SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Wed, 29 Jul 2015 04:52:37 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Loowatt Selected as an Exhibitor for the Reinvent the Toilet Fair: India 2014 (PHOTOS) - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4255-an-energy-producing-waterless-toilet-system-loowatt-uk-and-madagascar?limit=12&start=12#14226 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/4255-an-energy-producing-waterless-toilet-system-loowatt-uk-and-madagascar?limit=12&start=12#14226
loowatt.com/news/5-new-loowatt-tsiky-toilets/

Sections from the blog post (go to the blog post to see all hyperlinks):

5 New Loowatt Tsiky Toilets Installed in Madagascar



On 1 December 2014, Loowatt installed five Tsiky Toilets in five households in the neighborhood of Manjakaray, Antananarivo. The durable Tsiky Toilets are easy to transport and simple to install. They are suitable for densely populated urban areas like Antananarivo. You can see a glimpse of the city by watching our documentary: vimeo.com/75398690

Tsiky means ‘smile’ in Malagasy, one of the official languages of Madagascar. Combined with an anaerobic digester, the Tsiky Toilet uses Loowatt’s patented technology to harness value from human waste by producing energy and fertilizer. We have forged collaboration with the local waste utility, SAMVA, to feed the waste into a locally sited digester, which they manage. The households range greatly in size from 5 to 27 people, and the service is designed for customers to pay according to their use. The customers have given great feedback, citing the toilet’s comfort, cleanliness, lack of smell, ease of use and customer service.

Loowatt is working in partnership with a local pit emptiers’ association to orchestrate the waste collection. The waste collection process is designed to eliminate direct contact with waste completely—a huge contrast to getting inside pit latrines to empty them. Upon collection, the waste goes through an anaerobic digester to generate energy and fertilizer. At the treatment site, Loowatt has installed a generator so the energy produced is now used to light the site as well as charge batteries for the local community.



++++++++++

See also here: loowatt.com/madagascar/

It's an example of a container-based sanitation system, coupled with a centralised biogas digester.

Loowatt also seems to successfully break into the market of supplying festivals in the UK with odourless, waterless toilets.

Has any of our UK-based readers ever seen one of the Loowatt toilets around?

See also:
loowatt.com/uk/]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Fri, 17 Jul 2015 11:34:19 +0000
Evaluation of an automated struvite reactor to recover phosphorus from source-separated urine - by: ChrisBuckley http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#14003 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#14003 Evaluation of an automated struvite reactor to recover phosphorus from source-separated urine collected at urine diversion toilets in eThekwini

The details are below and the journal Water SA provides free access to the papers, so no paywall to worry about:

Grau, MGP, Rhoton, SL, Brouckaert, CJ and Buckley, CA. (2015) Evaluation of an automated struvite reactor to recover phosphorus from source-separated urine collected at urine diversion toilets in eThekwini. Water SA Vol 41 No 3, pp383 - 389. dx.doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v41i3.10


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Note by moderator:

You can see the e-view version of the paper here:
www.wrc.org.za/Pages/Preview.aspx?ItemID...2015%2526start%253d1

To download the pdf file you need to login here:
www.wrc.org.za/Pages/DisplayItem.aspx?It...ril+2015%26start%3d1

The first page of the paper is available here (without having to log in):
www.wrc.org.za/Lists/Knowledge%20Hub%20I...33%20%20abstract.pdf

ABSTRACT

In the present study we attempted to develop a reactor system to recover phosphorus by struvite precipitation, and which can be installed anywhere in the field without access to a laboratory. A reactor was developed that can run fully automated and recover up to 93% of total phosphorus (total P). Turbidity and conductivity signals were investigated as automation proxies for magnesium dosage, thus making laboratory phosphate measurements to determine the exact magnesium dosage unnecessary. Conductivity is highly influenced by the dosing parameters (molarity and pump speed) and turbidity is affected by particle size distribution issues. Algorithms based on both conductivity and turbidity signals were not able to detect the precipitation endpoint in real time. However it proved possible to identify the endpoint retrospectively from the conductivity signal, and thereafter to dose an algorithm-calculated volume of urine to use up the excess magnesium dosed.

Keywords: struvite precipitation, human urine, turbidity, conductivity, automation, magnesium dose, VUNA


Another note by moderator (EvM):
Proud to see my paper from 2001 about struvite crystallisation cited in this paper - look for Munch and Barr (2001). ]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Thu, 02 Jul 2015 23:49:56 +0000
Production and Market Demonstration of Fecal Sludge By-Products At Scale (Sanergy, Kenya) - by: Sanergy http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#13593 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#13593 Here is an introduction about the grant we have received from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for our work at Sanergy in Nairobi, Kenya:

Title of grant: Production and Market Demonstration of Fecal Sludge By-Products At Scale
Name of lead organization: Sanergy
Primary contact at lead organization: David Auerbach, Co-Founder This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it , Edith Karimi, Communications, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Grantee location: Nairobi, Kenya
Developing country where the research is taking place: Kenya
Start and end date: 21 Nov. 2014 to 31 Dec 2017
Grant type: (e.g. Global Challenges Explorations, Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, Other) Global Development
Grant size in USD: ~$ 2.3 million, dependent on milestones (according to grant database: www.gatesfoundation.org/How-We-Work/Quic...s/2014/11/OPP1118635)

Short description of the project:

This project will support the implementation of efficient fecal sludge management systems, the production of by-products made from fecal sludge, and the demonstration of the market viability of these by-products. The project will also allow Sanergy to build an enabling environment in terms of policy and advocacy.

Sanergy began working in Nairobi in November 2011. We design and manufacture low-cost, high-quality sanitation facilities. Developed by our engineers, the Fresh Life Toilet (FLT) is pre-fabricated at our local workshop. Our FLT features qualities users value most:

Hygiene: FLTs are made of high-quality materials that are easy to keep clean and maintain.
Accessibility: FLTs have a small footprint that enables them to be install them close to homes
Affordability: FLTs are cost-effective and include essential features like hand-washing facilities.

Grantees by the BMGF have been using our setup to test various research aspects.

Goal(s):

(1) Establishment of scalable supply chains for sourcing fecal sludge at scale, including taking on fecal sludge from sources other than Sanergy’s network of franchised toilets
(2) Development of commercial processes to convert fecal sludge into saleable by-products, such as active composting processes, biogas production, high-protein animal feed, biochar, and urine valorization
(3) Development of markets for by-products of fecal sludge

Objectives:

To promote the safe collection of fecal sludge and the delivery of hygienic sanitation services to low-income populations in urban informal settlements by establishing scalable supply chains for sourcing fecal sludge, developing processes to convert fecal sludge into saleable by-products, and developing the markets for by-products of fecal sludge

Research or implementation partners:
Sanergy works with various organisations and other BMGF grantees such as eawag, UKZN, Climate Foundation, Firmenich, WASH United, UNESCO-IHE, and Agriprotein

Links, further readings – results to date:

Our website: saner.gy

Documents in SuSanA library: www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2226

Presentations at FSM3 conference in Hanoi in January 2015:

"Sustainable Sanitation in Urban Slums: Introduction Workshop FSM - Maximizing Resources Recovery" by Laura Kimani:
www.susana.org/images/documents/07-cap-d...shops/WS3/Kimani.pdf

"Presenting the Sanergy Solution" at FSM3: Laura Kimani, Sanergy:
www.susana.org/images/documents/07-cap-d...3/2-3-2-4-Kimani.pdf

Video of the presentation:
youtu.be/-nOjK6FSnjk?t=13m55s

Or please go to time 13m55s in the video:



Previous forum threads about Sanergy:

Interview with David Auerbach at Reinvent the Toilet Fair in Delhi in April 2014 (Part 1; Part 2 can be accessed in the forum thread linked to above):



Current state of affairs:

As of May 2015, we have successfully launched 684 franchises to 331 Fresh Life Operator in seven informal settlements in Nairobi. Each toilet has an average of 40-60 paying users each day, and over 27,000 residents now have access to hygienic sanitation on a daily basis. Our franchise network has created a further 139 jobs in the community in operating and maintaining the sanitation businesses. The waste is being collected without fail by our network of waste collectors. To date, we have collected 5,168mt of waste that would have otherwise been dumped in rivers.

We process over 40 metric tons of waste per week, predominantly into organic fertilizer. We sell the fertilizer to a variety of farms that specialize in horticulture, floriculture, and tea and coffee, as well as to distributors who work with smallholder farms throughout Kenya.

We are also running R&D on biogas, biochar, urine nitrification and animal feed. We are exploring the technical and financial requirements to source fecal sludge from other sanitation centers.

We have received endorsements from the Nairobi County Council, the Ministries of Environment, Education and Health and local MPs. We are a team of 245 people. We have created over 690 jobs in the communities where we work.

Biggest successes so far:
Sanergy’s greatest successes so far have been gaining community buy-in to our model of sanitation service provision and to have demonstrated that a full value chain approach can be realized.

Main challenges / frustration:
Sanergy’s main challenge has been the time taken to work through red tape and bureaucracy with the government. Each step of our model presents new challenges for a government that is cautious in its approach to sanitation and reuse.

If you have any questions, please don't hesitate to ask us.

Edith Kamiri (communications manager) and David Auerbach (co-founder)]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 08 Jun 2015 08:51:33 +0000
Re: VUNA - Valorisation of Urine Nutrients in Africa (EAWAG, Switzerland, and South Africa) - by: ben http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#12519 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#12519
This project is a great reference. This is an amazing seed that you just shared with us, I have no doubt that a lot of practicioners will start growing trees out of this research all around the world.

Looking forward to be in 10 years time, when there will be nitrification reactors just everywhere !

Best,

Ben]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 18 Mar 2015 10:49:05 +0000
Re: VUNA - Valorisation of Urine Nutrients in Africa (EAWAG, Switzerland, and South Africa) - by: kudert http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#12517 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#12517
We are happy to announce that the final report of the VUNA Project is now accessible on www.vuna.ch

The final report gives a concise and quick overview of all activities within the VUNA Project:

Urine treatment processes
  • Complete nutrient recovery
  • Nitrification
  • Distillation
  • Electrolysis
  • Struvite precipitation
  • Process control


Risks of using urine

  • Removing pharmaceuticals
  • Inactivating pathogens

Agriculture
  • Fertiliser trials

Urine collection networks
  • Optimising urine collection
  • Performance modelling

Social and economic aspects
  • Social acceptance
  • Campaigning for health and hygiene
  • Incentives for urine production
  • Business model


We thank all sponsors for the financial support and guidance. The VUNA Project was initiated by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which also provided most of the funding. Additional funding was provided by the Swiss National Science Foundation, the United States National Science Foundation, and the project partners. We also thank all researchers, field workers, laboratory and administrative staff for their great commitment to the project.

Best regards
Teddy Gounden, Bastian Etter and Kai Udert]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 18 Mar 2015 09:16:48 +0000
Re: faecal reuse - building materials!? - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#12315 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#12315
Yes, there is a section on "Dry sludge as fuel for combustion" although I'm not sure if this is the same as 'briquettes'.

It says that in Dakar "all interviewees were interested in the potential of faecal sludge as a fuel, but first wanted to see a demonstration to verify the feasibility."

In Kampala "45% of the interviewed companies were immediately willing to use faecal sludge if it met their requirements, 30% were dependent on verification of compatibility with current infrastructure, and 25% were undecided."]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 02 Mar 2015 14:56:48 +0000
Re: faecal reuse - building materials!? - by: Marijn Zandee http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#12314 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#12314
I also don't see it as a very likely solution. What is your main problem with it, considering that bricks are baked at high temperature? Handling of the sludge mixed clay by the people who make the bricks?

By the way, is there anything in the paper regarding using dried sludge briquettes as fuel in the kilns?

Regards

Marijn

By the]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 02 Mar 2015 14:50:58 +0000
Re: faecal reuse - building materials!? - by: CeliaWay http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#12308 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#12308 Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 02 Mar 2015 12:20:15 +0000 Re: VUNA - Valorisation of Urine Nutrients in Africa (EAWAG, Switzerland, and South Africa) - by: scottchen http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#11725 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#11725 The urine processor is very useful. I need it.
best regards
Sott]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 21 Jan 2015 21:58:09 +0000
Re: faecal reuse - building materials!? - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#11308 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#11308
Apparently the faecal waste is turned to ash, which is then used in the bricks. Probably not the kind of practice which would be applicable in a developing country, but maybe the idea is not as unlikely as it first sounded.

The company is here: www.encosltd.com/]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 09 Dec 2014 11:02:28 +0000
faecal reuse - building materials!? - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#11307 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#11307
The paper is here: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344914000913

The paper lists various types of faecal reuse including fuel, feedstock for insects, biogas and soil conditioning. It also has a paragraph on the use in building materials.

It says:

Brick manufacturing is pervasive in Kampala, so the use of faecal sludge in building materials was pursued during interviews with brick manufacturers. However, there was a relatively negative perception among brick manufacturers with regard to this enduse. The main reasons given during interviews were concerns about consistent characteristics of faecal sludge, and the abundance of conventional raw materials negates the need for an alternative. This indicates that faecal sludge incorporation into building materials can be considered but would probably only be of interest in areas where raw materials are limited.


This seems rather unlikely (and undesirable) to me, is it a common practice anywhere that anyone is aware of?

I ought to add that using animal faeces in building construction is a common practice, including here in the UK in the past. I have never heard of anyone suggesting this is or should be a practice for human faeces, though.]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 09 Dec 2014 10:53:59 +0000
Re: Nitrification reactor set up - by: winniek http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9953 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9953 [Start of Page 4 of the discussion]


I will start with suspended biomass and ensure the biomass isn't washed out and recycling just incase.
Thanks a lot.]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 31 Aug 2014 15:39:31 +0000
Re: Nitrification reactor set up - by: kudert http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9952 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9952 Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 31 Aug 2014 15:13:12 +0000 Re: Nitrification reactor set up - by: winniek http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9951 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9951 Thanks for the attached and I have already read through the paper.
I was thinking of using this "hybrid membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) was
used for the nitrification experiment" as i believe i wont have easy access to the Kaldnes rings.
I have seen the reactor but if you have more pictures of it. I would be grateful as i will get a better understanding on the set-up]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 31 Aug 2014 15:08:42 +0000
Re: Nitrification reactor set up - by: kudert http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9950 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9950 4+. Since nitrification lowers the pH value, this amount of ammonium is not lost during distillation (except for a very small fraction). I attach a paper, in which we describe the fate of ammonia during distillation in more detail.]]> Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 31 Aug 2014 14:50:42 +0000