helps a child grow tall can also help her grow smart. In presentation after presentation at the conference, sanitation stood out as an important part of this puzzle.

We have completed the data collection and entry for the SQUAT Study. Our working paper is available on the SQUAT Study’s website and is forthcoming in Economic and Political Weekly. The data was collected in villages in five states in India: Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. We found that rural households do not build inexpensive latrines of the sort that commonly reduce open defecation and save lives in Bangladesh, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. Many survey respondents‘ behavior revealed a preference for open defecation: over 40% of households with a working latrine had at least one member who defecated in the open. In the sample from the four largest states, more than half of people in households which owned a government latrine defecated in the open. We applied a demographic model of latrine use which predicted that if the government were to build a latrine for every rural household that lacked one, without changing sanitation preferences, most people in our sample in these states would nevertheless defecate in the open. Further evidence supports a preference for open defecation: many survey respondents reported that open defecation is more pleasurable and desirable than latrine use. Among people who defecated in the open, a majority report that widespread open defecation would be at least as good for child health as latrine use by everyone in the village.

Numerous publications have covered our research including the New York Times, The Economist, The Hindu, among others. Additionally, numerous opinion pieces authored by us have appeared in a number of Indian newspapers.

In June and July of 2014, we sent the findings of our research and policy proposals to promote latrine use to 230 members of parliament, 377 ministry officials, and 389 district collectors by mail and email.

Biggest successes so far:

Sanitation has become a policy priority under the new government. We completed quantitative and qualitative research that explores sanitation attitudes and behaviors in north India perhaps more than any other study has. Our research and messages have been well-covered in the media.

Main challenges / frustration:

Convincing politicians who make policy decisions on sanitation to emphasize latrine use, rather than construction, in India’s sanitation policy.

We are happy to answer any questions you may have here on the forum.

Enabling environment Fri, 22 Aug 2014 10:16:16 +0000
Re: "Most progressive water utility in Africa” wins 2014 Stockholm Industry Water Award - by: scottchen Thank you for the detailed information given to me.
It is hilly area and the households have enough space for the gardening work. The urine can be used for growing vegetables where can be grown throughout the year.
If there were an research opportunity for the reuse of urine and dried feaces, i would like to go there to demonstrate my practice to them.
best wishes
By SuSanA secretariat or core group Fri, 22 Aug 2014 09:03:17 +0000
Docoumentry Film "The Curse" on Menstrual Hygiene - by: SonikaHEEALS
" The Curse"

The 4-minute, 5-second documentary, on the theme Water Sanitation, Menstrual Hygiene and Girl Education, features the life of a young girl and her experiences at home with regard to sanitation and hygiene. Date of release of the documentary film “The Curse “on Menstrual Hygiene was June 30th, 2014.
The film trying to showcase and relate the issue of sanitation and Menstrual hygiene with Girl health & Education and if proper Sanitation facilities and hygiene measures are implemented and followed the girls can achieve their dreams and become successful in their career and can also play a major role in country development

Please Click on the following link to Watch Documentary Film:

Watch Documentary Film At

You tube :

Vimeo :

For suggestions , feedback related to the documentary please contact us at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
To support our work and help us in our efforts Visit us at:-
Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) Fri, 22 Aug 2014 06:25:57 +0000
Re: The ACF WASH in Nutrition team is developing 3 posters which aim at explaining the links between WASH and Nutrition - by: Taber WG 12 (WASH & Nutrition) Fri, 22 Aug 2014 06:07:19 +0000 Re: Article in The Namibian newspaper: Communities unhappy with dry toilet project - by: JKMakowka
I think especially the last part seems relevant (also to answer the smell issue). These seem to be more or less public toilets (I derive that from the overall numbers and the cleaning issues), and even assumed that everyone uses them correctly and no urine enter the faeces chamber, the moisture will be still too high as the faecal mass has not sufficient time to dry before the drums fills up.
Edit: the less certain urine division in that Otji system (as nice as it seems) probably adds to the amount of moisture also.

But I also don't get the entire point of this construction project... it seems ill considered from the very start, just dropping a few toilets somewhere in the countryside ]]>
Behaviour change, psychology, user engagement Fri, 22 Aug 2014 05:34:10 +0000
Article in The Namibian newspaper: Communities unhappy with dry toilet project - by: muench

Communities unhappy with dry toilet project

By Theresia Tjihenuna, Ndanki Kahiurika

GOVERNMENT’S plan to construct over 6 500 dry pit-latrine toilets across the country has been greeted with little appreciation from rural community members who stand to benefit, calling the system inferior.

It is not totally clear if all the dry toilets mentioned in this article are Otji toilets but I think at least some of them are. Otji toilets are actually working like UDDTs (urine-diverting dry toilets). See also here on the forum:

The article says:

Community members in Windhoek’s informal settlements such as Havana and Okahandaja Park also raised concerns over the smell emanating from the dry toilets, especially once the drums are full.

I find this strange because once the drums are full they should be emptied, so full drums should only be there for a day or less. It seems to indicate that once again we have a problem with the maintenance and the faeces drums are not being emptied?

Interesting are also the statements by Kamal Kar quoted in this article:

During his visit to Namibia in April this year, international toilet and sanitation expert Kamal Kar, after interacting with various communities using the system, indicated that the dry toilet system may not be the best option for rural communities.

Kar said that there was a need to explore other options that might be more suited for informal and rural communities, such as Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), which is based on the belief that simply providing toilets does not guarantee their use, or result in improved sanitation and hygiene, unless coupled with good hygienic practices in respect of hygiene.

“Communities with flushing toilets seem to be more functional compared to those with dry toilet systems,” Kar said during his observations at Okahandja Park and Havanna settlements. He said although the initiative by government to improve the community’s living conditions in terms of sanitation is good, there was need to involve the community in the decision-making process.

“The dry toilet system does not function well for a number of reasons, especially the smell. Dry toilet systems are only sustainable in that they save water,” he said.

Whether or not he was quoted correctly by the journalist, I am not sure. I would find such sweeping statements by him a bit strange - maybe the journalist exaggerated them a bit. Or maybe Kamal Kar advocated CLTS followed by building of pour flush toilets?

Anyhow, would be interesting to hear from people who know a bit more about the situation with sanitation, open defecation, behaviour change and dry toilets in Namibia?

Behaviour change, psychology, user engagement Fri, 22 Aug 2014 04:01:01 +0000
Re: The new SuSanA Flyer - by: jonpar [Page 2 of the discussion]

Hi Friederike,

It looks great... well done to you and your colleagues at SuSanA.

One comment/observation..

In the section "What is SuSanA?", we say " is an open network with members who are dedicated to understanding viable and sustainable sanitation solutions".. whereas later in the section "Who can join?" we say, ..." understanding and PROMOTING sustainable sanitation solutions".

In the first sentence, I think we should also stress that SuSanA is about promoting as well as understanding. I also wonder whether it is necessary to say "viable and sustainable" when the definition of sustainable incorporates viability but the first comment is more important as SuSanA is a community who are keen to learn/understand so as to improve practice and influence policy.

best regards,

By SuSanA secretariat or core group Thu, 21 Aug 2014 23:19:51 +0000
Safer siting of sanitation systems : An introduction to criteria for risk reduction to groundwater quality - by: kanalwolf
In response to the discussions on the forum with regard to the safe siting of sanitation systems we thought to draft a small "checklist"-document on this topic.

The intention is to illustrate the most basic rules, to raise awareness and to inform about entry points for a more detailed approach.

Attached you find a first draft document, not for quotation but as an invitation to comments and suggestions for improvement.

We hope to discuss the suitability, usefulness and the content of the checklist-document during the upcoming SuSanA Meeting in Stockholm, 5.+6th of September. If there is sufficient interest, we will have a working group meeting on the 6th of September, 11:00-13:00 in Stockholm.
SuSanA draft meeting agenda

Kind regards,

Dr. Leif Wolf
SuSanA WG11 co-lead]]>
WG 11 (groundwater) Thu, 21 Aug 2014 20:54:09 +0000
Re: The ACF WASH in Nutrition team is developing 3 posters which aim at explaining the links between WASH and Nutrition - by: KeithBell An evolving perspective about the origins of childhood undernutrition and nutritional interventions that includes the gut microbiome

The world is only beginning to understand the relationship between poor sanitation and malnutrition. This and previous papers by the same authors reveal gut dysbiosis/infection (using genetic tools such as PCR stool testing) as cause of malnutrition, not a simple matter of lack of food as we've wrongly believed for decades.

So, how is this relevant to sustainable sanitation (Rule 8 of the forum)? Open defecation and mixing our waste with drinking water is negatively affecting general health which begins in the intestines. This problem is associated with decline in cognitive health and diabetes, hardly a sustainable choice.

Carlotta, I stumbled on this drawing of leaky gut you may find useful; here it is attached.]]>
WG 12 (WASH & Nutrition) Thu, 21 Aug 2014 16:26:54 +0000