SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Fri, 28 Nov 2014 20:22:01 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Let's discuss cash transfer and sanitation - by: madeleine http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/164-financing-costs-economics-subsidies-tariffs/11012-lets-discuss-cash-transfer-and-sanitation#11185 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/164-financing-costs-economics-subsidies-tariffs/11012-lets-discuss-cash-transfer-and-sanitation#11185 Yes cash transfer is certainly big in the emergency sector but it also growing rapidly in the development context-You will find different schemes in mid- as well as low-income countries. Cash transfers and social security system is also prioritized within the proposed SDGs here it as target #3 under the 1 goal which is very important and high prioritized goal of course. So yes I fully agree we need to broaden our perspective and see how we can contribute and tap into to ongoing development process´like this. I like to refer this social security system as ongoing bushfire and it would be extremely useful to better understand how this finance at householdlevel could be used for improved housing and sustainable and functional sanitation solutions for a long term
Sustainable development goals and targets
Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
1.1
By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for a
ll people everywhere, currently
measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day
1.2
By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of
all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions
1.3
Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all,
including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the
vulnerable

Well I know that Almud Weiz WSP is working with conditional cash transfer schemes and sanitation , I have not seen anything yet . So any of you who have reports etc where cash transfers are linked to housing program & sanitation. Please forward it would be great to know more. All the best ! On my way to Bolivia and to visit fantastic ecosan projects with reuse in practice (now a national program for ecological sanitation ) Stay tuned I will send some updates.
cheers
Madeleine]]>
Financing, costs, economics, subsidies, tariffs Fri, 28 Nov 2014 19:26:22 +0000
Re: Let's discuss cash transfer and sanitation - by: jonpar http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/164-financing-costs-economics-subsidies-tariffs/11012-lets-discuss-cash-transfer-and-sanitation#11184 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/164-financing-costs-economics-subsidies-tariffs/11012-lets-discuss-cash-transfer-and-sanitation#11184 www.cashlearning.org/resources/library

I've not come across it referred to in the non-emergency situation as is being discussed here. What also interests me here, and what has struck me recently is the fact that there is a lot going on in the emergency humanitarian response area that is also being looked at by people focused on development, but I am not convinced that we are looking at this in a joined up way. Or maybe some people are, but this is not coming across strongly enough.

Related to this for instance is the area of market mapping and analysis which if you look at is of relevance to both sides. For example the "Pre- Crisis Market Mapping and Analysis" which you will find at emma-toolkit.org/practice/pre-crisis-mar...mapping-and-analysis has similarities to Practical Action's "Mapping the Market" work - see www. practicalaction.org/mapping-the-market and the Participatory Market Systems Development (PMSD) Roadmap. see www.pmsdroadmap.org

best wishes, Jonathan]]>
Financing, costs, economics, subsidies, tariffs Fri, 28 Nov 2014 17:31:11 +0000
The 2014 Sandec News has been published! - by: donahupa http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/89-new-publications-books-articles-partner-newsletters-journals-blogs-websites-videos/11183-the-2014-sandec-news-has-been-published#11183 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/89-new-publications-books-articles-partner-newsletters-journals-blogs-websites-videos/11183-the-2014-sandec-news-has-been-published#11183 New publications (books, articles, partner newsletters, journals, blogs, websites, videos) Fri, 28 Nov 2014 15:50:55 +0000 Re: Bringing Sanitation Innovations to Market (B-SIM) (WSUP, UK and Ghana, Zambia, Kenya, Bangladesh) - by: tgoodwin http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/161-sanitation-as-a-business/4000-bringing-sanitation-innovations-to-market-b-sim-wsup-uk-and-ghana-zambia-kenya-bangladesh#11181 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/161-sanitation-as-a-business/4000-bringing-sanitation-innovations-to-market-b-sim-wsup-uk-and-ghana-zambia-kenya-bangladesh#11181
Thanks for all of the great links to related work. I’ve answered your follow-up questions in-line below.


One thing I don't fully understand: what will be at the core of your business in terms of "toilet technology" or would you say this is secondary to everything else? You mentioned a few times the sanitation technologies emerging from the RTTC (Reinvent the Toilet Challenge), even though you said in the beginning that you are not bound to use any of them.



The short answer is that we don’t know yet. When undertaking the grant to work with the Foundation’s technology portfolio, we understood that we were aligning with a very new initiative, and always held it as a possibility that we may need to source technology from outside the portfolio. I would definitely say our approach is more market-centric for our 4 pilot cities than it is tech-centric. While the Foundation is developing some exciting tech, our working theory is twofold: first, that better technology/better products are not the central constraint to adopting improved sanitation, and second, in terms of the partnership ecosystem, WSUP’s most valuable contribution to a global technology initiative is to interpret the city-level market potential at a very granular level for each pilot country, and develop the local distribution model that will ensure system longevity for improved on-site sanitation methods over time. So, the core of our businesses will be the appropriate service and operations model for successful local sales and marketing. If RTTC hardware ultimately fits into this model, or an evolution of it — great. But, our primary concern is developing the city-scale market for sanitation now, which may require thinking more practically about hardware initially.


Could you please tell me which technologies you are currently favouring in each of the four countries?


I’m not sure how much we should discuss arrangements in progress, but I will say:


1. For Zambia (grant to pilot a new model for maximizing utilization of the Omni Ingestor), we’ve decided to pilot the brand we developed for the Omni-Ingestor using manual teams rather than the OI.
2. For Bangladesh (grant to pilot new distribution model for increasing toilet access) users were interested in investing in a septic-like solution that would reduce the amount of interaction that have with waste collectors compared to current ring alternatives.
3. For Ghana (grant to pilot an Operator model for a network of omni-processor systems) we found a stronger business case for larger scale systems with a by-product that already has a proven market (electricity, bio-diesel, etc) rather than a market that has a long development cycle.
4. For Kenya (grant to pilot a new distribution model for increasing toilet access) design research is still underway.



It is interesting that in South Africa there is also something similar going on where some of these toilets that had funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation are being demonstrated next year. Or hang on, maybe their project is quite different because it seems more of a technical demonstration, not a business based approach like yours. See here: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/139-gr...bmgf-dst-partnership . They have selected 4 technologies, one of them being the "Earth Auger" UDDT from Ecuador (forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-uri...a-uddt-with-an-auger).



Yes, interesting project — and good that you mention a difference in our approaches as technical pilot versus business. While we are willing to work with partners on technical pilots, broadly, our desire would be to come in after a successful technical field test, and start to develop the distribution/service model around the technologies using a slightly larger number of units in a live pilot.



We also have this ICCO project in Bangladesh which is looking at building demand for sanitation (forum.susana.org/forum/categories/167-bu...tion-bangladesh#9722). They seem to have settled on these four technologies:

* Tiger Toilet - see here on the forum: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/105-pr...h-africa-and-vietnam
* Sun-Mar
* Enbiolet
* Biofil Digester

Do you have any dealings with that project?



Yes, we’ve had several meetings with ICCO in Bangladesh, and are following their program eagerly. This is an interesting grant, because ICCO’s final output is a sort of business plan and value chain recommendation based on their technical test. From their search for suppliers and distributors for the technologies being piloted, it seems like there could be multiple gaps in the value chain that might be appropriate for WSUP to design our Bangladesh business around, using our grant to play an active market facilitation role by building the missing pieces of the value chain.


Maybe I am too much of an engineer at heart but I somehow think that the technology is reasonably important within a sanitation business approach, or maybe I am wrong? If I am wrong then what is it that you are "selling" to those city officials that you are dealing with? "Just" the service?



Agreed — hardware is a huge part of selling sanitation. But, we believe the equation for reaching city-scale in any given market is still at least half software and regulatory environment. On the software side, this is why we have designers focused on how to create distribution/operations models that work. On the regulatory environment side, it’s about integrating well with a city’s long-term plans for sanitation, and ensuring that we’re well positioned to ultimately advocate for the right policy environment for ensuring improved on-site sanitation is treated appropriately as a robust market by all levels of city and national government. What we are ‘selling’ then, is really a vision for private sector involvement in sanitation, and how we can collaborate long-term to ensure low-income customers have access services. Among municipalities, this is often a value shared in principle, but there is a great deal of inertia caused by lack of budgets and clear change-management processes. So, we’re designing a stakeholder management approach that takes municipal capacity into account, and seeks collaborations on issues where local authorities do have the power to act.


In other documents and blog posts when I see the words "sanitation as a business" it is often simply related to faecal sludge emptying services…


We refer to sanitation as a business broadly as turning any part of the sanitation value chain into a profitable business. So, in the case of our work with Gates, the goal is to create business approaches for on-site sanitation broadly, and specifically around the various pieces of the value chain: including toilet access; waste collection; and waste processing.


You mentioned faecal sludge treatment in your post. This reminds me of another BMGF-funded project in Bangladesh, called: "Demonstration of pro-poor market- based solutions for faecal sludge management in urban centres of Southern Bangladesh" (forum.susana.org/forum/categories/99-fae...thern-bangladesh-snv)
Are you able to utilise any synergies with them or is each city in Bangladesh so different that the findings from one city cannot easily be applied to another city?


Indeed, this is also a program we’re following with curiosity. I watched this program launch in April just after the Re-invent the Toilet Fair, and our Bangladesh Enterprises Lead gets an update on their progress quarterly via a grantees meeting in Dhaka coordinated by the Foundation. The pilot city is much different from a mega-market like Chittagong, but we’re hopeful that SNV’s program demonstrates some interesting results. With our current product direction in Bangladesh, the style of FSM that they’re doing may not align with the emptying requirements of our approach to toilet access — but we’ll see how things evolve. ]]>
Sanitation as a business Fri, 28 Nov 2014 13:36:44 +0000
Re: New project - Sustainable freshwater supply for Urbanizing Maputo, Mozambique - TU Delft, Unesco-IHE, UEM - by: AndreMA http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/10433-new-project-sustainable-freshwater-supply-for-urbanizing-maputo-mozambique-tu-delft-unesco-ihe-uem#11180 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-greywater-blackwater-or-wastewater-reuse-irrigation-aquaculture/10433-new-project-sustainable-freshwater-supply-for-urbanizing-maputo-mozambique-tu-delft-unesco-ihe-uem#11180
I would like to thank you for your warm welcome and apologize for this late reply but the past few months have been hectic and some tasks were left behind.

1) Water reuse vs sustainable sanitation
I found the discussion about the system in Braunschweig, Germany very interesting. However, we do not define our project as ecosan but as sustainable and that is very different; I do agree that ecosan implies urine and feces separation and the absence of industrial waste.

In our case, we still know very little about the sewerage system, what arrives at the plant and how is the plant operating. Once we have it fully characterized we will be able to decide what should be done in order to produce safe water for irrigation: what kind of treatment should be built and what type of use can be made.

Btw, there is an "real" ecosan project in Maputo, with about 60 eco latrines, and I am planning to study it in more detail next year.

2) The "nasties" in the water
We have not yet quantified this for the case of Maputo but there are not many big industries connected to the WWTP. The big gas, oil, coal industries are based in the center and north of the country. In Maputo there's an Aluminum smelter that treats its own wastewater and discharges it directly to the the river. In the city, very close to the WWTP, there are beer and beverage factories but I don't think that these pose serious problems regarding quality of effluent (eg, presence of heavy metals).

However, there are indeed some problems, with trucks bringing illegally solid-waste to the premises of the plant and discharging car oil into the lagoons. And these are the problems that we know of - because we see the oil and the solid waste. There's still plenty of work to be done in order to fully understand the system, how it's being operated and how it should be improved.

3) The WWTP and unsafe water reuse
Simply put: the plant is not working; an example, it's a system of four lagoons (two anaerobic + two facultative) that were de-sludged for the last time in 2007. I had a student characterizing its operation; check our webpage for an overview of the available publications.

The farmers in the vicinity of the WWTP are indeed using the effluent of the plant. We have seen it and we have talked to farmers who say they do it (check this blog post). I am planning to study this in more detail next year.

4) SPLASH project
I've not yet had contact with them.

Finally, I'm working on a blog post regarding the month I spent in Mozambique and this will be available on our blog on Tuesday (02/12/2014). So check it if you wish to know more.]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation, aquaculture Fri, 28 Nov 2014 13:34:58 +0000
Re: Performance Assessment Systems (PAS) for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India (CEPT University, India) - by: aasimmansuri http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/9784-performance-assessment-systems-pas-for-urban-water-supply-and-sanitation-in-india-cept-university-india#11179 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/9784-performance-assessment-systems-pas-for-urban-water-supply-and-sanitation-in-india-cept-university-india#11179
Thanks for showing interest in our project, yes you have rightly mentioned that this system has its application in all the urban local bodies (around 400 +) of Gujarat and Maharasthra. Also, septic tanks in India are considered as an integral part of the urban sanitation systems. As per recent census of India 2011 information around 38 % of urban households in India are dependent on septic tanks.

As our system is meant for outcome indicators health impacts are not included. Also as hygiene is not captured as most ULBs do not have direct program's for that. Open defecation is estimated indirectly from information on household and community toilets as the system is based on data from the suppliers which are urban local governments. Unit costs and complaint redressal are captured. These details can be viewed for each city on our web portal.

We will definitely keep you all posted regarding our project milestones and activities

Regards,
Aasim]]>
Enabling environment Fri, 28 Nov 2014 12:56:07 +0000
Re: Bringing Sanitation Innovations to Market (B-SIM) (WSUP, UK and Ghana, Zambia, Kenya, Bangladesh) - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/161-sanitation-as-a-business/4000-bringing-sanitation-innovations-to-market-b-sim-wsup-uk-and-ghana-zambia-kenya-bangladesh#11178 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/161-sanitation-as-a-business/4000-bringing-sanitation-innovations-to-market-b-sim-wsup-uk-and-ghana-zambia-kenya-bangladesh#11178
Thank you for the very detailed and open description of the progress you have made with this project so far ("Bringing Sanitation Innovations to Market") in 4 countries, with a focus on Zambia and Bangladesh in this post. Very interesting to read.

One thing I don't fully understand: what will be at the core of your business in terms of "toilet technology" or would you say this is secondary to everything else? You mentioned a few times the sanitation technologies emerging from the RTTC (Reinvent the Toilet Challenge), even though you said in the beginning that you are not bound to use any of them.

Could you please tell me which technologies you are currently favouring in each of the four countries?
It is interesting that in South Africa there is also something similar going on where some of these toilets that had funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation are being demonstrated next year. Or hang on, maybe their project is quite different because it seems more of a technical demonstration, not a business based approach like yours. See here: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/139-gr...bmgf-dst-partnership . They have selected 4 technologies, one of them being the "Earth Auger" UDDT from Ecuador (forum.susana.org/forum/categories/34-uri...a-uddt-with-an-auger).

We also have this ICCO project in Bangladesh which is looking at building demand for sanitation (forum.susana.org/forum/categories/167-bu...tion-bangladesh#9722). They seem to have settled on these four technologies:

Do you have any dealings with that project?

Maybe I am too much of an engineer at heart but I somehow think that the technology is reasonably important within a sanitation business approach, or maybe I am wrong? If I am wrong then what is it that you are "selling" to those city officials that you are dealing with? "Just" the service?

In other documents and blog posts when I see the words "sanitation as a business" it is often simply related to faecal sludge emptying services...

You mentioned faecal sludge treatment in your post. This reminds me of another BMGF-funded project in Bangladesh, called: "Demonstration of pro-poor market- based solutions for faecal sludge management in urban centres of Southern Bangladesh" (forum.susana.org/forum/categories/99-fae...thern-bangladesh-snv)
Are you able to utilise any synergies with them or is each city in Bangladesh so different that the findings from one city cannot easily be applied to another city?

Sorry for all my questions and thanks in advance for your time in addressing some of them (and perhaps some other forum users with an interest in this topic or experience in Bangladesh can also contribute).

Regards,
Elisabeth


P.S. I have mentioned a few BMGF grants in this thread. If anyone is wondering where to find them all, we now have a searchable database of BMGF sanitation projects available on the SuSanA website with all the links to previous forum discussion threads and library entries (it is currently being built up further, it already contains 106 projects right now):
www.susana.org/en/resources/research/gat...ndation/all-projects]]>
Sanitation as a business Fri, 28 Nov 2014 12:10:14 +0000
Re: Some changes to the forum categories - by: dorothee.spuhler http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/10-general-announcements-from-or-about-susana/11149-some-changes-to-the-forum-categories#11177 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/10-general-announcements-from-or-about-susana/11149-some-changes-to-the-forum-categories#11177
Thanks for all this work!

One thought: It is not totally intuitive to me how you have designed the categories "sanitation systems" and "resource recovery".
A few questions that come up to my mind when I look at them:
- Does "system" refer to technological system": means the technologies required along the sanitation chain?
- Or do you refer to system as the interaction of all technical, institutional, operational, social and environmental aspect regarding water and wastewater management in a given area?
(For me, the simplest explanation is that it considers all the processes required to manage the local water and nutrient including the operation and maintenance of theses processes)
- Where would threads regarding resource recovery oriented sanitation system best be placed? And where should fit threats of the on reuse technologies?
There are many more questions I could list here.

I description of the rather short category titles may would help.

However, the most important thing is that people find stuff easily and for this I believe a powerful search and advanced search tool is much more useful to – especially for lay users!!! (That is the experience I have with the SSWM Toolbox where we also face the challenge of putting a loooot of information into an accessible structure – we managed somehow but after-hand I would prefer we would have been inversting more of our efforts into the search tool...).

Cheers, Dorothee]]>
General announcements from or about SuSanA Fri, 28 Nov 2014 11:45:06 +0000
Re: Comparative study on the different types of toilets in India - by: pkjha http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/141-other-types-of-toilets-and-topics-regarding-user-interface/11170-comparative-study-on-the-different-types-of-toilets-in-india#11176 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/141-other-types-of-toilets-and-topics-regarding-user-interface/11170-comparative-study-on-the-different-types-of-toilets-in-india#11176
You can find all these and other technologies in the book- Compendium of sanitation systems and technologies, by EAWAG, except Sulabh and DRDO technologies. Sulabh technology is a standard two leach pit pour flush toilet. Nothing is new there. DRDO technology is anaerobic baffle reactor with media as nylon/ plastic sheets. All these are included in the EAWAG/ SANDEC book, but under different standard names/ headings. You can find advantages, limitation under each technology in the book.

pawan


Note by moderator:
The book is accessible e.g. here: ecompendium.sswm.info/]]>
Other types of toilets and topics regarding user interface Fri, 28 Nov 2014 11:44:02 +0000
Re: Performance Indicators for Small Town Sanitation (in Uganda) - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/10587-performance-indicators-for-small-town-sanitation-in-uganda#11175 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/10587-performance-indicators-for-small-town-sanitation-in-uganda#11175
You mentioned that the performance indicators set up by the PAS project in India to monitor performance of water & sanitation utilities / services (forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-ena...ept-university-india) are not really very applicable to your situation with small towns in Uganda.

You said it's because you have a much higher ratio of on-site sanitation than those towns in India.

Could you please clarify to me why the indicators used in the PAS project are not applicable (even if the ratios are different, they surely also included indicators for on-site sanitation, as their system is very comprehensive, I thought?).

For everyone's information Aasim Mansuri from the PAS project has recently sent me some new presentations about their project which are accessible here in the SuSanA library:
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2091

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Enabling environment Fri, 28 Nov 2014 11:00:07 +0000
How to shift easily urinal to waterless urinal ? - by: ben http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/172-urinals/11174-how-to-shift-easily-urinal-to-waterless-urinal-#11174 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/172-urinals/11174-how-to-shift-easily-urinal-to-waterless-urinal-#11174
I was wondering if anyone ever saw a "plug adaptator" to swich a normal urinal to a waterless one ?
This would just make the shift so easy and cost effective. The odor blocking wouldn't have to be replacing the top part of the plug but rather be in the plastic siphon underneath ...

Thanks for sharing info if you have, even an expensive adaptator would work well cause we would save the price of a new waterless urinal + installation.

Best,

Ben]]>
Urinals Fri, 28 Nov 2014 10:33:37 +0000
Re: Looking for standards for school toilets (recommended toilets:learners) - by: kipkeny http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/27-schools-sanitation-and-hygiene-in-schools/3717-looking-for-standards-for-school-toilets-recommended-toiletslearners?limit=12&start=12#11173 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/27-schools-sanitation-and-hygiene-in-schools/3717-looking-for-standards-for-school-toilets-recommended-toiletslearners?limit=12&start=12#11173
Please follow on the link below which will take you to a manual developed jointly by WHO/UNICEF for the minimum standards of WASH Services in schools in low income countries

www.unicef.org/wash/files/WASH_in_schools_manual.pdf

Hope this will be of help]]>
Schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) Fri, 28 Nov 2014 10:03:21 +0000
Re: Is there a standard for handwashing taps/stations to learners? - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/160-handwashing-activities-at-schools/11159-is-there-a-standard-for-handwashing-tapsstations-to-learners#11172 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/160-handwashing-activities-at-schools/11159-is-there-a-standard-for-handwashing-tapsstations-to-learners#11172
I have moved your question to here to give it more attention.
It's a good question (and I am no expert on this).
I guess it depends on what you want to achieve with the handwashing at school.
When I think of handwashing at schools, I immediately think of the work done with the government in the Philippines sparked by the NGO Fit for School. It is an amazing program that works at scale and at a very low cost.

What they are doing there is group handwashing at set times, most notably before meals. If you want to do group handwashing, then I guess you need enough tap stands for the entire class of children.

I have grouped the documents we have in the SuSanA library about Fit for School here (unfortunately their website is not totally up to date so for now you are better off with the items in the SuSanA library):

www.susana.org/en/resources/library?search=fitfor

(this filters the library for "fitfor" which is a tag that I have given to their six publications that are in the library so far)

Please tell me if you are finding this useful?

If you don't do group handwashing, but individual handwashing, then my guess would be that you provide one handwashing tap for each toilet cubicle? Or would that be overkill? I assume that during break times the toilets get used by a lot of pupils, perhaps there is even a queue. Therefore, each person who leaves a cubicle needs immediate access to a sink otherwise they will leave without washing their hands.

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Handwashing activities at schools Fri, 28 Nov 2014 08:55:43 +0000
Re: Some changes to the forum categories - by: hajo http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/10-general-announcements-from-or-about-susana/11149-some-changes-to-the-forum-categories#11171 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/10-general-announcements-from-or-about-susana/11149-some-changes-to-the-forum-categories#11171
one of the sustainability criteria calls for 'Socio-cultural and institutional aspects', I feel the category 'mindset & attitudes' could possibly be called accordingly 'Socio-cultural aspects' and can then include CLTS and else.

The 'institutional aspect' of sustainability will be covered in the category 'Governance & Business' maybe called 'Sanitation Governance & Business' but since the whole forum is about sanitation we may as well drop it to make the category title shorter.

ciao Hajo]]>
General announcements from or about SuSanA Fri, 28 Nov 2014 08:38:52 +0000
Comparative study on the different types of toilets in India - by: vagisha http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/141-other-types-of-toilets-and-topics-regarding-user-interface/11170-comparative-study-on-the-different-types-of-toilets-in-india#11170 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/141-other-types-of-toilets-and-topics-regarding-user-interface/11170-comparative-study-on-the-different-types-of-toilets-in-india#11170
Does anyone know of or has done a comparative study on the different toilet systems that exist in India - WC, two-leach pit model, septic tank, DRDO, Ecosan, Sulabh and Composting toilets?

Such a study would typically have information on how much water is used by these different toilets, what are the negative and positive effects of each and which of these systems is eco-friendly as far as heavy metal contamination and pollution are concerned.

Please drop me an email at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Thank you!

Warm regards,
Vagisha]]>
Other types of toilets and topics regarding user interface Fri, 28 Nov 2014 06:38:57 +0000