SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Mon, 20 Feb 2017 04:14:15 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: 4th International Faecal Sludge Management Conference - 19-22 February 2017 in Chennai, India - Meet us at the SuSanA Booth! - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/156-conferences-seminars-and-workshops/18212-re-4th-international-faecal-sludge-management-conference-19-22-february-2017-in-chennai-india-meet-us-at-the-susana-booth#20510 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/156-conferences-seminars-and-workshops/18212-re-4th-international-faecal-sludge-management-conference-19-22-february-2017-in-chennai-india-meet-us-at-the-susana-booth#20510
For those of us who weren't able to travel to Chennai: is there any live streaming from the sessions this week?
The live streaming from the SuSanA meeting in Chennai on Saturday worked superbly! I had it on my mobile phone and took it with me everywhere, to the kids' soccer matches, in the car, shopping... I treated it like listening to something live on the radio (the only downside was that as I used my mobile phone for the live streaming, I couldn't follow or tweet on Twitter at the same time which was a bummer).

So we know it's possible to live stream from Chennai, therefore I hope some of the conference will also be live streamed? If not, will it be filmed and the recordings made available afterwards?

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Conferences, seminars and workshops Sun, 19 Feb 2017 20:45:05 +0000
Re: Emptying of sludge - How can we know the consistency of the fecal sludge during the emptying if it can be pumped or not? - by: kevintayler http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/20482-emptying-of-sludge-how-can-we-know-the-consistency-of-the-fecal-sludge-during-the-emptying-if-it-can-be-pumped-or-not#20509 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/20482-emptying-of-sludge-how-can-we-know-the-consistency-of-the-fecal-sludge-during-the-emptying-if-it-can-be-pumped-or-not#20509
First, I would say that, in addition to septic tanks, many leach pits are pumpeable. Experience in Indonesia shows that there is sometimes a need to mix some water with the pit contents before pumping it and it is possible that some hard consolidated sludge remains in the bottom of pits (and septic tanks) that have not been pumped for some time. The research from e Thekwini in South Africa shows that some dry pit latrines contain faecal sludge that cannot be pumped but there are other places in Africa, for instance Dakar, where septage has a high water content and certainly can be pumped.

Perhaps the best way to make a quick initial assessment is to assess what is already happening. Do vacuum tankers operate and if so what does the material that they discharge look like - is it thick or thin? Of course, there is always the possibility that they are only taking the top layer from the sludge in the tank/pit but observation of existing practice and talking to tanker operators and manual emptiers will give an idea of the existing situation]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Sun, 19 Feb 2017 20:42:05 +0000
Speakers wanted for international event on World Water Day - 22 March 2017 - by: Sasisoy http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/213-world-toilet-day-world-water-day-and-other-special-days/20508-speakers-wanted-for-international-event-on-world-water-day-22-march-2017#20508 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/213-world-toilet-day-world-water-day-and-other-special-days/20508-speakers-wanted-for-international-event-on-world-water-day-22-march-2017#20508 sanctioned by UN.

Ripples Make Waves is a LIVE, 24-hour, interactive video event bringing students of the world together to share water stories, discuss change and advocate FOR EACH OTHER, the need and the right for every child to have safe water. The event will start begin at 15.00 GMT on 22 March, 2017 with a representative from United Nations Water in Geneva, Switzerland. The official languages are Spanish and English. ​

We have few free positions for speakers. Presentations are 30 minutes duration + 10-15 min for possible questions. Only needed internet access and a computer with microphone and camera. If interested, write an email to This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it with a summary explaining the topic you would like to treat during your presentation and your professional experience.

All the best!]]>
World Toilet Day, World Water Day and other special days Sun, 19 Feb 2017 14:53:26 +0000
Re: Working Group 6 (WG 6) members: Take part in our Wikipedia Edit-a-Thon 19/20 March ! - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/59-wg-6-cities/20432-working-group-6-wg-6-members-take-part-in-our-wikipedia-edit-a-thon-1920-march-#20507 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/59-wg-6-cities/20432-working-group-6-wg-6-members-take-part-in-our-wikipedia-edit-a-thon-1920-march-#20507
Wikipedia is a bit of a mystery in its inner workings. Maybe someone can help me figure out the following problem.

I posted a drawing that I myself had made on the Spanish ArborLoo page, but it was deleted due to some concern that it had been plagiarized. I politely requested for it to undeleted and I got an alert linking to the following page, which has no mention of me or the ArborLoo:

commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Commons:Undel..._work._Pls_undelete.

... nor has this figure been restored to the Spanish ArborLoo page.

Also, could someone please explain the difference between an Edit-a-thon and simply requesting everyone to quietly edit on their own when they have time?

Edit: I attach the figure in question. I tried to add it again in Wikipedia, but it did not work, even with a different name, since the system is very clever.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
WG 6 (Cities) Sun, 19 Feb 2017 11:47:16 +0000
SIMPLY STATED: The world thinks diarrhoea can be solved by taking antibiotics. How did we get this so wrong? - by: arno http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/254-micro-pollutants-pharmaceutical-residues-antibiotics-resistance-chemical-pollutants/20506-simply-stated-the-world-thinks-diarrhoea-can-be-solved-by-taking-antibiotics-how-did-we-get-this-so-wrong#20506 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/254-micro-pollutants-pharmaceutical-residues-antibiotics-resistance-chemical-pollutants/20506-simply-stated-the-world-thinks-diarrhoea-can-be-solved-by-taking-antibiotics-how-did-we-get-this-so-wrong#20506
While FSM4 www.fsm4.susana.org/ is ongoing in Chennai and the focus is on India, here are some sobering findings regarding the increase in antimicrobial resistance caused by overzealous use of antibiotics to combat diarrhoeal and other infections.


THE IMPACT OF WATER AND SANITATION ON DIARRHOEAL DISEASE BURDEN AND OVER-CONSUMPTION OF ANTIBIOTICS
Pablo Araya, Julia Hug, Genevieve Joy, Felicia Oschmann, Susana Rubinstein
London School of Economics and Political Science. 2016
amr-review.org/sites/default/files/LSE%20AMR%20Capstone.pdf
Infectious disease control through improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure needs to be placed at the centre of the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) agenda. The spread of infectious diseases caused by inadequate WASH standards is a major driver of antibiotic demand in developing countries. Growing usage of antibiotics together with persistent infectious disease levels have led to a dangerous cycle in which reliance on antimicrobials increases while the efficacy of drugs diminishes.




The 15 yr project to reduce use of antibiotics and instead increase WASH capacities to combat diarrhoea.
• What are the costs of providing universal, safe access to water and sanitation for the countries?
• How much would access to WASH reduce diarrhoeal diseases in these countries?
• How would the reduction of diarrhoeal disease likely impact the overuse of antibiotics?




Possible impact by 2030
__________________________________________

THE ROLE OF SANITATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND SPREAD OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE
by ANTOINE ANDREMONT & TIMOTHY R WALSH. 2015
www.globalhealthdynamics.co.uk/wp-conten..._Andremont-Walsh.pdf
Of greatest concern is the production and gross environmental contamination with fluoroquinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin), once considered the perfect antibiotic. Studies have shown therapeutic levels of ciprofloxacin in Indian rivers and if the elegant studies of Beaber and colleagues are extrapolated to South Asia, this would indicate a colossal level of gene transfer happening in and between bacteria in this part of the world. This antibiotic load or pressure is further exacerbated by the levels of poorly degraded antibiotics contained in peoples normal flora that either enter sewerage treatment plants or worryingly, through open defecation. The published information about water and sewage decontamination procedures with respect to antibiotic resistance remains extremely scarce, and it is urgent to design actions to fill this critical gap. Specifically, the activities should provide a meta-analysis of current national and international activities concerning the situation of waste disposal including the availability of suitably clean potable water, and its relation with the spread of antibiotic resistant organism among humans and animals. Related to this meta-analysis, is information on antimicrobial resistance and whether community carried AR/community acquired infections is a key concern.




AMR vectors diagram
_________________________________________________________________

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN INDIA: DRIVERS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR ACTION
Ramanan Laxminarayan, Ranjit Roy Chaudhury
March 2, 2016
dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001974
journals.plos.org/plosmedicine/article?i...journal.pmed.1001974
Environmental antibiotic pollution encourages the transfer of resistance genes to human commensal and pathogenic bacteria. In particular, waste water treatment plants serving antibiotic manufacturing facilities have been implicated in the transfer of resistance genes into human microbiota and pose a serious threat to antibiotic effectiveness given the size of India’s pharmaceutical sector. There are no regulations governing the discharge of antimicrobial waste into the environment, and these are needed. Currently, India does not have regulatory provisions for the use of antimicrobials in cattle, chickens, and pigs raised for domestic consumption. Recent studies in various regions of India have discovered antimicrobial residues in food animal products (such as chicken meat and milk) [25], indicating that antibiotic use in food animal production is widespread. There are no standards for tolerance of antibiotic residues in poultry, although such standards do exist for seafood.




Increased usage of antibiotics in India

_________________________________________________________________

FOREIGN TRAVEL IS A MAJOR RISK FACTOR FOR COLONIZATION WITH ESCHERICHIA COLI PRODUCING CTX-M-TYPE EXTENDED-SPECTRUM -LACTAMASES: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY WITH SWEDISH VOLUNTEERS by Thomas Tängdén, Otto Cars, Åsa Melhus and Elisabeth Löwdin. ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, Sept. 2010, p. 3564–3568.
India has highest risk for foreign travelers re being infected by AMR bacteria. Prevalence of "extended-spectrum beta-lactamase" (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae is increasing globally, and community-onset infections with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli are a major clinical concern in many countries. Considering the high rate of acquisition of ESBL-producing isolates and the extent of international travel in many countries, it is obvious that global efforts are needed to meet the emergence and spread of CTX-M enzymes and other antimicrobial resistances. Further international cooperation on rational antibiotic use and control is urgently needed.




A small study with great implications.
_______________________________________________________________

2015 WHO EMERGING WASH ISSUE AND NEED FOR RISK EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT
apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204948...SH_14.7_eng.pdf?ua=1
Concern is antibiotics and antimicrobial agents, their metabolites, AMR bacteria and AMR genes and enzymes (plasmids) andhuman excreta-related environmental exposures. Water and sanitation are the first lines of defence.

___________________________________

MAY 2016 UK REVIEW ON AMR
amr-review.org/sites/default/files/16052...per_with%20cover.pdf
predicts 10 million will die per yr due to AMR by 2050. Rates are 700.000 per yr now.

______________________________________

GLOBAL MAPPING OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
resistancemap.cddep.org/index.php]]>
Micro-pollutants, pharmaceutical residues, antibiotics resistance, chemical pollutants Sun, 19 Feb 2017 11:43:11 +0000
Re: [Wg4] Working Group 4 meeting at FSM in Chennai - meeting details - by: Eddy251 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/57-wg-4-sanitation-systems-hygiene-health/20224-meeting-of-working-group-4-at-the-fsm4-conference-in-chennai-india-on-18-feb#20505 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/57-wg-4-sanitation-systems-hygiene-health/20224-meeting-of-working-group-4-at-the-fsm4-conference-in-chennai-india-on-18-feb#20505
I arrived Chennai early this morning and would attend the meeting.

Regards,
Eddy]]>
WG 4 (Sanitation systems, hygiene, health) Sun, 19 Feb 2017 06:48:21 +0000
Re: Meeting of Working Group 1 at the FSM4 Conference in Chennai, India (between the 19th and 23rd of February) - by: Eddy251 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/54-wg-1-capacity-development/20410-meeting-of-working-group-1-at-the-fsm4-conference-in-chennai-india-between-the-19th-and-23rd-of-february#20504 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/54-wg-1-capacity-development/20410-meeting-of-working-group-1-at-the-fsm4-conference-in-chennai-india-between-the-19th-and-23rd-of-february#20504
Regards,
Eddy]]>
WG 1 (Capacity development) Sun, 19 Feb 2017 06:42:53 +0000
Re: Emptying of sludge - How can we know the consistency of the fecal sludge during the emptying if it can be pumped or not? - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/20482-emptying-of-sludge-how-can-we-know-the-consistency-of-the-fecal-sludge-during-the-emptying-if-it-can-be-pumped-or-not#20503 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/20482-emptying-of-sludge-how-can-we-know-the-consistency-of-the-fecal-sludge-during-the-emptying-if-it-can-be-pumped-or-not#20503 Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Sun, 19 Feb 2017 06:23:43 +0000 LIST OF COMPANIES COMMITTED TO TH WATER MANDATE - by: ossai http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/20501-list-of-companies-committed-to-th-water-mandate#20501 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/26-health-issues-and-connections-with-sanitation/20501-list-of-companies-committed-to-th-water-mandate#20501
THANK YOU IN ADVANE.]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Sat, 18 Feb 2017 22:26:13 +0000
Re: Emptying of sludge - How can we know the consistency of the fecal sludge during the emptying if it can be pumped or not? - by: goeco http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/20482-emptying-of-sludge-how-can-we-know-the-consistency-of-the-fecal-sludge-during-the-emptying-if-it-can-be-pumped-or-not#20500 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/20482-emptying-of-sludge-how-can-we-know-the-consistency-of-the-fecal-sludge-during-the-emptying-if-it-can-be-pumped-or-not#20500
In my view would be nice to have input from participants representing innovations taking place in this area... there are a range of these described in this forum, some funded by benefactors who I'm sure would like to see information flow.

cheers
Dean]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Sat, 18 Feb 2017 22:08:51 +0000
Re: Emptying of sludge - How can we know the consistency of the fecal sludge during the emptying if it can be pumped or not? - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/20482-emptying-of-sludge-how-can-we-know-the-consistency-of-the-fecal-sludge-during-the-emptying-if-it-can-be-pumped-or-not#20499 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/99-faecal-sludge-transport-including-emptying-of-pits-and-septic-tanks/20482-emptying-of-sludge-how-can-we-know-the-consistency-of-the-fecal-sludge-during-the-emptying-if-it-can-be-pumped-or-not#20499 For septic tanks there is usually enough liquid to pump the majority of the sludge, but it might require some manual mixing and trying to break up the often consolidated sludge bottom.

Other on-site systems like pit latrines you can rarely pump, except maybe by adding quite a lot of water and mixing before pumping.]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Sat, 18 Feb 2017 06:02:05 +0000
Re: Join us 19-20 March 2017 SuSanA's Wikipedia Edit-a-thon for World Water Day, Around the world, around the clock, together - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/213-world-toilet-day-world-water-day-and-other-special-days/20407-join-us-19-20-march-2017-susanas-wikipedia-edit-a-thon-for-world-water-day-around-the-world-around-the-clock-together#20498 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/213-world-toilet-day-world-water-day-and-other-special-days/20407-join-us-19-20-march-2017-susanas-wikipedia-edit-a-thon-for-world-water-day-around-the-world-around-the-clock-together#20498
Thanks for keeping a close eye on the Spanish Wikipedia articles! I am only looking at the English ones so far (and every now and again the German ones, but rarely).

Yes, such flags can be set or taken away by any Wikipedia editor. So YOU can voice your opinion on the talk page of the affected articles. You can also simply remove the flags (and put a comment in the summary field when you make that edit). To do so, you need to use the source editor not the visual editor.
The flag looks like this at the very top of the page in the source editor:

{{fusionar a|Baño seco ecológico|ArborLoo|Sanitario ecológico seco}}


To remove it, you would just delete that line. But better than just removing the flag is to enter into a dialogue with the person who added the flag. Please do this on the talk page of the article. It's also good practice to mention the user's name so they get a direct message that they have beem mentioned. You can find out who added the flag on the history page of the article.

I had a look and it is this person who added it 10 days ago:

10:01 2 feb 2017‎ Erik Streb (discusión · contribuciones)


Here is his user page:
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usuario:Erik_Streb

(note to users: it is better NOT to use your real name as your Wikipedia name; most people use names that are somewhat related to their real names, e.g. I am user EvMsmile)

It is not a "democractic" decision making process, i.e. there are no votes and majority "wins". It is built on the "wisdom of crowds" and on an effort of consensus building. You will find that most Wikipedians are very open to discussion of these things. If someone has taken an interest in the Spanish Arborloo and UDDT articles then this could be a good sign.

Please let me know if I anything is unclear and needs more explanation?

Do you think you will participate in our edit-a-thon? There will be many different options to participate. Translating articles, like you have done already, will be one option. We will spell out more options next week here on the forum.

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
World Toilet Day, World Water Day and other special days Fri, 17 Feb 2017 20:38:59 +0000
WG 3 Co-Lead - by: amichels http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/56-wg-3-energy-climate-change/20496-wg-3-co-lead#20496 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/56-wg-3-energy-climate-change/20496-wg-3-co-lead#20496
I am pleased to support Stefan Reuter as a Co-Lead for WG 3 on Renewable energies and Climate Change.

Please let me introduce myself briefly: I am currently managing a global programme on climate change mitigation at GIZ, the “Water and wastewater companies for climate mitigation” (WaCCliM). I am an aquatic ecologist by training and have specialized in climate change science during a postdoc at Queen’s University (Canada).

I am delighted to be a co-lead for WG 3. Water and climate change are intrinsically linked. The international community is more and more recognizing the key role that water plays in adaption and mitigation to climate change. As such, SuSanA cannot only support the achievement of SDGs by promoting sanitation systems but also support the implementation of the Paris Agenda and ist water related climate targets.

Looking forward to working with you,

Best,

Astrid]]>
WG 3 (Energy, climate change) Fri, 17 Feb 2017 16:57:39 +0000
Re: Norovirus and Rotavirus Survival in Urine Collected from a Public Ecological Sanitation System in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso - by: Mackjo http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/175-urine-reuse-or-infiltration/20221-norovirus-and-rotavirus-survival-in-urine-collected-from-a-public-ecological-sanitation-system-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso#20495 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/175-urine-reuse-or-infiltration/20221-norovirus-and-rotavirus-survival-in-urine-collected-from-a-public-ecological-sanitation-system-in-ouagadougou-burkina-faso#20495
Thank you for the interest in our research results.
I can try to answer to your questions.

QUESTION 1: "If you now had to translate your research results into practice and formulate policy recommendations what would you say? Or is it too early for that?"

ANSWER: Based on our findings, it is possible to make some recommendations. In the study, the viruses were maintained in the urine for 49 days at which time the Rotavirus particles remained infectious (although low), even at 42 ° C.
In terms of recommendation, we can estimate that the time of hygienisation of the urine in the field (by storage) should be extended (≥ 60 days vs 30-45 days) in order to minimize the risks associated with the presence of viruses . It should be noted that the scientific literature provides information, "naked" viruses such as Rotavirus and Norovirus are the most resistant in the environment; This is what motivated the choice for our study these viral models.

QUESTION 2: "Is the source of those viruses in urine coming from cross-contamination with feces?"

ANSWER : The types of viruses studied (Rota and Norovirus) are not excreted by urine. However, urine collected through UDDTs may contain these viruses by cross-contamination with fecal matter or other environmental sources.

QUESTION 3: "As far as I know the urine collection from the UDDTs stopped a while ago though because people were not willing to pay for the collection service. Is that right?"

ANSWER : I am pleased to know that you have contributed to reviewing the above-mentioned document.
For your information, the collection of EcoSan products (urine and faeces) always continues. Indeed, there are 4 associations in charge of the management of the EcoSan system in Ouagadougou. These associations are still carrying out their activities but with many financial difficulties. After the end of the EcoSan project, the management of the system was entrusted to the municipality of Ouagadougou. Since many UDDTs are defective due to lack of maintenance, the managers of the associations are discouraged because they no longer make any profit.

QUESTION 4: "Do you have more up to date information about this project which you could share?"

ANSWER : Between 2011 and 2013, the EcoSan project in Burkina Faso was extended in semi-rural areas and in secondary towns such as Koupela, Pouytenga. Finally, the report is that the populations of these localities are more interested in the achievements of the project, compared to those of Ouagadougou.

QUESTION 5: "Has anyone written up more recent "lessons learnt" about it? Is it regarded as a failure or as a limited success story because it provided a lot of learning about how it could work?"

ANSWER : In order to provide lessons learned from the EcoSan Project in Ouagadougou, The Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) through IWMI EcoSan sponsored a recent study in which I was personally involved as a consultant. As such, I do not have the finalized report of the study. If possible, you can contact the SEI, in particular Mr Linus Dagerskog.

In my opinion, the EcoSan project in Ouagadougou was not a failure but rather a limited success story, as is often the case in most development projects, when the partners leave, there are always difficulties In financial resources. The EcoSan project was accepted by the populations and the authorities, proof is that the UDDTs have been integrated into the strategic plans of the ministries in charge of sanitation and agriculture in Burkina Faso.

With regards,

Dr. Joseph Makaya
From Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso]]>
Urine reuse or infiltration Fri, 17 Feb 2017 16:30:32 +0000
Re: Join us 19-20 March 2017 SuSanA's Wikipedia Edit-a-thon for World Water Day, Around the world, around the clock, together - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/213-world-toilet-day-world-water-day-and-other-special-days/20407-join-us-19-20-march-2017-susanas-wikipedia-edit-a-thon-for-world-water-day-around-the-world-around-the-clock-together#20494 http://forum.susana.org/component/kunena/213-world-toilet-day-world-water-day-and-other-special-days/20407-join-us-19-20-march-2017-susanas-wikipedia-edit-a-thon-for-world-water-day-around-the-world-around-the-clock-together#20494
There is a flag at the top of the Spanish Wikipedia pages for the ArborLoo, UDDT, and others saying that these should be merged.
es.wikipedia.org/wiki/ArborLoo

I do not agree, as these are different technologies and I would suggest that we should have more tolerence of different ideas. Baño Seco Ecológico is similar to the UDDT, but not the same and, of course, an ArborLoo is very different.

I suggest we keep all of these separate pages and just edit their content and make sure there are adequate links between them.

Who puts these flags? Can they be undone? Can there be some sort of democratic decision-making process.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
World Toilet Day, World Water Day and other special days Fri, 17 Feb 2017 13:40:57 +0000