SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sat, 26 Jul 2014 11:10:58 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: BJimenezC
Taking advantage of the orientation you have provided us, I would like to share with you a paper related to PCR method for the identification of Ascaris. We think it would enrich the blog:

Brian M. Pecson, José Antonio Barrios, David R. Johnson and Kara L. Nelson (2006) A real-time PCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs using the first internally transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72(12):7864.


Worldwide, 1.4 billion people are infected with the intestinal worm Ascaris lumbricoides. As a result, Ascaris eggs are commonly found in wastewater and sludges. The current microscopy method for detecting viable Ascaris eggs is time- and labor-intensive. The goal of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method to determine the levels of total and viable Ascaris eggs in laboratory solutions using the first internally transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and rRNA. ITS-1 rDNA levels were proportional to Ascaris egg cell numbers, increasing as eggs developed from single cells to mature larvae and ultimately reaching a constant level per egg. Treatments causing >99% inactivation (high heat, moderate heat, ammonia, and UV) eliminated this increase in ITS-1 rDNA levels and caused decreases that were dependent on the treatment type. By taking advantage of this difference in ITS-1 rDNA level between viable, larvated eggs and inactivated, single-celled eggs, qPCR results were used to develop inactivation profiles for the different treatments. No statistical difference from the standard microscopy method was found in 75% of the samples (12 of 16). ITS-1 rRNA was detected only in samples containing viable eggs, but the levels were more variable than rDNA levels and ITS-1 rRNA could not be used for quantification. The detection limit of the rDNA-based method was approximately one larvated egg or 90 single-celled eggs; the detection limit for the rRNA-based method was several orders of magnitude higher. The rDNA qPCR method is promising for both research and regulatory applications.

These results are the unique experiences we had with PCR technique.

Health, hygiene and disability issues Fri, 25 Jul 2014 21:23:16 +0000
Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: BJimenezC
Enabling environment Fri, 25 Jul 2014 21:10:27 +0000
Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) in IDP camps in Uganda - article in Disaster Prevention and Management journal - by: AParker

Apologies that it's not open access. I'll look into the possibility of posting a pre-publication version online.

Article citation: Alison H. Parker, Jen A. Smith, Tania Verdemato, Jeanette Cooke, James Webster, Richard C. Carter, (2014) "Menstrual management: a neglected aspect of hygiene interventions", Disaster Prevention and Management, Vol. 23 Iss: 4, pp.437 - 454


Purpose – Effective menstrual management is essential for the mental and physical well being of women. However, many women in low-income countries lack access to the materials and facilities required. They are thus restricted in their activities whilst menstruating thus compromising their education, income and domestic responsibilities. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach – This study describes the menstrual management challenges faced by women in an emergency situation in Uganda. Totally, 50 interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with women from villages, internally displaced person (IDP) camps and schools so that the menstrual management of the host population could be compared with the IDPs.

Findings – This study showed that in IDP camps there was a significant lack of materials including soap, underpants and absorbing cloth, and facilities like latrines and bathing shelters. As a consequence women in IDP camps suffer with poor health and diminished dignity. There is also a lack of education about menstruation and reproductive health and practices are strongly influenced by cultural taboos.

Originality/value – This is the first time that the menstrual management of women in IDP or refugee camps has been studied.
Announcements Fri, 25 Jul 2014 15:33:25 +0000
Re: High-throughput microbial gene detection seems like the future? - and technology used to identify dysbiosis - by: KeithBell Anaerobic digestion (AD) is another area studied using new molecular techniques, helping us understand in fine detail how we are shifting flora balance with this waste disposal technology. My fear is both AD and WWTP damage ecosystems on the microbial level akin to deforestation. Why not concentrate on more natural systems, i.e., aerobic composting? AD is poised for explosive growth in the global marketplace. Sexy biogas technology generates electricity in disregard of long-term collateral damage.

In this swine manure AD study, first of its type, clostridia was not surprisingly found dominant. Is this why anaerobic digestion of waste is associated with chronic botulism in the environment?
Multiple approaches to characterize the microbial community in a thermophilic anaerobic digester running on swine manure: A case study

I'd like to read the full paper of this new AD study which states anaerobic digestion sludge samples
"were different from other microbial communities from activated sludge, human faeces, ocean and soil."
How were they different and what are the ramifications?
Metagenomic analysis of sludge from full-scale anaerobic digesters operated in municipal wastewater treatment plants.

Do operators of AD plants understand these issues? I've read many dairy farms in Germany were destroyed by chronic botulism in the environment when residual waste was allowed contact with livestock. This is a very controversial, hot topic.]]>
Health, hygiene and disability issues Fri, 25 Jul 2014 14:19:17 +0000
Mobile Luxury Loos - Loowatt Demonstrates the New Loowatt Event System at Latitude Festival 2014 (Great Britain) - by: vgardiner
Loowatt demonstrated the Loowatt Event System, a mobile off-grid, energy-generating luxury loo system, at Latitude Festival 17-20 July, 2014 in Henham Park, Suffolk. We were really excited to tell the public about our waterless, chemical-free luxury loos. To read more about the toilet system, please visit our website.

Excited festival-goers from around the world attended the family friendly and environmentally-conscious event.

The Loo Unit offers a clean, well-appointed interior including mirrors, porcelain sinks and LED lighting and is equipped with luxury soap and lotion.

We had customers queuing to experience the Loowatt Event System for free. The children especially loved our unique waterless “flushing” mechanism.

We estimate we saved around 8,000 liters of water during the festival. The Loowatt luxury loo is 100% waterless, using biodegradable liner to package the waste.

The Loowatt team was onsite nearby to answer any questions and to keep the toilets pristine.

Customers were impressed by the clean, odourless, and luxury experience. Read some of their testimonials below:

‘This is the best and most well conceived and executed idea and solution I have come across for a very long time. Clean, comfortable, innovative + well made = marvelous.’ – Geoffrey

‘Great! (There is) no smell of anything. Was lovely being in a sealed ‘cocoon’ & in a world of your own for a couple of minutes, much as I love being at this festival.’ – Phillipa

‘What a pleasant experience to have at a festival! Lovely clean toilets and such a unique system. Perfect for large events and after speaking to the representative – perfect for disaster areas where clean sanitation facilities are essential.’—Mhorag

Are you looking for off-grid luxury loos for your event or festival? Please contact us. We would love to hear from you.]]>
Mobile or portable solutions, public toilets Fri, 25 Jul 2014 14:09:55 +0000
Following our earlier discussion on this subject, I would like to inform you that last Saturday, the Open Working Group for Sustainable Development Goals adopted a proposal for Sustainable Development Goals to be forwarded to the 69th session of the General Assembly for its consideration. The proposal contains 17 sustainable development goals, each with its set of targets and means on implementation. It is the fruit of nearly 18 months of discussion on the post-2015 agenda.

I think we can be very pleased that Water and Sanitation figure very prominently in the proposal.

First of all, water and sanitation is the subject of a dedicated SDG, goal 6 aiming to “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”. Under this goal, 6 targets foster measurable and time-bound actions to: achieve universal access to water, sanitation and hygiene; improve water quality and increase waste water treatment; enhance water efficiency and sustainability of water withdrawals; implement integrated water resources management, including through transboundary cooperation; and protect and restore water related ecosystems. Means of implementation include international cooperation and capacity-building and participation of local communities.

Moreover, water and sanitation are also strongly mainstreamed in the other goals of the agenda: explicitly referred under the goals on health, cities and human settlements, sustainable consumption and production and terrestrial ecosystems, and more implicitly in many others, including the goals on poverty, gender equality and climate change.

At this stage, it is still unclear how much this report will remain unchanged during next year of negotiations: whether it will be reopened or adopted by the General Assembly as it is at the Summit in September 2015. Therefore, the advocacy efforts for water and sanitation must carry on next year. Moreover, next year will be also important for reflections on the implementation of the agenda, in particular the water and sanitation SDG, including on its monitoring, on the partnerships needed to support it, etc.

Whatever the course of the future negotiations on the whole agenda will be next year, it is important to recognize that the consensus on water and sanitation is very broad and the support to the goal on water and sanitation is strong and consistent throughout the regions and the groups of countries.

Therefore this report can be seen as a good summary of the global water agenda and will guide and influence the work of all of us both at the national and international levels.

With best regards
Roland Schertenleib

Independent consultant, formerly head of Eawag-Sandec (Dübendorf, Switzerland
One of the founding fathers of SuSanA
Global political processes Fri, 25 Jul 2014 14:00:36 +0000
Restrictions on the use of urine in agriculture in the UK? - by: KatyFullilove
I'm writing an MSc thesis on the potential for UDFTs and urine use in agriculture in the UK and was just wondering if anybody knows what the situation is in the UK with regard to using human urine as a fertiliser.

Any information or links would be much appreciated!

Many thanks and best wishes,
Katy Fullilove
(MSc student at The Centre for Alternative Technology, Machynlleth)]]>
Fertiliser / soil conditioner Fri, 25 Jul 2014 13:35:14 +0000
Re: SuSanA Presence at the Stockholm World Water Week in Sept. 2014 - and suggestions for online participation - by: secretariat
For your convenience, here's a list of the sanitation events during the Stockholm World Water Week 2014, which are also listed in the .pdf file attached:

Securing Water, Energy, Sanitation and Livelihoods through Consensus: How Community Health Clubs Work
Convenor: Stockholm Environment Institute; Co-Convenor: Africa AHEAD
SUN 2014-08-31, 09:00-12:30, Room K16/17, Seminar

Global Monitoring of WaSH: A 2014 Update
Convenor: United Nations Children’s Fund and World Health Organization
SUN 2014-08-31, 12:45-13:45, Room K21, Side-Event Mon

Water & Energy Nexus: Realising the Human Right to Water and Sanitation
Convenor: Water Lex
MON 2014-09-01, 12:45-13:45, Room K24, Side-Event

Beyond Asset Management: Sector Analysis and Partnerships for Sustainable Service Delivery in WASH
Convenors: UNDP Water Governance Facility at SIWI and United Nations Children’s Fund; Co-Convenors: Department for International Development, UK; Directorate-General for International Cooperation, The Netherlands and Water and Sanitation Program
TUE 2014-09-02, 09:00-12:30, Room T6, Seminar Tue

Sanitation Business Models for Safe Resource Recovery and Reuse (RRR)
Convenor: GIZ, Co-Convenor: GTO and SuSanA
TUE 2014-09-02, 09:00-12:30, Room T2, Seminar Tue

What do we know about WaSH and Nutrition Linkages to Reduce Child Mortality
Convenors: United Nations Children’s Fund; United States Agency for International Development and World Health Organization; Co-Convenor: World Health Organization
TUE 2014-09-02, 12:45-13:45, Room T6, Side-Event

Output-Based Aid in Water and Energy Projects
Convenor: Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid and World Bank
WED 2014-09-03, 09:00-12:30, Room K22/23, Seminar

Streamlining Strategies for Humanitarian Aid in the Wash Sector
Convenor: AA, German WASH Network; Co-Convenor: Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Switzerland; Sanitation and Water for All; Sustainable Sanitation Alliance and United Nations Children’s Fund
WED 2014-09-03, 09:00-12:30, Room K11, Seminar

From Faecal Sludge to Fuel: Safe Sanitation with Business Opportunities
Convenors: Eawag and Sandec; Co-Conveners: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; China Node for Sustainable Sanitation; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit; German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste; German Society for Biogas and Bioenergy; German Toilet Organization; Kristianstad University; Makerere University; Netherlands Water Partnership; Norwegian University of Life Sciences; Stockholm Environment Institute; Sustainable Sanitation Alliance; Technologies for Economic Development; University KwaZulu-Natal and World Bank
WED 2014-09-03, 14:00-17:30, Room K22/23, Seminar

New Concepts and Technologies for Sanitation in Emergency Settings
Convenors: International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, Co-Convenors: Oxfam-Great Britain; Sustainable Sanitation Alliance; Swedish Red Cross and WASTE
THU 2014-09-04, 14:00-17:30, Room K24, Seminar

WASH Media Awards Ceremony
Convenors: Stockholm International Water Institute and Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council
FRI 2014-09-05, 09:00-13:00, Room n.a., Social Event

18th SuSanA Meeting
Venue 1

FRI 2014-09-05, Room K21, Stockholmsmässan, Mässvägen 1, SE-125 80 Älvsjö, Sweden
Venue 2
SAT 2014-09-06, Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Linnégatan 87D, 115 23 Stockholm, Sweden
See the Draft Agenda here

[Sebastian Klos]]]>
Events Fri, 25 Jul 2014 12:07:53 +0000
Frontiers of CLTS issue 3: Disability- making CLTS fully inclusive - by: Petra Frontiers of CLTS series- Disability: Making CLTS fully inclusive. This issue was co-authored by Jane Wilbur (WAterAid) and Hazel Jones (WEDC)

About this issue:
CLTS aims at total sanitation. For that it has to be inclusive. There are ethical reasons for this, but the bottom line is that while any open defecation continues, all are affected.

This issue of Frontiers of CLTS focuses on people with disabilities and particular needs for access to sanitation. People affected tend not to be present at triggering, to lack voice in the community, to have their needs overlooked, and may even be hidden by their families. This issue outlines the reality of the experiences of disabled people, the varied nature of their needs and how they can be met. It includes practical recommendations for people engaged in CLTS to make the different phases and processes of CLTS more inclusive.

You can download the publication here.

Please feel free to share it widely with colleagues and contacts. All previous issues and their translations can be found here.

Best wishes,

Petra Bongartz, for the CLTS Knowledge Hub]]>
CLTS (Community led total sanitation) Fri, 25 Jul 2014 11:09:10 +0000
Can users add documents to the SuSanA library themselves? If not, why not? - by: muench
We were asked the following question about uploading documents to the SuSanA library (

Mughal wrote:
If a user would like to add a publication or two to the library, how can he/she do it?

Users cannot upload documents to the library themselves. Why not?
Because this library is a carefully quality-assured place where you can be sure that any document you find there is of good quality. Also, the information that goes with the document (bibliographic information, summary, categories for filtering) is carefully quality assured by the SuSanA secretariat. For this reason, we have opted against the option of letting any user uploading anything to the library themselves.

An exception can be made to this rule if a SuSanA partner organisation has many documents to upload. In that case, we can teach one of their staff members how to do it and then they can do it themselves. We did that in the past with SuSanA partner ACF. Of course, this is a nice option for us because it reduces the work load of the SuSanA secretariat.

If you have a document that you think should be added to the library, please simply send it to us by e-mail ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ), or when you attach it to your post, you could leave a quick note saying "I checked the library, it is not in there yet, could you please add it?". We are continuously scanning posts for attachments that should be added to the library, but occasionally we might miss one, so it is good if you remind or alert us.

We usually add documents to the library within a few days (up to a week), depending on how many we receive in that week and whether our team has the resources (uploads are mainly done by Carola or one of our interns).

One thing that is important to keep in mind: We cannot possibly upload every single sanitation document in the world to the SuSanA library. Therefore, we focus on
  • the very good and important ones
  • the ones that are not yet online elsewhere (e.g. MSc theses, PhD theses, evaluation reports, feasibility studies, factsheets, consultancy reports commissioned by important donors such as the Bill and Gates Foundation and so forth).

We currently have around 1700 documents in the SuSanA library.

Perhaps the following two graphs are interesting (prepared by Dorothee Spuhler, for the complete statistical analysis see here:

Weekly uploads of documents to the SuSanA library (by the secretariat):

Weekly downloads of documents from the SuSanA library (by the users):

And this screenshot shows what goes on in the background when a secretariat member adds a document to the SuSanA library (it is certainly not rocket science but requires attention to detail and adherence to the uploading guidelines):

Please don't hesitate to ask any questions you may have about the workings of the SuSanA library and its conenction to the Forum (see also this related thread:

Questions about using the forum Fri, 25 Jul 2014 08:44:07 +0000
Re: 2nd Edition of the Compendium of Sanitations Systems and Technologies is now available! - by: dorothee.spuhler
Thanks for the update: trust I have been waiting for this day…

For all who do not know it yet: we are currently implementing an online version of this second editions of the Compendium integrating it with the content and features from the SSWM Toolbox.

The main added value of an online version is the possibility of using interactive links to highlight cross-references and guide users from one chapter to another. Moreover we are also working on a filter functions for instance to quickly identify the technologies that fit you if you are interested in a specific sanitation chain product.

The e-Compendium will (hopefully ) be ready for our meeting in Stockholm.

Stay tuned and have a happy day,

New publications Fri, 25 Jul 2014 08:02:52 +0000
2nd Edition of the Compendium of Sanitations Systems and Technologies is now available! - by: donahupa]]> New publications Fri, 25 Jul 2014 07:16:35 +0000 Re: New article: Why clean the toilet if others don't? Using a social dilemma approach to understand users of shared toilets (in urban slums) - by: kamarain
Thanks for your appreciation. In response to your comment to Hansi, and regarding the publication on ' when is shared sanitation improved sanitation? It was evident that cleaning gets more complicated with the increase in the number of user families. However from our further theory and evidence-based intervention research - focused on increasing the cleaning behaviour of user families ( targeting four families and more), it is possible to realize improved sanitation of shared facilities beyond the 5 sharing families if cleanliness is guaranteed(We will notify SuSanA when our article is out regarding collective cleaning of shared toilets).]]>
Behaviour change, psychology, user engagement Fri, 25 Jul 2014 06:29:36 +0000
Request for literature on demand for investment in water services infrastructure - by: sachs77
I am a faculty member at National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi, India. I am looking for literature (empirical) on 'demand for investment in water services infrastructure'. By water services, I mean access to safe drinking water and sanitation. I would appreciate if you could kindly share your thoughts and experience on the following issues:

a) Available methods for estimation of global demand for investment in water services infrastructure
b) Cost to provide access to safe drinking water to a person or household
c) Cost to provide access to sanitation to a person or household

To make the estimates robust, I need to know the unit costs from all continents, if not available for countries.

The objective of this exercise is to project demand for investment in water services infrastructure to met MDGs or beyond. Information shared with me will be used for academic purposes only not for any commercial gains.

Best regards,



Sacchidananda Mukherjee, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
National Institute of Public Finance and Policy
18/2, Satsang Vihar Marg, Special Institutional Area
(Near JNU East Gate)
New Delhi – 110 067, INDIA
Ph. (O): +91-11-26960439, 26967935, 26852398, 26569780
Fax: +91-11-26852548, Mobile: +91-9868421239
E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it , This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
WG 2 (finance, economics) Fri, 25 Jul 2014 03:57:47 +0000
Re: Non-plastic removable container for UDDT (for project in Southern India) - by: StewMartin
No, not involved in that India project. One Rotary WaSH project in India, more often in Indonesia and CenAm, one is percolating in Tanzania.

I've followed some of your posts here, viewed website and video ... very informative!

Idea of wax or sealant on bamboo is interesting; might extend life 6-12+ months. The villagers came up with the idea of gedek on bamboo frames; but gedek (aka kedek) is like dried palm fronds, will rot too quickly. We are now looking for the woven plastic bags. No PET beverage bottles in Sumba villages; quite primitive rural area, as much or more so than sub-Sahara.

I see you use dried humus (re-purpose) to be the drying carbonaceous material for next round of feces; how does that work? As well as firepit ash, sawdust, minced leaves?

I read lots on 6-12+ months for dehydration, some speculation on shorter periods ... but being a biologist, how does one _really test_ to verify helminth egg inactivation? Looking a samples under microscope doesn't tell, does it?
And have you used 3M Petrifilm on a suspension made from the material to count e.coli or coliform CFU's?

Urine diversion systems (includes UDDT and UD flush toilet) Thu, 24 Jul 2014 22:11:52 +0000