SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sun, 04 Oct 2015 23:43:53 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Going to scale: An introduction to this discussion and an invitation to engage - by: suvojitc Theme 1 - Programming for scale Sun, 04 Oct 2015 21:56:37 +0000 Re: Going to scale: An introduction to this discussion and an invitation to engage - by: suvojitc Theme 1 - Programming for scale Sun, 04 Oct 2015 21:53:47 +0000 Re: Reuse of Wastewater - by: mwaniki
Kindly note that we reprinted a related paper entitled “Investing in the Reuse of Treated Wastewater” in the May-June 2014 edition of the Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene”.

The paper was prepared by Chris Scott of International Water Management Institute (IWMI). It was revised by Salah Darghouth, Water Adviser for the Agriculture and Rural Development Department (ARD) of the World Bank, and Ariel Dinar, Lead Economist in ARD at the World Bank—both part of the Water for Food Team.

The paper was reprinted with permission and the pdf version is enclosed in the attachment.

Kind regards,

Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 04 Oct 2015 19:32:41 +0000
Inputs from the WSSCC LinkedIn CoP - by: TraceyKeatman
From Takudzwa Noel Mushamba:

Thank you Tracey for the insightful discussion. I am a Zimbabwean graduate student based in Turkey. I am an engineer by profession I worked in Zimbabwe and Namibia. I am not an expert in behaviour change regardless associating and working in various WASH projects. I am going to comment as an engineer and a person who grew up in a peri urban area (Epworth, no piped water, poverty etc) I am sure you get the picture. As human beings we are programmed or so I believe to behave in a certain manner unless there is a strong reason to change that pattern. Clearly most people have knowledge about hand washing and the risk associated with not doing so. But underlying factors such as the financial status of a household always play a part:

  1. Convenience - despite knowing all the risks involved with unclean hands most people are not willing to go through the process of going to get water from a few kilometres away hence i firmly believe a person with piped water in the house has "better chances" of changing or adopting hand washing for example.
  2. Absence of cases or low prevalence of water and sanitation diseases is not necessarily and indicator of "improved behaviour". I am sure we all understand the epidemiological triangle ( lets assume I do not wash my hands when I am in Europe. I am sure I have less chances of contracting a disease related to WatSan because of the environment while at the same time it is easy to adopt hand washing because of the convenience and access. I think we are more a product of the environment that what people tell us.

The same message means different things to two people. To one it means open the tap and a hand sanitizer and to another it means buy extra soap travel to a borehole 8 km away and get an extra bucket of water and wash before you eat. Infrastructure plays a huge role not only in reducing exposure but also in fostering new behaviour. Thank you

And from Tom Davis who comments on Jihane's earlier comment:

I think the focus on using paid professionals for health promotion, Jihane, is unfounded. See this paper where we found that projects using Care Groups had double the adoption of HWWS as projects that did not use Care Groups. Care Groups rely on volunteers.

Also see the different determinants found for the 18 Barrier Analysis studies on HWWS shown on the Food Security and Nutrition Network's Behavior Bank.
Theme 2 - Sustainability for behaviour change Sun, 04 Oct 2015 19:10:48 +0000
Reuse of Wastewater - by: F H Mughal Reuse of Wastewater

Reuse of treated municipal wastewater is normally taken as an intervention that supplements water supply. That is rightly so, since in most cases in developing countries, the treated municipal wastewater is used for irrigation of road greenbelts, golf courses, parks and playgrounds.

I recently came across an interview of Dr. Valentina Lazarova, an expert with over 25 years of research and practical experience in the field of Environmental Engineering. She is the chair of the IWA (International Water Association) Water Reuse Specialist Group. The interview was conducted by Dr. Vidhya Chittoor Viswanathan, Impact Director at AquaSPE, Zurich, Switzerland. Dr. Vidhya has a strong technical background in civil and environmental engineering. Her doctoral thesis was on studying the impact of river restoration on surface water quality across various scales (from river reach-scale to catchment-scale).

On the constraints in the reuse of wastewater, Dr Valentina said:

“The main constraints for the development of potable water reuse are inadequate communication, misunderstanding of the efficiency and reliability of the available treatment technologies and water quality control tools. As a consequence, public opposition and concerns of unknown micropollutants or pathogens were the key arguments against the development of some potable reuse projects. In fact, unplanned potable reuse is a wide uncontrolled practice worldwide associated with higher health risks compared to planned water reuse. For these reasons, the major challenges for indirect potable reuse remain the public support, regulatory approval, high capital and operation costs, including very high monitoring costs for emerging micropollutants.”

Dr. Valentina’s response is useful as the efficiency of treatment technologies and, monitoring of treated effluents are the two important adjuncts that has to be considered seriously, if risks, associated with the use of treated wastewater, are to be avoided.

As regards the fears of presence of pathogens, Dr Valentina says:

“We have also many examples where misunderstanding of water reuse is blocking the development of projects for irrigation with well treated wastewater, while many rivers used for irrigation are much more polluted that recycled water. Independent of the type of reuse application and the country, the public’s knowledge and understanding of the safety and suitability of recycled water is a key factor for the success of any water reuse programme. Consistent communication and easy to understand messages need to be developed for the public and politicians explaining the benefits of water reuse for the long term water security and sustainable urban water cycle management.

There are few proven solutions available to convince the public at large and the project stakeholders regarding the safety and relevance of water reuse. Undoubtedly, the use of a clear and positive terminology and simple explanations on water quality, treatment technology and water reuse benefits are necessary to build-up credibility and trust in water reuse. Existing experience and lessons learned are very important to convince decision makers. Finally, the most important recommendation is to inform and involve the public, politicians and all stakeholders from the beginning of any water reuse project. The increasing media impact and the new communication tools via internet should also be taken into account.”

While many rivers are polluted and receive untreated wastewater discharges, Dr. Valentina’s point of knowledge and understanding of the safety and suitability of the recycled water merits attention.

On treatment technology, she says: “The combination of microfiltration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO - recognised as a “multiple barriers” polishing of municipal effluents - is considered as the best available technology for potable water reuse applications.”

For large scale operations, e.g., NeWater Project in Singapore, her point of view is correct, but in case of small-level situations in developing countries, it would be rather difficult to go for MF and RO technologies, if the treated wastewater is to be used for irrigation.

The details of the interview can be accessed at:

While still on the same note, I came across a by article by Gary Chandler titled: Alzheimer’s Disease Epidemic Fueled By Sewage Contamination. The article sent shivers through my spine. It is available at:

The article is rather long. Briefly, the article says:

People are dying of neurological disease at an accelerating rate;

Pathogen associated with neurological disease is spreading uncontrollably. Research suggests that food and water supplies around the world have been contaminated with an unstoppable form of protein known as a prion (PREE-on);

The prion problem is getting worse with rising populations, rising concentrations of people, intensive agriculture, reckless sewage disposal policies and other mismanaged pathways. As the epidemic strikes more people, the pathways for prion exposure explode and intensify. Reckless sewage disposal policies and practices alone are putting billions of innocent people in the crossfire right now. Entire watersheds are endangered thanks to a deadly pathogen that migrates, mutates and multiplies;

Although there are many causes and pathways contributing to the prion disease epidemic, many pathways are being mismanaged, including sewage, biosolids and reclaimed wastewater. As stated earlier, blood, saliva, mucas, urine, feces, milk and cell tissue all carry infectious prions. These human discharges are flushed down toilets and sinks billions of times every day. We all have flushed away toxic or infectious waste that we would never throw on our garden or in our water well. The magic wand at the sewage treatment plant doesn’t phase most of these elements;

Sewage treatment plants can’t detect or stop prions in municipal waste streams. Despite this important technical detail, we’re dumping tons of infectious sewage on crops, gardens, pastures, golf courses, playgrounds and open spaces in our forests every day. Wind, rain and other natural dynamics put the sewage right back into our air, food and water supplies;

Spreading sewage sludge, biosolids, and reclaimed wastewater anywhere is a risk. Dumping them directly into our food and water is reckless, incompetent and criminal. We’re dumping prions into our lifecycle by the trainloads daily. Every nation is guilty;

The condensed sludge from all of these places is then dumped on our farms and ranches by the truckload. Plastic packaging and other large items are often visible in this waste, which means that treatment is extremely minimal. If the Pope waved his hand over the sewage, it would likely receive better treatment than what we see today. Nothing stops a prion, but you would hope that billions of dollars of wastewater treatment would at least take out pill bottles, syringes, needles and used prophylactics;

Thanks to more and more people dying from TSEs, sewage systems are more contaminated with prions than ever. Wastewater treatment systems are now prion incubators and distributors. Sewage sludge, wastewater reuse, biosolids and other sewage byproducts are biohazards causing bioterror. Thanks to questionable policymakers and profiteers, you are eating and drinking from your neighbor’s toilet–and the toilets at the local nursing home and hospital. We might as well dump sewage out of windows again;

Thanks to more and more sewage mismanagement, we’re dumping more deadly prions on farms and ranches than ever. The wastewater industry and their consultants have convinced agricultural operations around the world that sewage and biosolids are safe, effective and profitable for all involved;

As it turns out, today’s sewage isn’t safe. Sewage sludge isn’t an effective fertilizer. The business is profitable, though—until the sickness and disease sets in for the farmers, workers and the consumers. Until the land is condemned for being hopelessly contaminated—making everyone downstream sick.

After reading Gary’s article, I was just wondering whether one should think twice before reusing treated wastewater for irrigation.

Can anyone comment on this?

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 04 Oct 2015 16:02:45 +0000
Re: Industrial Ultrasound in redesigned toilet seat (User interface technology innovations) - by: ChrisBuckley Tina Velkushanova ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ) has been working on variants of the Delhi Fair faeces recipe for people with different needs. I suggest you contact her as we are able to work with fresh faeces in our laboratory and thus could undertake side by side tests with faeces and stimulant.

Alternatively you could send a student to work in our lab with your actual equipment. See our web site for details about working in Durban

Chris Buckley
This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Pollution Research Group
User interface technology innovations Sun, 04 Oct 2015 11:08:28 +0000
Re: Fit For School Approach (F4S) - 10 primary schools in Moshi, Tanzania - by: hajo
Progress in September:

• Delivered 1st batch of 45 hand-washing facilities to 4 Primary Schools (Kilimanjaro, Nelson Mandela, Benjamin Mkapa and Ronga);

• Prepared and signed a contract for installation of HWF and construction of flower-bed surround with a Moshi contractor;

• Organised community participation in installation of HWF in these two schools;

• Start of installation of HWF at Ronga and Nelson Mandela Primary Schools;

• Unfortunately a number of fittings got stolen already at one school before installation;

• Prepared and distributed the checklist to the schools (cleaning schedule for toilets, list of key stakeholders and history of major repairs);

• Production of further 49 HWF for the other 6 schools is in progress;

• It is planned that the HWF at Nelson Mandela school will be officially inaugurated on Global Hand-washing Day, 15 October 2015;

• It should be mentioned that this project does not only run in Moshi but under the same MoEducation/GIZ/UNICEF cooperation 88 HWF will be installed at 10 primary schools in Dar es Salaam (by GIZ and SAWA NGO) and more by UNICEF in Mbeya, Iringa and Njombe (-> and )

• Some pictures of last month’s progress at Ronga school:

Ciao Hajo]]>
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Sun, 04 Oct 2015 08:37:38 +0000
Re: Eco toilets in remote Togo - by: ErikTN
To make the squathole with a tight fitting lit can substitute the VIP model. Check also for models. With only 185 households it is however a bit expensive to import special sanitation tools from Sweden.

You may make your own tool for the squathole. It is easy. Just follow the instruction and draw on paper to make the "keyhole model" squathole tool for tight fitting lids:
1. Make a 20 cm diameter circle.
2. From a point on the edge make a line 13 cm (so it look like a lolipop).
3. Draw a cicle of 10 cm diameter at the end point (the outer edge of small circle is now 18 cm from where the line started.
4. Make two parallel lines 10 cm apart from the outside of small circle to tuch the big circle.
5. Trace all the outher lines, and you should end up with a keyhole design
6. Make a new design there the outher edge is 1 cm inside the first design.
7. Cut out the two keyholes and glue on something thin and stiff. Cut this stiff material to fit the paper models. - You now have a big and a small keyhole design.
8. Take the two designs to a carpenter and use the big keyhole to cut a mould of wood. It can be 3 cm thick wood or 5 cm, depending on how much slope you want on the slab, i.e. slope towards the squathole, when the slab is having 4 or 5 cm at the edge.
9. Take the big keyhole cut in wood and place the small keyhole model on top, and make a new line one cm inside the edge on one side of the wooden mould.
10. Now cut with a slant so you get a conical mould with a sloping edge always one cm smaller at the bottom compared to the top. Make the wood smooth with sandpaper.
11. Put a nail in the centre on the top, so you can remove the mould after casting the squathole.
12. Put a thin plastic bag in the dry squathole on the cured slab (after 1 day) and fill with concrete (about 2 litres, depending on thickness of mould, 3-4 cm).
13. You need to put a metal handle into the new concrete lid, so you can easily remove/replace it.
14. The handle is best made from 6 mm soft reinforcemt iron bar, 90 cm for one handle.
15. Hammer to short pieces (10 cm) of 6mm bar into a big piece of wood (e.g. tree trunk), leaving 6 mm apart. Measure 140 mm 90 degrees from the two first pieces and hammer one more into the wood.
16. Use your the "lid bending tool" to bend the 90 cm 6 mm bar into a square style "number 9" where the part outside the circle is double. You should bend in length of 15, 15, 15, 15 and 30.
17. Place the handle in the concrete with the long double iron part of handle in the slim part of the squathole, then it will be ballanced for use.

The lid is tight fitting as cast in the squathole, the handle with double iron in the slim part makes it strong. Due to the conical form of the squathole mould the lid cannot fall into the pit.

Sorry no manual to show, as I always forget to take photos of this (for 20 years). I will try to remember to take these photos next time I work with the local latrine builders /carpenter.

But have a look at the attached photo of plastic squathole mould from They are very good quality. I used to buy them but sometimes I can make them faster locally, and there is the question of sustainability regarding imported tools.

You only need one squathole mould for making latrines for all 185 households in the village. The mould only need to stay in the slab some 20-30 minutes until the concrete has settled.

Pls remember to rinse the tools in water after use.

Regards, Erik]]>
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Sat, 03 Oct 2015 22:50:50 +0000
Re: Eco toilets in remote Togo - by: ErikTN
When there is a taboo for handling human faeces the only type of ecosan you may promote is the ARBORLOO (plant a tree latrine). Here there is no handling, and you get the benefits from reusing the nutrients for growing a tree in the pit.

One disadvantage is that you need to make a new small pit every 6-12 months, and shift the slab and superstructure.

Peter Morgan in Zimbabwe has very nice low-cost designs. My favourite model is the one with a ring (bricks or concrete) with a smaller slab on top. It can be made with VIP function, but that will require careful construction of the superstructure to function. Check out the models with a seat.

Google ArborLoo, and you get e.g.
Peter Morgan. 1998. Introduction. Compost latrines, which are now being promoted on a small scale in Zimbabwe, have the primary aim of disposing and ...

Go to the homepage to get access to more reports/design manuals or
Search in the achive of

I attach some photos from my work in Guatemala, Zambia, Angola, Tanzania and Mozambique which show feasible options that may work in Togo. The important thing is to use "Informed Choice", i.e. giving people the proper information on cost, O&M for several sanitation options for the future users to make an inteligent choice of what is desirable and affordable for them. The small slabs must be supported by a wooden platform, i.e. they are designed for upgrading traditional latrines with a washable slab. The 40x60 cm slab is the lowest cost option for a slab (1-2 USD in material costs) - If you make it smaller there will only be the hole left

Regards, Erik]]>
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Sat, 03 Oct 2015 22:03:58 +0000
Open Defecation of highest order - by: mwaniki
It was a shock to read the other day that in a speech to commemorate Nigeria's 55 years of independence from the UK on 1 October, President Buhari urged his citizens to refrain from familiar ubiquitous and unruly behaviour:

- The invisible individuals who excrete piles of solid waste on the pavements, night after night

- The pile of excreta would be set alight, and a generous quantity of red pepper added to the flames.

- Doing this was believed to cause the culprit's anus to begin to burn and itch wherever he was. And this belief acted as deterrent against people defecating in public places.

I would request anyone in the forum to guide somebody from that country how to apply for funds from the WSSCC to end open defecation. This shouldn’t be happening at all.

Kind regards

Health issues and connections with sanitation Sat, 03 Oct 2015 21:56:31 +0000
Re: Going to scale: An introduction to this discussion and an invitation to engage - by: depinder The question is well presented.
Scaling up in sanitation can never be 100% ODF as CLTS and other approaches declare. It has to be incremental because human beings are not machines or stupid people who can suddenly be "triggered" into changing behaviours.
A short answer to what works - a mix of approaches(incentives, awareness, political will, campaign and some disincentive based pressure), works the best in scaling up sanitation. This is expemplified in the Maharashtra state of India where a rural sanitation programme was scaled up by the state government from 2000 to 2007 to cover approx 25% of the districts. This experience is the most successful scaling up experience in India and the most under reported. We had documented it in our WASH Forum Newsletter recently.]]>
Theme 1 - Programming for scale Sat, 03 Oct 2015 15:22:49 +0000
Re: Personal Hygiene (handwashing) - a note from South Sudan - by: F H Mughal
I'm glad to note that you are doing lot of advocacy for handwashing. That is great!
Keep it up and good luck!

F H Mughal]]>
Hand washing Sat, 03 Oct 2015 15:13:58 +0000
Re: Personal Hygiene (handwashing) - a note from South Sudan - by: Augustino after this massage i am not going back to sleep i will be weak up from my deep sleep in south Sudan the most dangerous this is diarrhea and almost it affect small children and it series killing, this cause of source of water in our country poor swearer system and water station treatment i have a allot of thing to do either in my capital juba or my village malakal
i will remember always "wash your hands with clean running water and soap or ash"

Dak Victor
South Sudan- Malakal]]>
Hand washing Sat, 03 Oct 2015 13:07:33 +0000
Re: Going to scale: An introduction to this discussion and an invitation to engage - by: sujoy
What prompted me to reply, was your opening line- fortunately the need to go to scale is no longer a discussion.

This is a serious challenge- how do we change the behavior of entire populations in countries that have open defecation. Entire populations, because the socially accepted practice of OD has to be rejected by all. OD has existed and continues to exist because our societies accept it.

Going to scale is about reaching out to communities in the village / para / tola level simultaneously in a district / state. This can be achieved if the focus is on construction as there are enough people in the system to deliver construction. But the focus has to be on sustainable behavior change and herein lies the problem,the system does not have the number of people required to affect sanitation behavior change at the community level. Community facilitators deployed to facilitate community ( not individual) behavior change will require specialized training and mentoring.The key questions here is whether there is adequate capacity and resources available to provide training on community behavior change in large numbers as also the capacity and resources to mentor trained community facilitators.

As the Team leader, i am currently engaged in a project supported by unicef, to develop the implementation framework for using the CLTS approach at scale. Scale here is the district of Malda in West Bengal. Successful implementation of the framework is likely to influence the state policy which still proposes construction delivery through Rural Sanitary Marts and behavior change through community mobilization and extensive use of IEC. Readers will be aware of the CLTS approach and I will not mention how it differs from the IHHL construction approach.

The project is currently being rolled out in phases across the 15 blocks of the district and the focus is on creating the institutional capacity of the district and block administration to implement the national rural sanitation programme using the CLTS approach.

I am hopeful that a viable model of implementation can be demonstrated over the next few months to add to the basket of solutions required to address the magnitude of the problem.

Would be glad to receive queries if any.


Sujoy Chaudhury]]>
Theme 1 - Programming for scale Sat, 03 Oct 2015 08:32:42 +0000
Follow-up: Pieces of the Puzzle: Achieving Sustainable Rural Sanitation at Scale seminar - by: tmsinnovation
We agreed during the Stockholm World Water week Seminar on "Pieces of the Puzzle: Achieving Sustainable Rural Sanitation at Scale" on 27 August, that the many questions that were collected during the break out sessions from the participants that the panellist were unable to answer would be answered here in the SuSanA Forum in a follow-up to the Seminar.

Albeit with some delay here is the opening post with which we would like to present some of the collected unanswered questions. There are a few questions that some of the other convenors also collected, that will be added to the list below.

The panellist will in the coming weeks answer the questions they can here in the forum. In addition, the SuSanA secretarait will post a few of these questions in the coming weeks in Knowledge Point to see what answer are posted there. These answers will be shared back in this thread.

List of unanswered questions:
  • *Local government has limited capacities while supervision and coordination of the process of service delivery in sanitation needs a mix of multiple capacities not always present. Experience on how to deal with this?
  • *How do you/we ensure government ownership in the SNV approach?
  • *What about the designing of services? Operations, maintenance, emptying
  • *How do you build capacity when you have 3 year donor funded programmes and governments wants/needs 10-15 years of support? How can we change the paradigm to make longer commitment to governments?
  • *Does the MFI verifies the latrine construction? Is the sanitation loan bundled with some other product loans or is it stand alone? Can government realistically investment in household sanitation services?
  • *How much do you expect from government? What’s government’s role in a rural sanitation project? i.e. Are they engaging the local businesses? Or do you do that, with the government providing an enabling environment?
  • *Good tools, SNV-WSP. Assuming high demand by governments following SDGs. How can the tools best be shared? Central training on tools to governments or WASH specialists? On line tools? How is the sector coordinating around government tools and support to maximize impact and avoid overlap?
  • *Will building up capacities on local level be sufficient? Or do you need a minimum capacity development on national/ regional level?
  • *Can NGOs effectively facilitate private sector/ businesses (that make money)?
  • *Any examples of cross-financing rural sanitation through water supply and related experiences/ approaches/ methods to provoke institutional change?
  • *We should think, plan, implement for scale from the minute zero, stop the ‘scaling-up”-myth
  • *Financing for the entire sanitation cycle needs to be ensured. Too much focus is given to infrastructure only. Role of government? Financing through taxes, tariffs and transfers.
  • *How to get local government to put budget on long term management of sanitation facilities?
  • *How do we get governments to invest in rural sanitation? Governments seem to use the no-subsidy on rural sanitation to avoid investing in it.
  • *Sanitation services are heavily subsidized by government in developed countries and cities in developing countries. Why do we expect poor rural families to pay the full cost?
  • *Why do you still talk so much about technologies? Go to a session on drinking water, they speak about governance, financing (of management, maintenance etc.), policies, monitoring mechanisms, international cooperations etc. Sanitation should be beyond the technology question. We to look at systems, frameworks and the government responsibilities.

Some quick links:
To the Seminar description in the SWWW Programme:

Kind regards
Conferences, seminars and workshops Sat, 03 Oct 2015 07:19:32 +0000