SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Mon, 25 May 2015 01:19:23 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb # 19 SuSanA meeting in Dakar - by: madeleine I would like to congratulate the organizers at the SuSanA secretariat and the host organization IFAN for a well organized and very interesting SuSanA meeting in Dakar on the 22-23 of May.
In the meeting our colleagues from Africa presented very inspiring presentations which provoked lively discussions. We were not connected on WIFI and this was a nice and good experience which enabled the participants to actively participate in the meeting and follow the discussions. The meeting inspired us all to with energy participate in to the important AfricaSan. It would be nice with a twitter feed from the conference if you read this and at the conference join the twitter for #AfricaSan4]]>
General announcements from or about SuSanA Sun, 24 May 2015 13:03:36 +0000
AfricaSan4 sideevent : tomorrow Productive Sanitation , Food Security and Resilient livelyhood - by: madeleine AfrikaSan4 is about to start and we would like to invite you all in Senegal now to our very exiting Side event tomorrow 25 May 2015 17:40 -19.10
We are very honored that the Minister of Agriculture will chair our session.
We can promise a very exiting session with lesson learned from a decade of implementation of Productive Sanitation in Africa. Most welcome to you all.

Productive sanitation, taken to scale, could be a key to broad-ranging sustainable development in many African countries. An SEI side event at AfricaSan 4 will revisit past experiences for lessons on how to make it happen.

Food security and access to decent sanitation and hygiene services are fundamental to healthy and productive lives; but far too many people in low- and middle-income countries lack both. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) a quarter of the population were undernourished in 2011-2013, 80% have no electricity access, and a staggering 70% – 640 million people – still use substandard sanitation systems or none at all, despite marked improvements in recent years.

All of these are urgent challenges, particularly with the population growth and rapid urbanization projected for the region in the coming decades. But as diverse as the challenges are, they do not always need separate solutions. In particular, filling the region’s huge sanitation gap would not only vastly improve the health and living standards of that 640 million people, but in the process it could make a significant contribution to improving food security and meeting a range of other sustainable development targets.

Crucial to achieving this would be large-scale implementation of so-called productive sanitation systems – systems that make productive (and safe) use of nutrients, organic matter and water content of human excreta and wastewater for crop and energy production. The nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in one person’s human excreta can boost yields by around 50 kg of cereals per year, on a conservative estimate, much more cheaply than commercial synthetic fertilizers. Productive sanitation can also strengthen local livelihoods and increase resilience to external pressures such as rising fertilizer prices and climate events.

Productive sanitation can take many forms, from household dry toilets or decentralized community-level systems right up to municipal scale. It is most immediately and obviously relevant to rural communities, and particularly smallholder farmers, who too often neglect to consider recycling human excreta even as they carefully manage local natural resources to ensure sustained crop production. It can also reduce pollution and degradation of local water resources. However, there is also vast potential in SSA’s fast-growing urban centres, where existing sewerage networks and sewage treatment systems often meet only a fraction of even today’s demand.

Looking back and looking ahead

Productive sanitation has proved its value in smaller, local projects. The question is how to take it to scale, and do so sustainably. Productive sanitation has to contend with all of the barriers and difficulties inherent in implementing conventional “disposal-oriented” sanitation in areas of low coverage – for example, the upfront investments, ensuring that the governance arrangements, technical capacity and financing models are in place to keep the systems working – and more on top. For example, productive sanitation demands long-term planning and cooperation between several government sectors: water, agriculture, energy, health and others. At the same time, people need to be convinced and supported to safely handle and reuse human excreta, and to trust foods fertilized with humanure,.

One of the central aims of the new SEI Initiative on Sustainable Sanitation is to see what we can learn from experiences with implementing productive sanitation and, in particular, to cast a fresh eye over some of the ostensible success stories of the past. Are they still working a few years after the final project evaluation? Which aspects of the system have changed and which have stood the test of time? And what can we learn from that about what is needed to sustain productive sanitation?

A side event hosted by SEI at AfricaSan 4, in Dakar, Senegal, on Monday 25 May will be a chance to do just that. The side event, titled Productive Sanitation, Food Security and Resilient Livelihoods, will start by looking back and learning. Among the presentations, Savadogo Karim, of CEFAME/SNV, will talk about experiences with taking ecological sanitation (ecosan) to scale in Burkina Faso. Kailou Hamadou of the Niger Ministry of Hydraulics and Sanitation will reflect on the legacy of a productive sanitation project in Aguié, Niger, five years on. Dr Sudhir Pillay of the Water Research Commission will talk about experiences in South Africa. (For a full list of presentations download the session programme in English or French.)

The second part of the session will look ahead. To be implemented in a sustainable way, productive sanitation systems need to be socially acceptable, economically viable, and technically and institutionally appropriate. An expert panel will guide discussions on how to overcome the barriers to scale and sustainability.]]>
Health issues and connections with sanitation Sun, 24 May 2015 12:49:11 +0000
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene – WASH - by: F H Mughal Water, Sanitation and Hygiene – WASH

The mindset of politicians and decision-makers in the developing countries is such that they always give priority to water – when it comes to giving priority. They avoid talking about sanitation. Sanitation is given a low priority. However, in India, the government is giving high priority to sanitation.

Hygiene component, however, has not yet received the priority in developing countries. It has failed to receive the attention of decision-makers in developing countries – even to this day.

Recently, I happen to lay my hands on the paper: The neglect of hygiene promotion in developing countries, as shown by the Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water survey. The paper is authored by Alejandro Jiménez, Sue Cavill and Sandy Cairncross.

The abstract reads:

“The UN-Water Global Analysis and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking-Water (GLAAS) report is one of the three periodic UN reports dealing with water supply, sanitation and hygiene. This paper analyses the data on hygiene promotion which were collected for the 2012 edition, but not included in the report. Despite the limitations of the information, this is the best picture available of the global status of hygiene promotion in developing countries. Results show the low priority given to hygiene when it comes to implementation. On average, the staff in place meets 40% of the estimated needs to achieve national targets. Countries report that over 60% of their population is reached by hygiene promotion messages, but we estimate that there are barely enough hygiene promoters to reach 10% of the people. Government officials’ greatest concerns are the lack of human resources and funds, but they also point to the absence of strategy, responsible agency and basic coordination and monitoring mechanisms as challenges. This has serious implications for the poor working conditions and low recognition of hundreds of thousands of hygiene promoters, who in most cases are women capable of playing a crucial role for public health. There is an urgent need for further development of capacity for hygiene promotion in developing countries.”

The abstract clearly indicates that low priority given to hygiene. Only 10% of the population is impacted by hygiene promotion.

A recent blog post by Hanna Woodburn, Deputy Secretariat Director for the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing, has an eye-catching caption: Harnessing the “H” in WASH: The need to ensure hygiene’s place in the SDGs.

In her post, Hanna highlights the importance of including targets and indicators on hygiene, into the post-2015 development agenda under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

She points out that, while the proposed goal for water under the SDGs is a step in the right direction, there is a need to develop global level indicators that more accurately assess progress on hygiene. She calls hygiene as an overlooked area. Hanna underlines the need to develop global level indicators on hygiene.

An important comment in her post reads:

“Some of the world’s greatest development challenges have the simplest solutions. If you are reading this blog, you likely know the facts about water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). You probably know that diarrhea and pneumonia are the top killers of children under the age of five, and that WASH can make a big difference in saving these lives. You might be able to cite statistics about how many days of school children miss due to diarrhea (272 million per year, in case you were wondering), or be able to describe the impact that a lack of facilities have on menstruating girls’ education.”

Hanna’s post can be seen here:

These two references show importance of hygiene. But, the key point is how to motivate and sensitize the politicians, decision-makers and key government functionaries, so that priority is given to hygiene. At the moment, I think, the top-brass of the government, and the officials working in the relevant department in the developing countries, are miles away from hygiene.

F H Mughal]]>
Miscellaneous - any other topic Sun, 24 May 2015 06:01:09 +0000
Re: Sewage Treatment in India: "We are making collection, transportation, treatment and finally reuse of sewage mandatory" - by: pkjha Proper treatment of waste water in urban areas in India is a serious challenge. In Metros and Class I cities there are STPs, however, only a few of them are functioning to meet the norms of discharge of effluent. It’s quite difficult to find any Metro / Class I city having 100% collection system of sewage. STPs are rarely available in Class II, III and IV towns (that constitute over 90% of towns/ cities. nos.). There is a huge opportunity for waste water treatment particularly for decentralized systems in India.
Recently the National Green Tribunal of India headed by Hon'ble Mr. Justice Swatanter Kumar,is taking very effective steps to overcome the problems of pollution and waste management. Only yesterday, a Five Star Hotel- Redisson Blue, was sealed for discharging untreated waste water, into a drain leading to nearby Ganga River at Haridwar.
The NGT has issued notices to all polluting industries and State Governments / Local bodies located near the bank of Ganga and Yamuna River, with the direction to take action in a stipulated time. It is hoped that the results of the action of NGT will be visible to common people soon. There are a lot of positive changes in recent months.
NGT is not a new in India, neither the rules are new, only the present Chairman is new. Therefore, it is the will power of the top functionary that makes difference, not the fund and technology. If there is will, fund and technology to overcome pollution will follow soon.
Centralised wastewater treatment plants, sewers, sewage sludge Sun, 24 May 2015 05:07:26 +0000
Re: Sewage Treatment in India: "We are making collection, transportation, treatment and finally reuse of sewage mandatory" - by: zenrainman Some interesting developments include one set of apartments treating and blending their waste-water with fresh water and drinking it . This is the first such reuse system of its kind in India . The head of the State Pollution Control Board has given his seal of approval by drinking it himself . An article in the newspaper on this here

There are an estimated 650 small scale WWTP's in Bengaluru treating a total of about 210 Million litres per day. One experiment we are assisting in is to use treated waste-water for artificial recharge of the shallow aquifer. Some details of the 240 KLD system here . Another 10 MLD reatment plant located in a place called Jakkur treats the water and after it is further polished in a wetland it fills up a 50 hectare lake. Fish is reared in this lake and is harvested plus the aquifers around are recharged A small writeup here and All in all these are the best of times and the worst of times for waste-water in Bengaluru population 10 million.]]>
Centralised wastewater treatment plants, sewers, sewage sludge Sat, 23 May 2015 19:39:50 +0000
Re: Are urinals commonly used in Muslim countries? Do Muslim users like to use urinals? - by: Owice
I agree with all what Ehabiddin said in this regard in his post. In the past, before around 30 years, it was almost the only available toilets. I said almost because there was certain percentage (which I do not know) was using the "modern toilets", but I would say they were mostly within the rich layer of the community. From 30 years to now, converting from "old" to "modern" toilet is so common everywhere in the country. I believe that this topic is very interesting, but needs hell of effort to get good feeling of what is the situation now and how the people expect it to be in the near future (their insight for the future). I know that my speech is general, but this is all what I have

Regarding using water for cleansing, Muslims follow three options (all are acceptable in the religion; Islam). Some use only toilet paper, others use water alone, while the third use both. However, I would say that the majority only accept using water (with or without toilet paper) as they think it is the only correct way of cleansing. For me, I adapt with what available, bit still I prefer the water option (I am not a fan of toilet paper! This because of my understanding of virtual water issue).

When I was in Germany for my master study, I stuck with what I use always: water. I used to fill a water bottle before using the toilet so I can use water inside. A Muslim German friend of mine told me this method previously. Thus, I think that the Muslim community in Germany (and Europe) use water bottles but obviously enough not all of them, as part of them are using toilet paper alone.

Regarding urinals. Yes, Münch you are right. Both points are valid: urinating standing and the point of splashing effect. Furthermore, I would like to add another point which is privacy. All three points are sensitive in Islam. You can find different opinions from Muslim scholars regarding "standing urination", and it is acceptable as per part of them. However, the point of splashing is critical and it is not acceptable at all. We, Muslims, must try as hard as it is possible to avoid splashing, otherwise we have to do what we call "Taharah" or "ritual cleaning" which is necessary for practicing our prayers. This is done by washing the parts/clothes which caught the droplets/flow thoroughly with water. Regarding privacy, it is not acceptable by any means to expose the area between the belly button and the knees for anyone (of course, excluding the case of marriage). As you know, using the urinal is something "public" and it is easy for others to see the the genital. For me, I never used the urinals before and I think I will not use them, which means I do not know if they actually does splash the urine or not. I see urinals something foreign to our culture (my own opinion). Mainly, urinals exist in hotels and some modern shopping places and restaurants.

Hope that my participation helped in anyway and of course, I am open for any questions.]]>
Urinals Sat, 23 May 2015 08:17:54 +0000
Re: Sanitation Safety Planning: Manual for Safe Use and Disposal of Wastewater, Greywater and Excreta - by: F H Mughal According to the WHO newsletter, the formal launch of the SSP Manual is scheduled at AfricaSan 4 in Dakar, Senegal on Wednesday 27 May at 12.40 (Room C05/06) at the King Fayd Palace.]]> New publications (books, articles, partner newsletters, journals, blogs, websites, videos) Sat, 23 May 2015 04:08:53 +0000 Re: New Publication- Container-based sanitation: assessing costs and effectiveness of excreta management in Cap Haitien, Haiti - by: stilmans
Thanks for your kind words and questions. I wrote a long response, but the page expired and it was lost when I pressed the submit button. Here is a second attempt.

We're excited about this work because we believe it's important to provide rigorous research about CBS. This is only the first part of a two-part series. The second paper, also open access thanks to support from the Gates Foundation (BMGF), will be published in October. We will post links to it when it's available.

Funding for our work so far has come from BMGF, but also the Stanford Woods Institute, Stanford's SEED institute, the US EPA, and the UPS Foundation. We continue to work with several existing CBS services, including our friends at SOIL, helping to develop tools and research that will help them scale. As you mentioned in a recent post, scale is the next big challenge for CBS. As our efforts come to fruition, we will share them.

Meanwhile, SOIL is the best place to provide updated information on their service, as things continue to evolve. They continue to expand the service, and I believe they also have high compost sales.

On the question of financial viability: I am confident that CBS services can be financially viable through user fees and revenues from resource recovery. My bigger concern is that cost-recovering user fees may exclude people who need the service the most. I don't know of examples in which any service (including high-income country utilities) have achieved universal coverage without subsidies. We appreciated Heiko Gebauer's presentation at FSM3, Scaling-up sanitation businesses in low- and middle-income countries, touching on these challenges. Ultimately, we see potential for cross-subsidy systems and government involvement, as a way to ensure access. It is important to continue to demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of CBS as a way to mobilize these additional resources.

We agree whole-heartedly with Doreen Mbalo's tweet that building toilets without considering the whole value chain is inadequate and potentially nefarious. That is why all of our work and that of the groups we work with is focused on end-to-end solutions. But we need more experimentation, not less. Clearly, current systems have failed, so we need thoughtful experimentation and research- on business models, policies, incentives, financing mechanisms, technology, etc.- if we hope to make progress. Building toilets without planning for the value chain is not "experimenting". There is nothing experimental about that old, flawed approach that has shown little evidence of success. We believe the path forward is to pursue user-centric approaches, perform and share rigorous evaluations, and adapt rapidly to evidence of success or failure.

We also believe government involvement is crucial. We and SOIL established the pilot under the approval and inspections of DINEPA, Haiti's national water and sanitation authority. They subjected us to a rigorous review (as should be the case) before approving our plans, and we have kept them well informed of all results. In the future, we believe that deeper government involvement (in regulation, public-private partnerships, etc.) is a key path to scale for all sanitation service models.

And finally, I do hope CBS is a term that will stick. I think it solves challenges that other solutions are inadequate for, and it is an important element of the menu of sanitation options that will be needed to deliver high-quality sanitation service in cities. Let's have a follow-up discussion as to what is best to include in a Wikipedia article.


Sebastien and Kory]]>
Urban informal settlements and slums Sat, 23 May 2015 04:06:09 +0000
Re: squat for money - The Squatty Potty - "healthy colon - healthy life" (product from the US) - by: muench
In English it is called "Gut: The Inside Story of Our Body's Most Underrated Organ".

It is discussed here in an article in the Guardian Livestyle:

The article says:

And, yes, we have been pooing all wrong. Enders tells me about various studies* that show that we do it more efficiently if we squat. This is because the closure mechanism of the gut is not designed to “open the hatch completely” when we’re sitting down or standing up: it’s like a kinked hose. Squatting is far more natural and puts less pressure on our bottoms. She says: “1.2 billion people around the world who squat have almost no incidence of diverticulosis and fewer problems with piles.

But not to worry, you don't need to convert your sitting toilet to a squatting toilet according to the article:

We can iron out the kink by sitting with our feet on a little stool and leaning forward. The book even has a helpful drawing by Enders’ sister.

-> that's the squatty potty that was at the beginning of this thread on Page 1.

What I am wondering about: as you might have seen from my qualitative survey about squatting toilets worldwide (see here on the forum: ; most recently we heard there from Afghanistan and Jordan), nearly every respondent is saying there seems to be a slow change in preferences happening:
Particularly the city dwellers in many countries are moving more and more from squatting toilets to sitting toilets, it seems.

This could be quite a large scale experiment in health. Will we see an increase in certain conditions in those countries, such as hemorrhoids ( Time will tell.


* If anyone has these studies at their fingertips, please let me know as I would like to cite any high quality ones in the Wikipedia article about defecation postures:
(haven't yet done a Google search for them).]]>
Other types of toilets and sanitation systems Fri, 22 May 2015 20:44:44 +0000
Re: Sanitation Safety Planning: Manual for Safe Use and Disposal of Wastewater, Greywater and Excreta - by: joeturner New publications (books, articles, partner newsletters, journals, blogs, websites, videos) Fri, 22 May 2015 19:09:18 +0000 Sanitation Safety Planning: Manual for Safe Use and Disposal of Wastewater, Greywater and Excreta - by: F H Mughal Sanitation Safety Planning: Manual for Safe Use and Disposal of Wastewater, Greywater and Excreta

The World Health Organization (WHO) has issued a new publication - Sanitation Safety Planning: Manual for Safe Use and Disposal of Wastewater, Greywater and Excreta – that aims to protect the public health.

According to WHO, the publication will assist the users to:

• Systematically identify and manage health risk along the sanitation chain;

• Guide investment based on actual risks, to promote health benefits and minimize adverse health impacts; and

• Provide assurance to authorities and the public on the safety of sanitation-related products and services.

As if to increase its scope, Maria Niera, Director Department of Public Heath, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health, WHO, in her foreword, says:

“Sanitation Safety Planning is a tool to help sanitation system operators maximise health benefits and minimise health risk of their system. It guides operators to prioritize and target risk management efforts to where it will have the most impact and to improve over time. The outputs can be used to provide assurance to the public and authorities of the system performance based on sound risk based management.”

Interestingly, the Sanitation Safety Planning manual was tested with national authorities in Hanoi, Vietnam; Karnataka, India; Lima, Peru; Kampala Uganda; Benevente, Portugal; and Manila, Philippines under the guidance of a strategic advisory group and with review by experts and practitioners. This shows the publication’s global exposure.

The publication has a useful list of glossary and abbreviations, an aspect which Elisabeth will be delighted to see!

The companion volume of the publication: 2006 WHO Guidelines for Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater, is, I believe, available in the forum’s library.

The publication is available at:

F H Mughal]]>
New publications (books, articles, partner newsletters, journals, blogs, websites, videos) Fri, 22 May 2015 17:25:22 +0000
Urinal Separation Units use in Jordan - by: ejayyusi
The use of urinals in Jordanian is not found to be practical on household levels. As discussed previously (see here), households either have squatting toilets or "Modern Stools" and do not tend to use urinals in their personal/ household latrines.

In Jordan, over the last decades, the use of urinal separation units have developed, mostly, in main cities' public and private sector buildings. By main cities, I mean relatively developed cities in the Kingdom, which include in most cases the Capital Amman (with a current population of more than 2,000,000 capita), Zarqa, Irbid, Salt, and Aqaba Economic Free Zone.

The rest of Jordanian cities have less population intensity, and as being less developed, the use of urinal units is rarely found in its public and private sectors buildings.

In Amman, urinal separation units could largely be used by males in public places and centers, e.g shopping centers, big malls, parks, sport areas. I do not think that its a preferable option for many people, but I can tell you, based on many discussions that I had with friends and family members, that most users sense the urge to use urinals when they find themselves in a urinating emergency waiting in a long line for entering a "proper private place" to do it! Which means that if he found an empty toilet, one would not even think twice to jump in.

In Karak, where I went to University in South Jordan, I have some images in my mind of urinal units which were installed in my faculty, but those units were merely used and unwanted in most cases. They weren't taken care of, they looked dirty and unhygienic, and thus weren't used. Of course this is not the only reason.

Mosques in Jordan do not usually have urinal units. It is somehow preferred to use the bathroom while squatting (as in Islam's teachings, any splash of urine on clothing would cause impurity and different clean clothes will have to be worn to do prayers). Nevertheless, many Muslim scholars teach that the re-use of treated excreted human waste to reproduce fruits and vegetables for Humanity is a proper thing to do.

Last but not least, please take a look at attached for a sample of an ecological sanitation toilet model that could be used to further separate urine and feces in Jordan and many countries alike. (Reference is an online course on Ecological Sanitation with UNESCO-IHE, which I am taking with Dr.Mariska Ronteltap)

For more information or concerns, please do not hesitate to contact me.

All the best

Ehab Jayyusi
B.Sc Civil / Water and Environmental Engineering
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) - Free Lancing Consultant.

Current Position : (WASH) | Projects Design Engineer
International Relief and Development - IRD

Zaatari Camp for Syrian Refugees, Mafraq - Jordan]]>
Urinals Fri, 22 May 2015 17:25:05 +0000
Re: BRAC's "Graduation" approach a great success in breaking people out of poverty! - by: vishwanathdalvi
You are right, of course. There is much thinking to do here.

Incidentally, speaking of ultra-poor persons, here is another study published in the priceless Science Magazine ( You may find it interesting.

With kind regards,

Behaviour change and user psychology issues Fri, 22 May 2015 16:50:02 +0000
Re: How to Sell Toilets? - by: vishwanathdalvi
I also think that the approach you have arrived at - incentivizing the village leaders to ensure smooth execution of agreements already made - is a far more optimal arrangement than incentivizing them to force the agreements.

I would appreciate it if you could (over time, of course) share your experiences with the pitfalls of this approach.

Also, Science magazine has published a new study which you might find interesting (

With kind regards,
Market development in action Fri, 22 May 2015 16:46:52 +0000
How to sell toilets: what really works. - by: vishwanathdalvi
Here is another excellent study published in Science magazine ( I can only access the abstract, but that is enough.

What they have found is:
1. Community motivation did not raise toilet ownership.
2. Subsidies by themselves did not increase toilet ownership.
3. Subsidies to the landless poor increased ownership among the subsidized.
4. Subsidies to the landless poor increased ownership among unsubsidized households.
5. These subsidies greatly reduced open defecation.

Hence the way to get the poor to use a toilet is to buy them a toilet. And if you buy enough, people will go out of their way to get one. Scope for positive government intervention here.]]>
Behaviour change and user psychology issues Fri, 22 May 2015 16:38:09 +0000