SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sat, 06 Feb 2016 13:28:35 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Course on Swachh Bharat and Beyond - by: aasimmansuri
We are offering a 14 day certificate course on Swachh Bharat and beyond at CEPT University,Ahmedabad, INDIA. Following is the link

Course Description :

In recent months, Sanitation agenda has been at the forefront of development agenda in India. The Government of India has launched Swachh Bharat Mission with an aim to make the whole country Open Defecation Free (ODF) by 2019. On similar lines Government of Maharashtra has launched Swachh Maharashtra Abhiyan, which focuses on eradicating open defecation and also provide proper sanitation infrastructure in cities. Recently, Government of Maharashtra has declared 19 cities Open Defecation Free on 2nd October, 2015 under its mission of SMM. Government of Maharashtra has recently developed a new concept of ODF + and ODF ++ which aims to achieve a sanitized city by not only providing access to toilets but also improve wastewater management through septage management or conventional sewer systems.

The course would provide hands-on training to students on latest developments on Swachh Bharat Mission and PAS Project, CEPT University support to government of Maharashtra for Swachh Maharashtra Abhiyan. It would guide the students on sanitation technology choices and developing plans to make cities open defecation free and develop septage management plans for the cities. The course would involve a field visit to Sinnar city in Maharashtra, where PAS Project (CEPT University) is supporting implementation of open defecation free plan and septage management plan. This city is located 30 Km from Nashik and 60 km from Shirdi. Students will be assigned specific wards of the city, for which they will have to prepare plans for ODF and septage management. Students will visit Nashik and Shirde to review wastewater treatment facilities in these cities. The students will get a chance to have a one-on-one interaction with city officials and disucss with them on how they are planning to implement this projects. There will also be field visits in and around Nashik to see at innovative waste to energy treatment plants.

The course registration is open for all professionals interested in Sanitation sector, registrations are open from 9th Feb to 25th Feb, 2016.

In case of any queries, please do write to us.


Courses (including online courses) and trainings Sat, 06 Feb 2016 09:04:33 +0000
Re: Fertiliser qualities of excreta products from UDDTs compared to vermicompost digester - by: goeco ), I want to produce nutrient-rich and NPK-balanced effluent, in contrast to municipal treatment where the treated effluent ends up in a water body, so they try and minimise the nutrients being discharged. To avoid loss of N into the air the effluent needs to go into the soil as soon as possible. Seems easy to me.... but I can afford a pump and dripper lines... and I like growing things.

Vermicomposting digesters for flush toilets, with filtering of effluent Sat, 06 Feb 2016 07:47:55 +0000
Re: The Tiger Toilet which works with worms - like in-situ vermi-composting (field trials in India, Uganda and Burma) - Bear Valley Ventures Limited, UK - by: goeco Processing of human faeces by wet vermifiltration for improved on-site sanitation
The development of an onsite sanitation system based on vermifiltration: the ‘tiger toilet’
The Tiger Toilet: From Concept to Reality
Processing of human faeces by wet vermifiltration for improved on-site sanitation]]>
Vermicomposting digesters for flush toilets, with filtering of effluent Fri, 05 Feb 2016 23:23:40 +0000
Re: Finding the right term: vermicomposting digester? Vermicomposting with filtering? Other options? - by: goeco
There isn't a standard terminology used yet... which adds to the confusion and is why I am trying to address this. Two systems were funded by BMGF grants for development, the Tiger Toilet and the Biofil digester. Biofilcom call theirs a "biofil digester" while the Tiger Toilet process is called "vermifiltration" or "wet vermifiltration". Biofilcom even call theirs a "RAB System" referring to:
Rapid separation of solids and liquids
Aerobic decomposition of solids and
Bio-filtration of waste water

Here in NZ they have been called anything from "Solid Waste Digester", "verma composting", "Eco-system", "Treatment system", "vermiculture", "vermiculture composting tanks", "biopod" etc, even "worm farm septic tank" but mostly they are referred to by brand names.

I'd like to see the terminology standardised so everyone knows what they are talking about.

They are a biological filtration system, but the term biological filtration (biofilter) usually refers to purifying liquids such as wastewater. Technically that would happen next, after the digester. The digester itself separates and digests the solids but doesn't process the liquid effluent to purify it.

The difference between "vermicomposting" and "vermicomposting digester" is that "vermicomposting digester" is one method of vermicomposting that involves water as the transport media for the influent, and thus is "wet composting", which vermicomposting doesn't have to be at all. Of course "wet composting" doesn't need to involve worms... I have memories of a personal nightmare involving a Sunmar rotating drum with low-flush toilet and the smelly anaerobic mud that created.

Vermicomposting digesters for flush toilets, with filtering of effluent Fri, 05 Feb 2016 22:59:01 +0000
developing new pit latrine - by: fcharlesc
I am currently working on a project relating to feacal sludge charactristics. In the course of my research, the issue of trush (non-degradable materials) remains the major challenge. From the same research work, I am thinking of a better design which can help eliminate the issue. Currently, I have two possible designs which am hoping can help elimitate the issue of trush accumulation in pit-latrines.

To avoid pledgerism, I first want to find out from group members if there is anyone working on the same. I am ready to share the designs after hearing from the group.

Charles Chirwa
Mzuzu University, Malawi.]]>
WG 4 (Sanitation systems, hygiene, health) Fri, 05 Feb 2016 17:17:11 +0000
Re: Key documents for the sub-category on composting processes - by: Wolfgang Berger There are two practical orientated books on composting in English language, which I can recommend for beginners:

The Rodale Book of Composting: easy methods for every gardener by Martin, D. and Gershunny, G. (ed.), Rodale Press Emmaus, Pennsylvania, 1992

Compost by Thompson, K., Dorling Kindersley Limited, London, 2007

Both books include DIY systems for different kinds of composting e.g. vermicomposting.
Good to start on a small level too.

Best regards

Composting processes Fri, 05 Feb 2016 17:00:04 +0000
Re: Optimising compost and irrigation with wastewater to meet crop nutritional requirements - PhD thesis in Soil Chemistry at Cranfield University, UK - by: joeturner]]>
Greywater, blackwater or wastewater reuse, irrigation Fri, 05 Feb 2016 16:54:23 +0000
Re: FAO: Farmer's Compost Handbook - Experiences in Latin America - by: joeturner
Overall I think it introduces the topic quite well.

My concerns are:

1. It appears to assume users have high levels of English. I don't know if they also publish it in other languages, but a lot of this is very technical stuff. I wonder therefore if there is much chance of the "Farmers" from the title getting hold of this handbook and being able to understand enough of what is being said to begin composting operations. I suspect not - but then I think it is probably the case that farmers need to be trained by well-trained people, and those trainers themselves might well need to work through a document like this.

2. It appears to assume that farmers are working in the best case situations: ie they have a choice about which materials to compost, they have access to labs for testing and they understand some of the terms which are introduced but not explained in any depth. I'm not sure how many farmers really are in that situation.

3. It is too positive and does not cover case studies of failing composting sites (of which there are many). I'm not really sure that it is helpful to only have case studies of working sites.

4. It doesn't seem to say much about operator safety, which can be a problem with larger composting sites. For example composts often release microbe spores during turning, which has been linked to lung problems. I think it would be sensible to discuss H&S and appropriate PPE in a document like this.

Finally I don't think it really says enough about some aspects of composting. Section 3.7 (page 30) says that the compost might be applied as mature or semi-mature but then does not really explain how or why this choice might be made (it is to do with the plant growth and whether the nutrients in the compost are in a form that the plant needs right now.. or whether you wait until the compost is mature, when the nutrients are supplied to the plants in a "slow release" way).

I like the idea, I think I'd just like to see it written in a more farmer-friendly way.]]>
Composting processes Fri, 05 Feb 2016 16:51:35 +0000
Webinar: WASHing Away Diseases, Two Hands at a Time - by: BijanFHI360
Please join the PPPHW for the USAID WASHplus project webinar discussing WASH and NTDs, entitled “WASHing Away Diseases, Two Hands at a Time”, on February 18, 2016 at 9 am EST. See the invitation below or the link for further details and to register for the webinar.

Feel free to extend this invitation to colleagues.]]>
Hygiene and hand washing Fri, 05 Feb 2016 16:01:53 +0000
Webinar: WASHing Away Diseases, Two Hands at a Time - by: BijanFHI360
Please join the PPPHW for the USAID WASHplus project webinar discussing WASH and NTDs, entitled “WASHing Away Diseases, Two Hands at a Time”, on February 18, 2016 at 9 am EST. See the invitation below or the link for further details and to register for the webinar.

Feel free to extend this invitation to colleagues.]]>
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), intestinal worm infections (helminthiasis) Fri, 05 Feb 2016 15:59:34 +0000
Webinar: WASHing Away Diseases, Two Hands at a Time - by: BijanFHI360
Please join the PPPHW for the USAID WASHplus project webinar discussing WASH and NTDs, entitled “WASHing Away Diseases, Two Hands at a Time”, on February 18, 2016 at 9 am EST. See the invitation below or the link for further details and to register for the webinar.

Feel free to extend this invitation to colleagues.]]>
Webinars and online meetings Fri, 05 Feb 2016 15:55:03 +0000
Re: Working Group 5 update 2016 (new co-lead etc) - by: linusdagerskog
General “publication gaps” related to sanitation products and recycling:
- Do-it-yourself kit on treatment/transformation/reuse of different sanitation products
- Pharmaceuticals, synthesis of present state related to reuse and safety
- Recycling and organic agriculture: looking into legislations, barriers and opportunities (IFOAM docs, EU-Organic agriculture regulations etc.)
- A guidance document on reuse of faecal sludge from wet systems including biogas sludge
- Policy brief on legal framework related to reuse issues
- Document on business potential for entrepreneurs/investors (reuse potential/possibilities/scenarios)
- Contextualizing/simplifying the WHO guidelines ('translating' the WHO guidelines into clear and easy to understand recommendations on how to reduce reuse-related health risks)
- Generic urine guide (not focusing on urine use as a liquid fertilizer only, but rather a document that looks into all ways of exploiting the nutrient value of urine (e.g. TPS, struvite, urine composting, filtering it through feces etc.))

Ideas for specific WG5 work:
- Development of a second WG5 factsheet giving an overview on different sanitation waste streams and products and their characteristics and agricultural potential
- Inventory of existing/ongoing research and project implementations in the WG5 section of the SuSanA homepage
- A productive sanitation blog that would allow featuring different productive sanitation initiatives and projects worldwide (similar to the emergency sanitation blog of the SuSanA WG on emergency sanitation)
- Organizing joint video conferences on specific productive sanitation related topics using Google+ hangout.
- Increased presence at agriculture conferences rather than only water/sanitation conferences]]>
WG 5 (Food security, productive sanitation) Fri, 05 Feb 2016 14:22:45 +0000
Working Group 5 update 2016 (new co-lead etc) - by: linusdagerskog My name is Linus Dagerskog and I recently took on the hat as co-lead of this Working Group 5 on “Productive Sanitation and Food Security” since Rob Gensch stepped down (thanks for all the work Rob!).

I have been engaged in sanitation and recycling for some ten years now and was early on involved in this working group, contributing to the WG-factsheet, the urine guideline and I also organized some of the WG-meetings over the years. I had quite an active time back in 2006-2010 as technical assistant to WSA’s (CREPA at the time) ecological sanitation program in West Africa. Then I joined SEI in Stockholm and my focus now is mainly pursuing a PhD on resource conservation (including recycling) in small holder farming in Ethiopia, but I’m also supporting the SEI Initiative on Sustainable Sanitation.

This Working Group hasn’t had a common publication for some years (after the urine guideline and the WG-factsheet). The activities have been limited to sharing experiences at WG-meetings in connection to other events. In 2015 this happened (to my knowledge) at the 19th SuSanA meeting in connection to the AfricaSan Conference in Dakar; at the Dry Toilet conference in Tampere; and the 20th SuSanA meeting at World Water Week in Stockholm. The presentations from the WG meeting in Stockholm can be found here (scroll down a bit)

What could we do in 2016?
- Basically it is up to us all to identify needs related to recycling of sanitation products and see if there are others willing to work towards common goals. A first step could be to do a gap/needs-analysis together to highlight “knowledge gaps” that needs research or “publication-gaps” where pulling together existing information could make a difference. I can initiate such a discussion on the forum.
- A SuSanA meeting is likely to take place in Uganda in connection to the WASH and Sustainability forum in June. A WG-5 meeting could be held in connection if someone will organize it (personally I cannot go).
- The SuSanA secretariat is encouraging the working groups to update the WG-factsheets keeping the recently launched SDGs in mind. That is something we hopefully will take on in 2016, in some form of collaborative fashion. An interesting figure developed by my colleague Kim Andersson at SEI illustrate how sanitation can contribute towards a range of SDG-targets with increasing impact the more we move towards resource recovery and recycling:
This figure is included in a report from SEI and UNEP to be published soon with the title: Sanitation, Wastewater Management and Sustainability: From Waste Disposal to Resource Recovery.

In any case best wishes to all of you and don’t hesitate to post here or email to the WG-5 group * with suggestions/ideas for the working group.


* The e-mail address is This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it and this is a moderated e-mail group, containing the 1600 working group members. (added by moderator)]]>
WG 5 (Food security, productive sanitation) Fri, 05 Feb 2016 14:20:12 +0000
Water Action Month: March 2016! - by: MeganMacGarry SAVE THE DATE! Water Action Month is nearly here!

2016 is going to be an exciting year for campaigning and advocacy on water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). It marks the beginning of the new Sustainable Development Goals (Global Goals), setting the development agenda until 2030. Governments will be developing their national level implementation plans- country road maps on how to achieve this ambitious agenda over the next 15 years. This is going to be a great opportunity for influencing and we have to make every year count!

End Water Poverty and all WASH organisations around the world celebrate the new global framework. We particularly applaud the specific WASH Goal 6 - "ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all". Governments across the world have officially adopted these Goals, thereby setting the wheels in motion for addressing inequalities and drafting a better future for all. We have to hit the ground running! Now is the time to ensure that WASH is a top priority, and to ensure the vulnerable and most marginalised groups are not left behind. Improved water and sanitation for all will make early successes and sustainable progress possible across so many of the Global Goals, and truly end inequality. Governments, keep your promises and realise a better future for all.

Water is life. Unite for change. We demand water and sanitation for all. It is critical we leave no one behind. We have come far, but we still have a long way to go. We have to ensure that no one is left behind. Governments, you have signed on to these commitments - now is the time to realise them. Add your voice in 2016 to ensure a better future!

We are so passionate and excited about World Water Day on 22 March, that we will be celebrating and raising our voices for change throughout the whole month! Join us: Now is the time for change!

All information is available on the End Water Poverty website, and contact us with your plans at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ]]>
World Toilet Day, World Water Day and other special days Fri, 05 Feb 2016 14:04:15 +0000
Re: Fertiliser qualities of excreta products from UDDTs compared to vermicompost digester - by: joeturner goeco wrote:

Fact is that urine is not a balanced fertiliser. What I am trying to raise is that vermicomposting adds nutrients to the liquid effluent. By drying feces, UDDT systems make "active" biomass (a good carbon and nutrient source once decomposed), plus urine. There is a disconnect because urine is not a balanced fertiliser. In contrast, vermicomposting digesters should produce a NPK-balanced nutrient-rich effluent. The issue I have is that this has apparently not yet been quantified by published research.

What I am trying to explain is that a vermicomposting digester produces "stabilised" humus (a good soil amendment rich in carbon) that apparently has low levels of pathogens (again not quantified) and the bulk of fecal material is reduced to liquid which combines with urine to be a nutrient-balanced liquid fertiliser (with variable pathogen levels depending on what happens next). There are two options for the liquid, secondary treatment and surface drippers, or simply discharging directly to underground soakage trenches that feed suitable food crops like bananas that respond to water + balanced nutrients.

Mmm. This relates to another term we should be using when discussing amending things to soils - the idea of "nutrient availability". It is complicated chemistry, but basically it means that there are different forms of NPK, some of which can be taken up by the plants and some of which cannot. Part of the problem with urine is that urea is immediately available, so if the crop is not actually needing the nitrogen right now, it can easily be lost altogether from the soil. So composting (and also processes like vermicomposting) help by changing the availability of the nutrients. It sounds counter-intuitive, but these actually sometimes make the nutrients less available, so more of them are stored in the soil rather than being lost as I described above. So a farmer might find that the compost does not have a rapid effect on this season's crop as you might see with a bag of fertiliser, but there is a long term improvement in the fertility of the soil so in the long term the crop growth is improved.

So this is the difference between a mix of fresh urine and faeces and a compost (or vermicompost) - the material has been "stabilised". The organisms have also changed the physical structure of the material to make it more suitable for use in the soil.

Even if the balance of NPK in the urine is exactly what is needed by the crop, a lot of the nitrogen will be lost during storage and application, and if it isn't applied at exactly the right moment may have little effect on the crop growth. Of course this depends again on exactly what the situation is.

In contrast the nutrients in the compost have been stabilised, so there are fewer losses during application and the timing is less critical because of the long-term release of the nutrients.

By recycling balanced nutrients to crops, the risk of growth-limiting factors (especially lack of P) is reduced. One thing that needs to be clear is that by increasing productivity of land using liquid only ('booster'), organic matter (biomass or 'soil amender') levels are increased and so improve soil quality by being returned to the soil. Production of biomass is mostly limited by two factors, availability of water, and nutrient shortage. Abundance of some nutrients and shortage of others is no better than shortage of all nutrients.


That's correct, although we should be careful in suggesting that compost will solve all nutrient deficiencies in crops and the soil. Again, without knowing what those deficiencies are, we'd be operating in the dark. That said, because the nutrient availability in the stabilised compost/vermicompost has been changed, there is likely to be less of a problem with excess nutrients in the soil from compost than you'd get with an oversupply of urine or a commercial fertiliser. It's very difficult to add too much compost!

On the pathogen point, the best research I've seen suggests that worms alone not able to reduce pathogens to safe levels, in contrast to composting where the high temperatures kill them off.]]>
Vermicomposting digesters for flush toilets, with filtering of effluent Fri, 05 Feb 2016 09:09:37 +0000