SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Tue, 23 Dec 2014 05:07:48 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Experience with ECOSAN in Arctic regions - by: KaiMikkel

Is this the challenge that you are working on behalf of? ]]>
Emergencies, reconstruction situations, refugee camps, special conditions, resiliance issues Tue, 23 Dec 2014 00:13:23 +0000
Re: Does Global Progress on Sanitation Really Lag behind Water? - by: JKMakowka
In most situations neither community water (shared handpumps) nor sanitation access is adequate for the commonly agreed on health targets. But community water access is easier to get funded and usually the demand for it is also higher.

But besides starting another round of slightly tireing MDG discussions did you have anything specific in mind when starting this thread? To advance the situation in rural Pakistan the MDG process is not what I would look at ]]>
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), global sanitation indicators Mon, 22 Dec 2014 17:41:24 +0000
Re: "Pulling" away from Open Defecation via Aspirational Marketing - by: denniskl
also see email I sent you re the ASEAN 3 Programmes]]>
Sanitation as a business Mon, 22 Dec 2014 15:06:16 +0000
Re: Gut dysbiosis/malabsorption syndrome is rampant due to poor sanitation - by: KeithBell infant and maternal mortality and poor sanitation:
A matter of birth and death: unsafe conditions still killing new mothers and newborns

The companion paper about Tanzania is interesting as I've recently learned about the Hazda people of Tanzania practicing open defecation while suffering high infant mortality rates. This is somewhat counterintuitive since the Hazda are famously studied for their diverse intestinal microbiomes and ancestral diet associated with good health (lack of chronic illness seen in developed nations). There are currently no efforts I'm aware of to improve sanitation. Instead, the Hazda are beginning to submit to vaccination, a grand experiment which may lead to injuries.

And here we have another new paper about maternal and reproductive health:
Getting the basics right – the role of water, sanitation and hygiene in maternal and reproductive health; a conceptual framework
It's good to see focus on this issue from a microbial standpoint as the womb has previously and wrongly been considered a sterile environment, a fallacy promoted in peer-reviewed papers without evidence for decades.

Lastly for now, this recent NYT article (also posted in a thread here about antibiotic resistance) where it's surmised infant mortality associated with poor sanitation is a matter of microbial prediposition where microbes are transmitted from mother to child in the birthing process, though placental transmission should be the concern.
‘Superbugs’ Kill India’s Babies and Pose an Overseas Threat]]>
Nutrition and WASH Mon, 22 Dec 2014 14:39:26 +0000
Re: "Pulling" away from Open Defecation via Aspirational Marketing - by: canaday
I just found an online course that is directly relevant to this marketing endeavor:

- - -
Subsistence Marketplaces by Madhu Viswanathan of the University of Illinois USA

Gain knowledge about subsistence marketplaces and use it in different parts of the world to make a difference. The broader aim of this course is for you to consider the global challenge of poverty and envision a better world by designing solutions based on sound understanding.

The foundation for this course lies with unique synergies between pioneering research, teaching, and social initiatives through the Subsistence Marketplaces Initiative. Unique to this approach is a bottom-up understanding of the intersection of poverty and the marketplace.

The goals of this course are to help you develop an understanding of marketplace activity in the radically different context of subsistence where much of humanity resides and survives, and for you to design solutions that can be implemented by individuals, businesses, and social enterprises through economically, ecologically, and socially sustainable products for subsistence marketplaces.
- - -

I am going to sign up to at least see the video lectures (and hopefully I will have time to do the homework).

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Sanitation as a business Mon, 22 Dec 2014 14:16:38 +0000
Re: Video about two dry sanitation service models by utilities in Peru - by: canaday
Congratulations on this spectacular project. It was great to see (in the video) such a diversity of competant Peruvian professionals participating in the project.

-- The UD inserts seem very practical and sturdy. How much do they cost? Could they be sold to projects in neighboring Ecuador?
-- The UDDTs are very beautiful, but it seems they could be made a bit simpler to bring the price tag down to maybe US$500.
-- The privacy wall of sticks woven together, built by the owner in Moyobamba, is a very practical option, as it allows more light and air to get in, while providing sufficient privacy. The user can see out much better than people on the outside can see in. (This is the way the indigenous Shuar people here in Ecuador build the walls of their homes.)
-- One of the biggest challenges in a program like this is to select the best users, for whom to build, those who will use them properly and set a good example for the rest of the community. On this front, I suggest testing potential users/beneficiaries by giving them inexpensive, portable UDDTs to use for a week and then check for proper use. This would put some pressure on the user to actually understand and use a UDDT ... and no one would want to be crossed off the list for being messy or not being able to follow instructions. Two examples of such portable UDDTs include the wood and linoleum sit-down unit shown in the Simple UDDT article I published in Sustainable Sanitation Practice
... and this Minimalist UDDT ...
-- Any plans to work with the indigenous Awajún (=Aguaruna) people near the border with Ecuador? (My wife is from the closely related Shuar of Ecuador, their languages are similar enough that they can understand each other, she even has Awajún relatives, and she is a big promoter of UDDTs.)
--I would be glad to help troubleshoot any technical problems, or translate or proofread texts.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Urine diversion systems in countries of the global North and in cities Mon, 22 Dec 2014 13:49:14 +0000
Does Global Progress on Sanitation Really Lag behind Water? - by: F H Mughal
The main reason for this is that, the sanitation sector receives low priority in government circles. Water sector is given importance by the development departments and the politicians. As a result, the sanitation coverage is low in the rural areas, relative to water sector.

With that being said, Oliver Cumming, Mark Elliott, Alycia Overbo, and Jamie Bartram have authored an exciting paper titled: Does Global Progress on Sanitation Really Lag behind Water? An Analysis of Global Progress on Community- and Household-Level Access to Safe Water and Sanitation, published on 11 Dec 2014 (attached).

The abstract reads:

“Safe drinking water and sanitation are important determinants of human health and wellbeing and have recently been declared human rights by the international community. Increased access to both were included in the Millennium Development Goals under a single dedicated target for 2015. This target was reached in 2010 for water but sanitation will fall short; however, there is an important difference in the benchmarks used for assessing global access. For drinking water the benchmark is community-level access whilst for sanitation it is household-level access, so a pit latrine shared between households does not count toward the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target. We estimated global progress for water and sanitation under two scenarios: with equivalent household- and community-level benchmarks. Our results demonstrate that the ‘‘sanitation deficit’’ is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990–2015) outstrips that in water. As both drinking water and sanitation access yield greater benefits at the household-level than at the community-level, we conclude that any post–2015 goals should consider a household-level benchmark for both.”

Some of the interesting points from the abstract are: Under MDGs, the benchmark for drinking water is access at community-level, while for sanitation it is household-level access. It makes sense that the benchmark for water should have been the access at household level. Perhaps, the community-level access was due to the incorporation of large percentage of rural population having access to water through community wells.

The authors further say: “the ‘‘sanitation deficit’’ is apparent only when household-level sanitation access is contrasted with community-level water access. When equivalent benchmarks are used for water and sanitation, the global deficit is as great for water as it is for sanitation, and sanitation progress in the MDG-period (1990–2015) outstrips that in water.”

This means that, for equivalent benchmarks, the sanitation progress outstrips that of water. While these findings of the authors are fascinating, the aspect of sanitation progress having outstripped that of water, seems to be in contrast with the sanitation scenario in the rural areas in developing countries, principally in Pakistan, unless I’m missing some point.

F H Mughal]]>
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), global sanitation indicators Mon, 22 Dec 2014 10:37:18 +0000
Compendium of Accessible WASH Technologies - by: F H Mughal Compendium of accessible WASH technologies.

The compendium gives low-cost technologies, an aspect that is favorable for the poor developing countries, and is designed to make WASH facilities easily accessible to the disabled people. It can also be used by the aged people. The main focus of the publication is on the household facilities.

The most attractive aspect of the compendium is that, it gives high resolution pictures (provided the high resolution version is accessed), and attractive, colorful line diagrams, thus increasing the usefulness of the publication.

The compendium can be accessed at

F H Mughal]]>
New publications (books, articles, partner newsletters, journals, blogs, websites, videos) Mon, 22 Dec 2014 05:18:54 +0000
IWC online course 'An Introduction to WASH for Development' - by: IWC Students will be introduced to the core principles involved in planning, designing and implementing WASH activities to improve sustainable and equitable access to domestic water supply and sanitation facilities, and to improve hygiene behaviours.

2 March - 8 May 2015 (online)

Who should participate
This course is designed for present or future development practitioners working in civil society or non-government organisations, government institutions, donor organisations and consulting firms, and for those working in the water industry who want an understanding of approaches to WASH problems in the developing world.

AUD $870 per person (including GST)

More information
• Visit
• Download flyer (PDF):
• Register now:
• Questions - please email This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ]]>
Courses (including online courses) and trainings Mon, 22 Dec 2014 02:13:56 +0000
Re: Toilet certification - by: ben
Very interesting topic, I'm not the best one to talk about the french approach but here is a link to the quality charter of the RAE (dry toilet association, main actors on the topic in france).
For the non-french readers, this is about the philosophy any dry toilet renter should apply : Confort of users / sensible composting / prevention-awarness raising / hygiene-H&S equipment / Social-ethics.
I believe, because there's very little law documents on the subject in France, it has been a great paper which homogenised practices and gave us a legitimity toward our clients to say "look, there no regulation but we have a intern code that we stick to".
Last meeting of the RAE, a structure was blamed by the others for not respecting the charter, can't say if they were threatened to be ejected of the structure but an internal control was operated.
Add to this paper their last publication with the stamp of Water agency / the Ademe (energy) and the ISAE (Health institution) and the people have no doubts anymore that it's a serious organisation.

So yes, there is alternatives to labels and certification that are taken seriously by clients. Congratulation to the RAE team that worked hard this past years so everyone entering the dry toilets renting business can use their document to claim that we're organised and profesionals.


Sanitation as a business Sun, 21 Dec 2014 22:42:15 +0000
Gut dysbiosis/malabsorption syndrome is rampant due to poor sanitation - by: KeithBell Note by moderator: This post was originally in this thread but has been moved to here to keep the other thread more focussed.

Susannah, the "hygiene hypothesis" doesn't hold much weight in view of high rates of infant and maternal mortality now associated with poor sanitation. Gut dysbiosis/malabsorption syndrome is rampant due to poor sanitation, finally being acknowledged in mainstream media.

But I still like your point and believe we should also focus on how a toxic, polluted environment shifts flora in the wrong direction and out of balance.

Here's a 2014 study about organic pollutants in septic waste (not about pathogens):
Pharmaceuticals, perfluorosurfactants, and other organic wastewater compounds in public drinking water wells in a shallow sand and gravel aquifer.
Septic systems appear to be the primary source of OWCs in Cape Cod groundwater, although wastewater treatment plants and other sources were potential contributors to several wells.
Nutrition and WASH Sun, 21 Dec 2014 17:19:41 +0000
Re: Nice and quick overview about constructed wetland's historical developments, by David AUSTIN, USA - by: F H Mughal
The attached publication, a joint publication of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Protection Agency,Army Corps of Engineers, Fish and Wildlife Service, and
Natural Resources Conservation Service, is a guide on wetlands, and goes on to define the basics, like, what are wetlands, why restoration is necessary, importance of wetlands, etc. It is an interesting publication and, would be useful to the new users in the field.

F H Mughal]]>
Constructed wetlands, soil filters and infiltration beds Sun, 21 Dec 2014 07:17:53 +0000
Re: Pathogen concentration in untreated fecal sludge - by: SusannahSoilet
For a pathogen/parasite to successfully infect a new host through fecal sludge, it must surmount several steps:

1: gain contact

2: retain infectivity - i.e. have enough vitality to establish and procreate once contact is made

3: overcome the potential host's own defences - which are influenced by past exposure, diet, hygiene, genetics and concurrent medical conditions.

I would like to cite helminth control practices used in organic livestock farming here in the UK, which are:
Clean grazing (foraged feedstuffs) for susceptible individuals to reduce burden of exposure;
Optimum nutrition and avoidance of overcrowding;
Strategic use of anthelmintics, vaccines;
Breeding for resistance.

It might be worth considering that humans have evolved alongside a multitude of parasites and pathogens, and encountering some at low levels actually have beneficial impacts on protective gut microbiota and immune responses. In developing nations scenarios, there are usually individuals who appear remarkably healthy in the face of vast health challenges. Too clean can perhaps be damaging as too dirty!

Susannah Batstone, Soilet Systems.
Convinced that tiny things can solve big problems!


Note by moderator:

A reply by Keith Bell in this thread has been moved to here to keep this thread more focussed:]]>
Faecal sludge management Sun, 21 Dec 2014 07:15:29 +0000
Re: Closed loop recycling of flush water through ABR and Constructed Wetland? - by: canaday
Dennis, the idea would be to treat this blackwater just as well as if we were dumping it into the environment, only never dump it into the environment, so maybe somewhere between 0 and 200 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 ml. It would be key to eliminate any smell or color, so users do not enough notice the difference.

Detlef, thanks for these details. I think with so much rain falling on the constructed wetlands here, we should be able to keep the same amount of water cycle after cycle, and there would be plenty of greywater that could be added whenever needed.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Sun, 21 Dec 2014 04:43:58 +0000
Re: Pathogen destruction in biogas plant vs ABR (Anaerobic Baffled Reactor) - by: KeithBell clostridium perfringens.

High concentration of Clostridium perfringens found at 45 days reveals a risk to use the digested slurry on the arable land. Some Clostridium spp. may cause infection in animals e.g. blackleg (Clostridium chauveoi), malignant (Clostridium septicum and Clostridium
sordelli edema), black disease (Clostridium novyi), and enterotoxemia (three types of Clostridium perfringens).

Pathogen Reduction in Small-Scale Biogas Plants
in a Tropical Region - Bench-Scale Experiments
, 2008]]>
Focus on biogas production, issues surrounding biogas sanitation Sat, 20 Dec 2014 22:57:31 +0000