SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Wed, 01 Apr 2015 04:03:08 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Latrine Pit Infiltration - by: jnmacart In January I presented at the FSM3 Conference in Hanoi about some research that iDE-Bangladesh is doing in the southern tidal zones of the country around pit infiltration and safe leaching. We have been testing an in-hosue innovation called the FilTo which forces leaching through a layer of sand.

The FilTo worked perfectly until after the monsoon, when receding water began to channel out holes around the leaching areas right through the sand layer, effectively bypassing the sand filter.

We have been testing the FilTo by syphoning effluent off the bottom of the sand layer below the FilTo.

I would love to hear your suggestions of how to improve this technology and how to avoid the post monsoon issues.

Please do not try and implement this in your working areas yet. Once we get a version that works, I will happily share, but we aren't quite there yet. ]]>
Other types of toilets and sanitation systems Wed, 01 Apr 2015 03:11:14 +0000
Re: Improving sanitation and restoring dignity - by: isard Sorry I forgot to address one of the points raised in your reply. Yes, we did speak to leading organisations involved in eye and organ donation which are Shanker Netralaya and MOHAN respectively. They were very excited and are looking forward to a successful outcome of our program. We are still keeping our hopes alive that some leading organisation will soon come forward to help us kick start the proposal in a huge way and make it a reality.
Many thanks and regards
Behaviour change and user psychology issues Wed, 01 Apr 2015 00:30:21 +0000
Re: Sanitation in Hospitals - WASH in Health Care Facilities for better health care services (WHO report) - by: jbr
Robyn, it will be very interesting to hear back about WaterAid's internal discussions. Terre des hommes has begun to develop and test a risk monitoring tool for WASH in health faclities, mainly focusing on hygiene practices and proper use and maintenance of equipment. In the early stages, we could use some collaborative support in this direction.

Moreover, as Marijn mentions, the push for and monitoring of better WASH practices in health facilities will need to come from the Ministries. Wouldn't it be great to see national level WASH practitioner alliances forming with support from WHO and development community to engage with authorities?]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Tue, 31 Mar 2015 21:42:13 +0000
Celebrate World Health Day with the PPPHW - by: WASHanna
Food hygiene is a particularly relevant topic for those of us working in handwashing.

Join this webinar to:
- Explore why food hygiene matters for child health in the global context,
- Be inspired by a fascinating case study from London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Research Degree Student OmPrasad Gautam about a creative food and handwashing behavior change intervention in Nepal,
- Learn from Julia Rosenbaum with USAID/WASHPlus about the small doable actions you can take to better integrate food hygiene into your programs,
- And more!

Register today!]]>
Hand washing Tue, 31 Mar 2015 20:57:36 +0000
Re: Sanitation in Hospitals - WASH in Health Care Facilities for better health care services (WHO report) - by: RobynChristine
Healthcare workers want to protect their patients and work to high standards. In current conditions of poor WASH this is not possible - and, not their fault. Building in strong policy, developing environments supportive of good care practices / infection prevention and control measures (i.e. facilities having WASH on hand), and integrating WASH into healthcare facility monitoring for improved accountability is the direction we are headed... and I cant wait!

At WaterAid we are embarking on internal discussions to identify opportunities and ways forward for policy and programming in WASH in Healthcare facilities. We will be drawing out examples of entry points for engaging local governments and lessons learned - I will report back on how findings and how discussions progress. We are also putting out an infographic jointly with WHO on the report findings and action plan.


Health issues and connections with sanitation Tue, 31 Mar 2015 18:45:17 +0000
Re: 3rd WHO on Report on NTD's (Neglected Tropical Diseases): Opportunities and Challenges - by: RobynChristine
Of course - I currently work for WaterAid as a policy officer (health / monitoring and accountability). One of the projects I am currently working on involves working collaboratively with the WASH and NTD sectors to develop joint indicators for monitoring. My passion for WASH and health, and specifically integration with NTDs stems from my MSc project looking at WASH and other other indicators of vulnerability to disease for Schistosomiasis.

At the WHO report I was accompanied by a colleague from WaterAid. Luckily we have established a good group of NTD specialists with keen interests in collaborating with WASH so we were well represented at the event (although perhaps not as much in the panel).

Great idea with the wikipages. It really does get students engaged and asking questions. On the point of all helminths being categorized as NTDs it is important to note that in general there is lots of debate around classification of NTDs, generally we go with WHO's list though. Also most helminths are NTDs - where they are not (i.e. pin worms) it is mainly because they are more common diseases throughout the world, NTDs are particularly associated with poverty and marginalized groups.]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Tue, 31 Mar 2015 17:35:20 +0000
Re: What do we know about odorous gases from composting toilets (or from composting in general)? - by: joeturner Composting is commonly used as an effective means of stabilizing wastewater biosolids and reducing pathogens to very low concentrations. However, it has been shown that under certain conditions Salmonella can regrow in previously composted biosolids. Growth of seeded Salmonella typhimurium in composted biosolids ranging from two weeks to two years maturity was monitored. Results from sterile and non-sterile composted biosolids were compared. Seeded S. typhimurium colonized rapidly in sterilized biosolids reaching a maximum population density of more than 10( g(-1). Growth of seeded S. typhimurium was suppressed in non-sterilized compost with a maximum population density of less than 10 ( 3) g(-1). There was a significant decline in the growth rate of seeded Salmonella in sterilized compost when the compost was stored, suggesting that bio-available nutrients declined with storage. However, in non-sterilized compost this was not the case. This suggests that the indigenous microflora play a significant role in suppression of Salmonella regrowth in composted biosolids. There was a strong negative correlation (-0.85) between the Salmonella inactivation rate and the maturity of compost in non-sterilized compost. The Salmonella inactivation rate was seven times higher in biosolids composting for two weeks as compared to compost stored for two years. This suggests that the antagonistic effect of indigenous microorganisms towards Salmonella declined with compost storage. It was concluded that all composted biosolids had a Salmonella regrowth potential. However, the indigenous microflora significantly reduced this regrowth potential. Long-term storage of compost is not recommended as this may increase the pathogen regrowth potential.

abstract here:

Regrowth of Salmonella occurs under certain conditions in stored biosolids (Hussong et al., 1985; Gibbs et al., 1997), bagged biosolids based products (Skanavis and Yanko,1994), composted biosolids (Sidhu et al., 2001) and soils treated with biosolids (Zaleski et al., 2005), which adds to its unpredictable behavior in biosolids.

Sahlstrom et al. (2004) carried out a year long survey of 8 wastewater treatment plants in Sweden for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 in sewage sludges. They reported it to be present in 2% of raw sludges but not in anaerobically digested and composted biosolids. It
appears that E. coli O157:H7 numbers in biosolids are not expected to be high. However, they are known to survive on pasture and in stored animal manure for more than 11 weeks (Ogden et al., 2002; Kudva et al., 1998). Prolonged survival for more than 6 months can be expected in winter (Avery et al., 2004). Regrowth of E. coli O157:H7, like other enteric bacteria in biosolids or sludge applied to the land, is also possible under certain conditions.

Campylobacter are also reported to enter a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) form under conditions of environmental stress (Medema et al., 1992)

Abstract here:

Stabilised wastewaser sludge (biosolids) has beneficial re-use properties but these are limited by the presence of human pathogens. In this study soil amendment with biosolids and storage of biosolids prior to re-use were examined as disposal and treatment options. In a soil amendment trial biosolids were mixed with sandy soil and monitored for 37 weeks. In two storage trials biosolids were stored in piles 1m high and monitored for <60 weeks. Included in the monitoring programme were tests to determine the concentrations of faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci and salmonellae. In both the soil amendment trials and biosolids storage trials, concentrations of indicator organisms and salmonellae decreased through an extended hot, dry summer period. Although these organisms were not detected in the majority of samples taken during the summer, repopulation of faecal coliforms and salmonellae occurred in the trials following rainfall at the beginning of the winter. In the case of one of the storage trials repopulation occurred following a period of 50 weeks when salmonellae and faecal coliforms were not detected. When repopulation occurred, faecal coliform concentrations increased to higher than those at the beginning of the trials. These results suggest that faecal coliforms and salmonellae were at undetectable concentrations through the summer period but were able to grow when provided with favourable conditions. From this limited trial it was concluded that soil amended with biosolids could not be considered free from pathogens for at least one year following amendment.

Abstract here:]]>
Composting processes Tue, 31 Mar 2015 13:38:33 +0000
Re: What do we know about odorous gases from composting toilets (or from composting in general)? - by: canaday
What studies did you read?
Why would anyone expect the finished ''biosolids'' (which are almost indistinguishable from soil) to become sterile?
What would pathogenic microbes adapted to living in water without oxygen in our guts have to do in a pile of dry soil? Plus it is obvious that if there is new fecal contamination, the previous material is no longer safe.
In all such studies, we should keep track of what climate they are carried out in and what sort of microorganisms are added with the cover material (or if natural beneficial decomposer microbes are expected to come out of nowhere).

Edit: We have done microscopic studies of our finished ''biosolids'', after having used this same ''soil'' as cover material (with diverse soil microbes), in a warm, moist, tropical environment, and we have never found Ascaris eggs beyond 4 months of storage in woven, polypropylene sacks, despite Ascaris being abundant at the start. Researchers who would like to study our system here in Amazonian Ecuador are very welcome, especially those who do metagenomics.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Composting processes Tue, 31 Mar 2015 12:53:08 +0000
New Sanitation and Hygiene Training Courses for NGOs in Germany - by: GTO

Attention! Please note that all the following seminars will be conducted in German only!

San ABC plus

The next Seminar is an advanced training which aims to deepen the knowledge of the participants on sustainable sanitation in the context of development cooperation. The training will take place Aachen from 16th-17th (Th&Fr) April 2015.

The training topics range from detailed information on sustainable sanitation technologies and -systems to non-technical accompanying measures and financing. During the course we introduce various tools/toolboxes and will discuss project examples with regard to “best practices” and “lessons learned”.

The ideal participants for this seminar are those already working in a development focused NGO and running projects in the field of sanitation in the developing world. The seminar can also benefit those interested in the topic and wanting to gain experience in the field of development and sanitation. Participants should have participated in GTO basic sanitary course or should have working experiences in that field.

Click here for more information [en] about the Advanced Seminar: Sustainable Sanitation.


From 08th-09th May 2015 (Fr & Sa) our 2-day Seminar “Sustainable Water Supply in the Context of Development Cooperation” will take place in Köln/Bonn.

The Seminar gives an overview of the challenges and potentials of sustainable potable water supply in the context of development cooperation and provides a well-balanced composition of practical group exercises and theory.

Background: Water means life! But still more than 1.8 billion people don't have access to clean potable water and the persistence and sustainable use of built water points is often inadequate. Recent studies have revealed that 50% of all water projects in Sub-Saharan Africa fail after a short time. The wrong system choice and insufficient inclusion of the population are only some of the reasons.

This two day seminar is designed to provide an introduction into existing and local adapted technologies for water treatment and extraction up to ensurance of clean water at the point of use. Thereover actual methods and approaches how to ensure a sustainable use and maintenance of the systems will be introduced.

Seminar topics:
  • Basics of water supply in so-called developing and emerging countries:
    Use, impact and common grounds with other sectors
  • Overview of technical possibilities
  • Water reuse and distribution
  • Sustainability aspects in water projects
  • Water safety plans and multi-barrier approach of the WHO
  • Water systems at point of use and household water storage
  • Water commitees: Financing and accompanying measures
  • Operations and maintenance of water points
  • Application of learned knowledge: the participants will work at case studies

With guest lectures and inputs from:
  • Andrea Bindel (arche noVa)
  • Stephan Simon (Welthungerhilfe/World Hunger Aid)
  • Claudia Wendland (WECF)

Click here for more information [en] about the Seminar: Sustainable Water Supply.


From 28th-29th May 2015 (Th & Fr) our 2-day Seminar “Sanitation in Emergencies and Reconstruction Situations” will take place in Köln/Bonn.

The Seminar gives an overview of the challenges and potentials of sanitation in emergency situations and provides a well-balanced composition of practical group exercises and theory.

Background: After humanitarian disasters as flooding, typhoons, earthquakes and armed conflicts, rapid response is required. Food security, shelter, access to safe water and well-functioning sanitation systems are top priorities. Repeated cholera outbreaks and the risks of water-based diseases in emergency situations and refugee camps, shows that sanitation is of central importance for the health, safety and dignity of the affected population.
But what to do in regions with very high water tables, rocky soil or urban regions, where you can’t excavate a pit so easily? How can the main objective of sanitation in the context of emergency aid – the safe storage and disposal of faeces – be ensured in a sustainable manner?
Seminar topics:
  • Humanitarian emergency aid at a glance and the characteristics of sanitation in disaster situations
  • The UN cluster approach and the WASH cluster
  • Minimum standards in humanitarian aid and the SPHERE Project
  • Sanitation and hygiene behaviour in emergency situations
  • Hardware options: sanitation technologies in emergency and transitional aid as well as in reconstruction situations
  • Use, operation and maintenance of various sanitation solutions
  • Characteristics and importance of hygiene promotion in the emergency aid
  • Overview: Project management in emergency aid
  • Case studies and project experience

With guest lectures and inputs from:
  • Georg Ecker (Austrian Red Cross) about practical experiences in emergency sanitation and hygiene promotion (Haiti, Philippines, etc.)

Click here for more information [en] about the Seminar: Sustainable Sanitation in emergencies and reconstruction situations.


From the 25th-26th June 2015 (Th & Fr) our 2-day seminar “Hygiene Promotion in the Context of Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Aid” will take place in Berlin.

This two day seminar is designed to provide an introduction into the various aspects of hygiene measures and the challenges of the aimed behavior changes in the sector of hygiene. Besides the implementation and the understanding the different factors in influence of the desired hygiene behavior, various hygiene approaches and measures will be introduced through examples.

The ideal participants for this seminar are those already working in a development focused NGO and running projects in the field of sanitation.

Seminar topics:
  • The meaning of hygiene measures
  • Special challenges
  • Overview of the most important and effective hygiene practices
  • Influencing factors for hygiene behavior
  • Overview: hygiene approaches and methods
  • Hygiene promotion in humanitarian emergency aid
  • Online forums, networks, further information

Click here for more information [en] about the Hygiene Promotion Seminar.

Best regards and hope to see you!
Courses (including online courses) and trainings Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:10:01 +0000
Re: Composting of cloth and sanitary pads - by: inajurga
the baby diapers research is really helpful!]]>
Composting processes Tue, 31 Mar 2015 10:31:15 +0000
Re: free peer-reviewed MHM articles in WaterLines - by: Doreen
Thanks a lot for the information. Of course it would be interesting for us to know the activities that were carried out to monitor safety.
My only issue is the long term (health) effects that lack of water and hand washing can have on the girls.

I don't know how other organisations/NGOs that are promoting cups in low income areas and schools are dealing with the hygiene issues. Maybe they could shed a bit of light on this issue.

Best regards,

Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) Tue, 31 Mar 2015 09:19:42 +0000
Re: International Conference on “Innovations in Sustainable Water and wastewater Treatment Systems (SWTS)” November 4 - 6, 2015, Nagpur, India - by: Katie Conferences, seminars and workshops Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:54:06 +0000 Re: What do we know about odorous gases from composting toilets (or from composting in general)? - by: joeturner
I was even reading studies yesterday which suggest that faeces left in storage for more than 2 years may well have measured pathogens below "safe" levels, but that they have found to be rapidly reinocculated with the pathogens again - perhaps from additional human faeces, animals, leachates etc. The theory is that old faeces may have become almost microbially sterile, so that there is nothing to compete with the pathogen microbes if they reinoculate.

Given that viable helminth survive for many years in appropriate media, I think the idea that storage is a safe way to sanitise human faeces is basically disproven. If projects are not directly monitoring the pathogens, it seems to me that these systems may well not be robust enough to completely reduce all pathogens to safe levels.

Volume reduction is a factor, but I'd probably agree that dehydration is a more efficient way to do this in terms of space required. But to me, the benefits of volume reduction are far lower than the possible risks of pathogen transfer by the reuse of poorly sanitised faeces.]]>
Composting processes Tue, 31 Mar 2015 08:00:20 +0000
Re: Improving sanitation and restoring dignity - by: isard I would like to highlight that broadly we wish to create a mass awakening to the issues and get everyone involved. All fund raising schemes need not be be directed only towards large corporates. Even the common man would be happy to contribute in a small way towards a cause. We want to give them the opportunity to be part of a movement. This in turn will be a catalyst to drive the political will towards solving this burning issue at the earliest. In this century to continue this abominable practice of manual scavenging is simply unacceptable by any standards. So let us think out of the box and solve this problem somehow if we truly belong to a civilized society.
Various technological options exist for biotoilets, dry latrines, etc and once the funds are generated we will engage with the right experts to implement the best possible solutions as and when required.
With regards to the calculations, these are (and can only be) hypothetical- it is impossible to actually predict now how the project will shape up. Just to quote an example- look at the ice-bucket challenge - something so random - caught the fancy of so many individuals and was able to raise a staggering 115 million dollars for the cause of ALS! Can we not all of us collectively join and do something to solve these social problems that have existed for far too long and relieve our suffering brethren of so much misery?
Thanking you
Behaviour change and user psychology issues Tue, 31 Mar 2015 07:24:22 +0000
Re: What do we know about odorous gases from composting toilets (or from composting in general)? - by: hajo joeturner wrote:
hajo, I think you might be misunderstanding christoph -

I think he (christoph) was saying he prefers the UDDT to the Clivus Multrum composting toilet system because it (the Clivus Multrum) needs a large composting compartment.

joe, I think you are most likely right..

I was even wondering how Christoph could mistake a UDDT for a composting toilet... Sorry, Christoph!

.. where I think even the Clivus Multrum is not a composting toilet in the sense of producing valuable compost for re-use: neither moisture, nor temperature, nor N:C composition, nor aeration are controlled to the extend to ensure a composting process. For me it is a degredation process with the aim to reduce volumes considerably (and successfully) as the website states.

ciao, Hajo]]>
Composting processes Tue, 31 Mar 2015 06:52:59 +0000