SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Thu, 18 Dec 2014 17:22:33 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Massacre in school in Pakistan: We share your grief - by: F H Mughal
Thank you so much for your kind message. I have never heard of such a ghastly tragedy before.
If you see today's Dawn newspaper (, there is a spine-chilling news. I copy a part below:

‘We have killed all the children... What do we do now?

PESHAWAR: “We have killed all the children in the auditorium,” one of the attackers told his handler. “What do we do now?” he asked. “Wait for the army people, kill them before blowing yourself,” his handler ordered.

My heart goes out to the families of those innocent children. I hope and pray that such tragedies are not repeated in future.

Thanks again for your kind message.


F H Mughal]]>
Any other announcements Thu, 18 Dec 2014 15:50:45 +0000
Re: Toilet certification - by: jkeichholz
From a scientific perspective though, I also prefer a certification approach for the waste management side which is clearly more important.

Also, in reply to Detlef: marketing != green-washing. What is it that your clients are asking for?]]>
Sanitation as a business Thu, 18 Dec 2014 14:23:53 +0000
Re: Closed loop recycling of flush water through ABR and Constructed Wetland? - by: canaday
Thanks for this spectacular example. Many, however, would be worried about pharmaceutical drugs and potentially even normal, natural human hormones.

I would like to find cases where the flush water is simple recycled as flush water, especially at a large, public institution (and preferably with normal employees and not only super DIY homeowners).

Reclaimed Water, after wastewater treatment, sometimes gets used even for drinking water in more and more places in the world.
(This is a wikipedia page that could stand some serious editing.)
This is much more worrisome, in terms of pharmaceuticals, etc., than using this reclaimed water for flushing toilets once again.

Why is this not standard procedure? Why is it not listed among the options in the Eawag Compendium? Is there any reason not to do this, beside people's mindset?

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Thu, 18 Dec 2014 13:58:23 +0000
Re: Sustainable Decentralized Wastewater Management in Developing Countries (AIT, Thailand) - by: Thammarat
Our technology solution is distinctly different and inventive. It is a technology solution and not a mere hydrocylone unit. Allow me to note that the comprehensive solution includes a toilet pot/pan for rural/urban poor specifically designed for pour flush, solid–liquid separation system and a septic system operated under thermophilic conditions –all working in synergistic manner. Wish to underline that the system operates with a pour flush in tandem with the specially designed toilet pot and thermophilic septic system.

We have great respect for the forum and our understanding and belief is that this forum is for knowledge dissemination, networking and enabling people to use right knowledge, at the right time and in the right context.

We have been developing appropriate naturally acceptable and technically sustainable (NATS) sanitation technology for the bottom billion poors and community in need. Our sanitation solution is designed for pour flush system with as low water consumption as possible considering water scarcity and challenging conditions poor/underprivileged encounter.]]>
Processing technologies for excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 18 Dec 2014 12:56:10 +0000
Re: Toilet certification - by: joeturner

I am not clear if this is being replicated across the EU or whether faecal wastes are included as part of the standards.

Update: the standards specifically exclude faeces]]>
Sanitation as a business Thu, 18 Dec 2014 11:44:13 +0000
Re: Toilet certification - by: emmaroach
two years after the first post in this thread has been made things haven't really changed. I totally agree with Detlef Schwager, I don't see any benefit from certifiying toilet systems yet, especially when you refer to certification of festival toilets in Europe. The situation in Germany currently is that you have a couple of motivated start-ups which are just gaining their first experiences and hence improve their systems from year to year. The scene is way too young and financially not strong enough to benefit from certification of their product.

But certification is of high interest when you think of the waste management once the festival is done. What I would like to see established is a certification system for the processing/ composting, which is proven to be safe and accepted by the government.

Does any one of you know of a similar system for composting of organic material in general? Is there any approach to apply a certification system on composting of human feaces?

Sanitation as a business Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:23:14 +0000
Re: Closed loop recycling of flush water through ABR and Constructed Wetland? - by: AquaVerde
Under our "cold" condition, my close colleague Mr. Pollmaecher is doing this kind of "up-scale applications" for him self (6-8 pe) via AV-ABR, vCW (4m2/pe), slow sand filter (cascading), Koi-fish pond/swimming pool, using the wwtp effluent outlet water for pond, wash-machine, WC and vegetable garden and tree irrigation. He needs supplementing with rainwater. In other words, his property do not "supply" sewage to outside.

AV-ABR and vCW:

Slow-sand filter:

The wwtp-effluent do not have any e-coli's at all.

I hope this helps...

Mr. Pollmaecher is a very "handy man" (DIY)!
I would not suggest this kind of systems for any kind of lazy "users", just maintained by bad paid domestic care takers (gardeners).

All the best
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Wed, 17 Dec 2014 20:14:14 +0000
Re: Is there a standard for handwashing taps/stations to learners? - by: WASHanna
We just started this initiative, so we don't yet have a library of Q&As. We will have a page dedicated to these on our website early next year and will also publish a Q&A each month in our e-newsletter.

Great idea about using these to update the Wikipedia article! Happy to work on this.]]>
Handwashing activities at schools Wed, 17 Dec 2014 20:14:09 +0000
Lessons Learned from the Dissemination of Biodigesters for Sanitation in Haiti, from 2010 to 2013 - by: Anthony
It is with great pleasure that we share with you on the SuSanA Forum our research report “Lessons Learned from the Dissemination of Biodigesters for Sanitation in Haiti, from 2010 to 2013”.

The entire document may be viewed here:

An extract from the document translated into French, may be viewed here:

The report is the result of a research into the dissemination of biodigesters for sanitation in Haiti in the period 2010 – 2013. The research was carried out by Norwegian Church Aid (NCA) from September to December 2013. The overall purpose in carrying out the research was to evaluate the functionality of biodigesters and their toilets up to 4 years after their construction. The evaluation was based upon the 3 objectives that the biodigesters were designed to address:

• Sanitation (i.e. toilets, wastewater treatment and pathogen removal); 

• Renewable energy (in the form of ‘biogas’); and 

• Nutrient rich digestate (in the form of ‘biol’).

We encourage all forum users with a particular interest in biodigesters, Faecal Sludge Management, DEWATS, or indeed Haiti, to read the report and provide feedback.

A more in depth technical analysis of the report’s findings, will be presented at the 3rd International Faecal Sludge Management Conference in Hanoi, Vietnam, during the podium session on Anaerobic treatment on Tuesday the 20th January 2014. To all interested conference delegates, we look forward to seeing you there.

Finally, may we take this opportunity to wish all Forum users a Merry Christmas and a safe, healthy, sustainable, and joyous 2015!

With festive regards,

The NCA WASH team in Haiti.]]>
Biogas sanitation systems and DEWATS Wed, 17 Dec 2014 17:07:16 +0000
A study on WASH practices and under five morbidity patron using geographic information system (India) - by: Yogish
Presently am doing my research in low resource setting. so i want to know
1. Have any standard questionnaire to measure WASH and Under five
Morbidity pattern.
2. It’s difficult to measure both chemical and biological
contamination of water, have any suggestions for this how to
proceed further?
3. What all the things to be consider while measuring the morbidity
4. How clinically measure helminth infection?
4. As Geographic information system is new to me Where can i get Resource person

Thank you
Health issues and connections with sanitation Wed, 17 Dec 2014 17:00:06 +0000
Re: Sanitation Sustainability Indicators - by: tantinayono
Basically the tool (SusTA) is applicable for both shared- and unimproved sanitation facilities. The set of indicators (Table 9.7) provides universal principles to assess sanitation technologies in developing countries’ context.

Regarding shared facilities:
The quantitative assessments such as: cost, energy, water and land requirements are calculated based on the amount of consumption or expenditure in household’s level. Therefore, these indicators are applicable for both private and shared facilities. The other indicators such as: "social acceptance" and "technical skill required" have been designed to accommodate shared facilities as well. I provided several assessment matrices in Appendix 3 of the dissertation to demonstrate how we can use the same set of indicators to analyze both private and shared facilities.

Regarding unimproved facilities:
We can still use the same indicators to assess unimproved sanitation facilities. Obviously there will be several ‘low fulfillment’ scores, such as ‘BOD removal’ and ‘Health risks caused by the system’.

Regarding gender aspect:
I did not specifically address gender issue, but there are several indicators in the tool that address societal issues in general. I expressed these issues within indicators’ fulfillment conditions (Table 9.7, column 4,5,6). For example:
• “social acceptance” discusses whether a technology is in accordance with society’s principles and norms. This can be used to assess which technology (in user interface part) is less or more vulnerable to violence. The result might differ from one society to another. I was in the village where all shared facilities have no doors. Because the society takes care of each other, women feel saver to be in a toilet or bathroom without doors.
• “technical skill required” analyses whether a technology is suitable for the intended operators (including women as caretakers). Or it can be used to assess: which level of skill is needed to run this technology.
• “health risks caused by the system” evaluates which technology minimizes the contact between users/operators to wastewater. We can still use this principle in analyzing a technology, using women as our main users.

I find the idea of specifically including gender aspect in the tool is important. I am still improving the tool- particularly in the fulfillment conditions’ parts.

Miscellaneous - any other topic Wed, 17 Dec 2014 15:40:06 +0000
Closed loop recycling of flush water through ABR and Constructed Wetland? - by: canaday
I am looking for cases of direct reuse of processed blackwater for flushing the same toilets again. This would resolve many problems at the same time:
-- People can use the same flush toilets that they are used to.
-- Demand for water would be greatly reduced.
-- Pharmaceuticals and other contaminants that cannot be entirely removed during treatment do not go into rivers or anywhere else in the open environment.

This would be safe and acceptable because:
-- Biological treatment (e.g., ABR + CW) reliably eliminates pathogenic bacteria, smell and color.
-- Users would not have contact with this water.
-- Those who clean flush toilets already apply precautionary measures, such as long-handled brushes, gloves, etc.

It seems that the only real obstacle is people's linear, disposable, one-use, throw-away mind-set.

This would involve some additional piping and pumping, the latter of which could be done with pumps that also serve as exercise equipment, such as Treadle Pumps

So far, I propose processing the blackwater in ABRs (Anaerobic Baffled Reactors) for 24 hours (and maybe recover biogas), then at least 3 days in a Vertical-flow, Subsurface Constructed Wetland. All suggestions are welcome. (The idea is for there to also be UDDTs that users can opt to use if they prefer.)

I am proposing this to an institution here in Ecuador and would like to find more support for this, especially up-scale applications where people are doing this with no problems.

This would be true / re use /.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Wed, 17 Dec 2014 13:48:12 +0000
Sandec is seeking an Intern to support the development of Shit-Flow-Diagrams - by: donahupa
• Master’s student in environmental management, engineering, planning, or a related field
• Advanced knowledge of English in reading, speaking and writing
• Basic knowledge of sanitation and wastewater sludge/faecal sludge management
• Exceptional communication skills and team spirit

For more information, please

contact Lars Schoebitz at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it . Deadline for applications: 05.01.2015.]]>
Jobs, consultancies, internships Wed, 17 Dec 2014 10:17:31 +0000
Reply: Envirosan South Africa developed new pour / low flush toilet system (can be used with BIOGAS system s) - by: jay bhagwan
In response to your positions;

  • The pour flush is now ready for roll out. Envirosan has taken the lead in manufacturing to scale. They have improved on the WRc design and the technology comes in two variation in one. A 1 litre pour flush and a two litre microflush with a cistern.
  • The pour flush has many advantages over dry san systems such as VIPs and UDs. It offers the same convenience as water sanitation and also deals with the problem associated with dry faecal sludges and detritus.
  • I consider a pour flush in the category of a dry toilet, 1 litre is a small amount of water and it has a better impact on sludge degradation according to our research. We have also shown that it does not necessarily affect groundwater since the leach pits are shallower. Our research has also shown such in terms of leaching providing the soil conditions are good.
  • Anyway sewers leak more than a pour flush, yet we do not raise the issue of groundwater. My aged professor always reminded me not to make GW sacrosanct, when there is very little evidence that links onsite sanitation to pollution.
  • The pour flush hopefully can lead to greater behavior change, it has a gender bias that since they do not smell because of the water seal they can be constructed in the house or near the house.

We have close to 5 Million VIPs in South Africa which is raising its ugliness in terms of sustainability and user acceptance, besides all the management problems associated with faecal sludges and emptying. The same fate is also for the 100,000 odd UDs* in Durban.

Convenience is key for any user, not what is cheap. The VIP is cheap but expensive on the long term. Pour Flush can cut the costs by half. For me it is the future for the poor.

As with all technologies it has its limitations. Water and space must be available. However, it offers hope in the sanitation ladder.



* Note by moderator: UDs stands her for urine diversion toilets, meaning the urine-diverting dry toilets (UDDTs) in Durban/eThekwini]]>
Other types of toilets and topics regarding user interface Wed, 17 Dec 2014 06:40:24 +0000
Re: Questions on Faecal Sludge Management - by: ChrisBuckley I suggest you use the ASTM technique for the calorific value.

In addition determine (1) the dry solids mass at 105 Deg C (and thus moisture content); (2) the volatile solids content by igniting in a muffle furnace at about 500 Deg C, this will also yield the ash content; (3) the soluble ash content, by washing out the soluble components.

You may also wish to measure the charring temperature and to produce bio char
The opportunities for biochar are: yield, ash content, surface area.

Faecal sludge management Wed, 17 Dec 2014 06:20:06 +0000