SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Tue, 30 Aug 2016 03:13:03 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Membrane processing of urine into drinking water - by: KaiMikkel http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/18502-membrane-processing-of-urine-into-drinking-water-university-of-ghent-belgium#18849 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/18502-membrane-processing-of-urine-into-drinking-water-university-of-ghent-belgium#18849 Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Fri, 26 Aug 2016 16:25:21 +0000 Re: Membrane processing of urine into drinking water - by: Karoliina http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/18502-membrane-processing-of-urine-into-drinking-water-university-of-ghent-belgium#18845 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/18502-membrane-processing-of-urine-into-drinking-water-university-of-ghent-belgium#18845 Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Fri, 26 Aug 2016 12:23:31 +0000 Re: Membrane processing of urine into drinking water - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/18502-membrane-processing-of-urine-into-drinking-water-university-of-ghent-belgium#18789 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/18502-membrane-processing-of-urine-into-drinking-water-university-of-ghent-belgium#18789
Isn't the first sentence funny:
A team of scientists at a Belgian university say they have created a machine that turns urine into drinkable water and fertilizer using solar energy, a technique which could be applied in rural areas and developing countries.

I mean, why do people always assume that their technology would be so easily applicable for developing countries...?
And: why would you bother to make drinking water from urine unless you're in a space shuttle or perhaps on a boat a long way from land?

The article says:
The urine is collected in a big tank, heated in a solar-powered boiler before passing through the membrane where the water is recovered and nutrients such as potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus are separated.

Would be nice if someone could follow up on it and invite the researchers to tell us more about this?

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Fri, 19 Aug 2016 14:24:26 +0000
Membrane processing of urine into drinking water (University of Ghent, Belgium) - by: KaiMikkel http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/18502-membrane-processing-of-urine-into-drinking-water-university-of-ghent-belgium#18502 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/18502-membrane-processing-of-urine-into-drinking-water-university-of-ghent-belgium#18502
www.deccanchronicle.com/lifestyle/health...m-urine-machine.html

"Belgian scientists create machine to turn urine into drinkable water"

Is anyone familiar with this technology or project?]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Thu, 28 Jul 2016 17:00:17 +0000
Re: Solid substrate fermentation (SSF) for faecal sludge? - by: indiebio http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/17470-solid-substrate-fermentation-ssf-for-faecal-sludge-to-produce-higher-value-products#18046 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/17470-solid-substrate-fermentation-ssf-for-faecal-sludge-to-produce-higher-value-products#18046
The PhD is in it's final stages, this report from IWA might be useful in the interim: www.iwa-network.org/cluster/resource-rec...y-from-water-cluster

Our overview only focuses on wastewater, but my future work would be more aimed at the faecal sludge and excreta from various dry toilets.

We are currently only looking at biologically produced products - the biorefinery, but I will be keen to investigate physico-chemical beneficiation as well, specifically employing concentrated solar thermal applications.

This is a huge area so I doubt I'll get round to doing all of it though ]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Wed, 18 May 2016 08:22:30 +0000
Re: Production and Market Demonstration of Fecal Sludge By-Products At Scale (Sanergy, Kenya) - by: medorabrown http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#18012 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#18012 We're still in the early phases of working out what works best in our context and what government regulators may require from us; whether it's retrofitting pits to hold our containers or whether it's filling in pits and effectively replacing them with FLTs. For more on Sanergy's thinking around CBS, please check out a recent Woods Institute webinar David participated in here: woods.stanford.edu/news-events/event/web...sanitation-solutions

Cheers,
Medora]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Fri, 13 May 2016 06:41:30 +0000
Re: Production and Market Demonstration of Fecal Sludge By-Products At Scale (Sanergy, Kenya) - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#17902 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#17902 black soldier fly larvae (insect-based animal feed) production from human excreta, read on:

I recently saw this in one of Sanergy's recent newsletters:

Preparing to launch PureProtein

We have made significant progress on commercializing our insect-based animal feed operation. First, we’ve developed a brand name – PureProtein – and logo for the product, which emphasizes the consistent quality of the product as compared to substitutes, in addition to the target livestock markets. We’ve also transferred our operations to a new facility in order to scale up production to 1 ton per month, by growing our colony of Black Soldier Flies. We are currently engaging investors to finance the scaling of our operations.

We are working closely with Germany-based Hermetia, from whom we will be receiving our new bio-reactor in the coming months, which will be used to mechanize and optimize the rearing of larvae. Engineers Laura Kimani and Elizabeth Wangari were in Germany for one month to receive training from Hermetia on the new bio-reactor.

In a pilot conducted on chickens in January, our PureProtein animal feed performed comparably to fishmeal-based feeds (currently the main animal-based protein input for feeds), and we can further optimize the formulations used to outperform fishmeal, often called Omena. We continue to receive strong interest from feed millers and farmers in the region, and we look forward to commercializing the product in the next quarter.




Here is the link to their newsletter:
us1.campaign-archive2.com/?u=d705e543efc...e09&e=dd29520909

I tried to find out more information on their website but it's not on there (yet). But if you have questions or comments about this, please put them here.

Interesting for me as a German that they've teamed up with a German company for this.

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Tue, 03 May 2016 12:44:46 +0000
Re: Solid substrate fermentation (SSF) for faecal sludge? - by: ddiba http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/17470-solid-substrate-fermentation-ssf-for-faecal-sludge-to-produce-higher-value-products#17830 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/17470-solid-substrate-fermentation-ssf-for-faecal-sludge-to-produce-higher-value-products#17830 I find the biorefinery concept in your work to be interesting though as Elisabeth pointed out, there is need for more work to develop economically viable models for obtaining biofuels and other "high value products" from wastewater.
You mentioned that your PhD involves "doing an overview of resource recovery from wastewater". Is this still ongoing or have you published something out of it yet? I also wonder if this "overview" is focusing only on wastewater or it includes other waste streams like faecal sludge and perhaps excreta from UDDTs and other dry toilet systems. Or is it only focusing on possible byproducts through "biorefinery" processes? I would be interesting in learning more about your work in this area.

Regards,
Daniel]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Wed, 27 Apr 2016 09:44:32 +0000
Re: Solid substrate fermentation (SSF) for faecal sludge? - by: indiebio http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/17470-solid-substrate-fermentation-ssf-for-faecal-sludge-to-produce-higher-value-products#17816 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/17470-solid-substrate-fermentation-ssf-for-faecal-sludge-to-produce-higher-value-products#17816
Thanks so much for your thoughtful and thorough reply.

I am currently writing up my PhD, the thesis is not yet available. I have not done actual work on this, but am currently establishing the required infrastructure and permissions for a small scale study. I hope to pursue this after the PhD. Part of the PhD and wider research project is doing an overview of resource recovery from wastewater, we have one Water Research Commission (WRC) project published, and just finishing up the second one.

You can find the first report here:
wrc.org.za/Pages/DisplayItem.aspx?ItemID...+concept%26start%3d1

I agree that the conventional FS may be too wet, but it may still have potential, and pre-treatment to reduce the moisture, or to make a blend with dry substrates may work (especially in high sunlight, semi-arid places like South Africa, where I am based). But I agree that dry toilets are more promising, generally.

I think biofuels, or any energy vehicle, is still not of high enough value (but of course good for a final 'mopping up' conversion, to be used on site). I am thinking along the lines of industrial enzymes, organic acids, surfactants... because I agree the cost is a problem, and one will require a high-value, (low volume) product to offset that, while stabilising the solids.

The entire system would have to be designed or retrofitted to reduce the impurities and improve the process, yes, and this represents more cost, but modular (smaller) scales of operation may address this better, and yes, again the dry sanitation may be easier here.

It would be best to be able to process this on site, or in close proximity. I have the idea of bringing back the night-soil concept and have processing plants per neighbourhood / around 10 000 ppe, but not sure how viable that is! I do think it's important to explore how this might work in both affluent and poorer areas. The concept of a 'biorefinery' rests on symbiosis between partners situated close to each other.

Lastly, many thanks for the article links, it looks promising!

best regards
Bernelle]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Tue, 26 Apr 2016 12:07:40 +0000
Re: Solid substrate fermentation (SSF) for faecal sludge? - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/17470-solid-substrate-fermentation-ssf-for-faecal-sludge-to-produce-higher-value-products#17814 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/17470-solid-substrate-fermentation-ssf-for-faecal-sludge-to-produce-higher-value-products#17814
Your questions are very interesting, have you progressed this further in the meantime?

You mentioned that your PhD thesis got you onto this topic (you said "faecal sludge beneficiation to commodity products (more valuable than fertiliser or biogas) emerged as a research need from my PhD") - could you post your PhD thesis as well?

And if you want to take conventional faecal sludge as input to solid substrate fermentation, wouldn't that have far too much water in it? Might it work better with dried faeces from urine-diversion dry toilets (UDDTs)?

This research project from a few years ago (title: Biofuels From Digested Sewage Sludge (Washington University, USA)) might have some similarities to your work?:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/169-pr...-university-usa#3464

Or are biofuels not part of the higher value products that you're looking at?
There are a few more mentioned in this sub-category:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/169-pr...-fuel-or-electricity

I think though that in most cases the production process gets too expensive and you can't recover the costs from selling your "higher value product". Remember that faecal sludge is also full of rubbish and other impurities that you'd first have to remove (this is less of a problem for dried faeces from UDDTs). And then there are the transport costs for the faecal sludge to your processing site, too. Would be hard to make this economically viable?

Regards,
Elisabeth

P.S. there is also this paper if you haven't seen it yet:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-fae...-improved-sanitation

A value proposition: Resource recovery from faecal sludge — Can it be the driver for improved sanitation?

Stefan Diener, Swaib Semiyaga, Charles B. Niwagaba, Ashley Murray Muspratt, Jean Birane Gning, Mbaye Mbéguéré, Joseph Effah Ennin, Christian Zurbrugg, Linda Strande]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Tue, 26 Apr 2016 11:48:53 +0000
Solid substrate fermentation (SSF) for faecal sludge, to produce higher value products? - by: indiebio http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/17470-solid-substrate-fermentation-ssf-for-faecal-sludge-to-produce-higher-value-products#17470 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/17470-solid-substrate-fermentation-ssf-for-faecal-sludge-to-produce-higher-value-products#17470
Solid-state (substrate) fermentation is generally defined as the growth of micro-organisms on (moist) solid material in the absence or near absence of free water.

I have not seen any work on SSF and fecal sludge. The closest thing I found was composted sludge for growing orchids on.

I have not done targeted research on this yet, but faecal sludge beneficiation to commodity products (more valuable than fertiliser or biogas) emerged as a research need from my PhD, and I hope to investigate it further soon.

SSF – solid substrate fermentation or solid state fermentation – originates from fermented foods in the East, an example is the “Koji” fermentation process. SSF has been used in producing biopolymers from swine manure, for example [1].

It is not a commonly used method for industrial biotechnology, because it has poor heat transfer, and is difficult to scale. But it is a cheaper process than liquid fermentation, more suitable to complex materials like faecal sludge, and in my opinion better suited to fungal bioproduction. The main products include industrial enzymes, organic acids, polymers and perhaps packaging material [2, 3].

Two books which introduces the concept:
* Chen H, 2013. Modern Solid State Fermentation: Theory and Practice, Springer. [4]
* Mitchell DA, Krieger N, Berovic M (Eds.), 2006. Solid-State Fermentation Bioreactors: Fundamentals of Design and Operation, Springer. [5]

[1] – www.prairieswine.com/pdf/3197.pdf
[2] – www.ecovativedesign.com/mushroom-packaging
[3] – www.dell.com/learn/us/en/uscorp1/corp-comm/mushroom-packaging
[4] – www.springer.com/us/book/9789400760424
[5] – www.springer.com/gp/book/9783540312857]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Fri, 18 Mar 2016 07:17:14 +0000
Re: Production and Market Demonstration of Fecal Sludge By-Products At Scale (Sanergy, Kenya) - by: arno http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#17457 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#17457 Thanks for the explanations. Looks like good progress on all fronts. What sort of conceptual design is Sanergy considering regarding upgrading pit latrines so they can be connected to your composting stations. This if found efficient could become a breakthrough for faecal sludge management and reuse. Are you thinking about urine diversion and relatively dry pit latrines? Shallow design allowing for easier and more frequent emptying? Fee structure similar to the present ecosan toilets? What about using the Fossa alterna model which will allow composting in situ.

Best wishes]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Thu, 17 Mar 2016 08:44:12 +0000
Re: Production and Market Demonstration of Fecal Sludge By-Products At Scale (Sanergy, Kenya) - by: medorabrown http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#17339 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#17339 Thanks for your questions. We’ve responded inline below.

Cheers,
Medora Brown
Sanergy Communications Manager

What is the potential for the Sanergy model to tackle large-scale slums like Kibera?
The Sanergy model has great potential to tackle large-scale slums around the world. The success of our model does rely on achieving a certain density of toilets in order to make waste collection as efficient as possible. With our multiple distribution models, we are working both to achieve maximum coverage in the areas we currently serve and to prove the viability and applicability of a variety of different service models that could work in diverse environments.

Can the franchises be integrated with solid waste collection? How is drinking water being managed - linkages there?
Currently our waste collection team visits every Fresh Life Toilet on a regular basis (mostly daily) to safely and professionally remove both the solid and liquid waste from each toilet and from the community completely. As our toilets are waterless, we don’t manage the distribution or removal/treatment of water. We are exploring ways to convert pit latrines, so that they are more hygienic for users and their waste can also be managed by our collection process.

Are the franchise's subsidized even indirectly in anyway? Or can these businesses stay afloat on their own? Transportation seems to always be the major challenge to centralized sites for processing. Are the treatment and storage sites also being franchised?
Some of our school toilets have been subsidized through partnerships with a variety of NGOs and other organizations. Our commercial toilets, however, are stand-alone businesses that stay afloat on their own. All our Fresh Life Operators can access interest-free loans through our partnership with Kiva.

Our central collection points and treatment and storage sites are not franchised; we own all of them outright. We are, however, piloting mobile waste transfer stations and other ways to increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of our collections process.

Saw from Laura Kimani's presentation dated Jan 2015 the slide on "Nitrogen fertilizer from urine". How are you using/transforming urine into a fertilizer? Nitrification? Losses?
In collaboration with EAWAG, we’ve been piloting ways to valorize our urine and the effluent from our biogas for liquid fertilizer. The primary process we’ve been working to develop is nitrification.

The management and logistics surrounding urine are very different compared to dry faecal material. The volume for urine is so much larger (at least 10-fold). Are urinals being promoted? What about franchising vegetable farms using urine where it is being produced following the standard WHO storage requirement?
We are exploring the development of urinals and other ways to collect more urine. As mentioned above, however, our urine valorization processes are still being developed, so the large-scale collection and processing of urine is still a bit down the road.]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Mon, 07 Mar 2016 06:10:52 +0000
Re: Production and Market Demonstration of Fecal Sludge By-Products At Scale (Sanergy, Kenya) - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#16756 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#16756
There was recently a paper published by David Auerbach about the Sanergy work in Kenya. I checked it out and it doesn't answer Arno's questions above but it may nevertheless be useful for those who are not so familar with the Sanergy approach.

It is in this journal:
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2379

Article title:
Auerbach, D. (2015). Sustainable Sanitation Provision in Urban Slums – The Sanergy Way, in Sustainable Sanitation Practice - Financing Sanitation, Issue 24, October 2015, Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) Journal

The abstract:

Sanergy, a Nairobi-based social enterprise, builds healthy prosperous communities by making hygienic sanitation accessible and affordable in urban informal settlements. We take an innovative, systems-based approach that addresses the entire sanitation value chain. We build high-quality, low-cost sanitation units, known as Fresh Life Toilets, which we franchise to community members, who run them as businesses. We collect the waste on a regular basis, removing it from the community. We then convert the waste into valuable by-products, including organic fertilizer and insect-based animal feed, which we sell to regional farmers. Through this model, we are making it profitable – and thus sustainable – to provide hygienic sanitation in urban slums.


I checked through the paper for any financial figures (as it's in a journal issue called Financing Sanitation) and didn't find many, only these paragraphs which I've copied from different parts of the paper:

(1)
For the last three years, we have had a partnership with
Kiva, an online micro-lending platform, to help potential
FLOs gain access to interest-free loans with which to
purchase an FLT, which costs around 500 USD. Once
approved for a loan, FLOs are able to choose between
either a 12-month or a 24-month loan. After paying an
initial down payment of about 20%, they use revenue
generated from running the toilet to pay down the
balance of the loan. Our credit team services the loans,
ensuring timely payments and low default rates.

FLT = Fresh life toilet (= urine-diverting dry toilet)
FLO = Fresh life operator (= toilet operator)


(2)
With an average of 50 users per day, a Fresh Life Operator can earn 80,000
Kenyan shillings
* per toilet per year – a solid income for
residents of Nairobi’s informal settlements. Most Fresh
Life Operators run at least two toilets, which increases
their income even more.

(3)
We have also built a robust and efficient waste-collection
network, which currently removes 9-10 tons of waste per
week that works in complement with our infrastructure
distribution network. In addition to the cost of the toilet,
Fresh Life Operators pay an annual renewal fee of about
90 USD for our waste collection services. This renewal
fee is less expensive and more convenient than hiring a
vacuum truck or other exhaustion service, as pit latrine
owners have to do.

(4)
Sanergy’s R&D is primarily funded through grant capital, allowing for
experimentation to ensure we can develop by-products
that efficiently convert waste into something of value for
our customers.

(5)
As a young company, Sanergy is not yet profitable;
however, we are confident we have developed an
economically viable model that will allow the sustainable
provision of hygienic sanitation in urban informal
settlements. We are working to scale the model to reach
profitability, in addition to achieving maximum impact.

(6)
The results of the Sanergy model so far are promising. In
just four years, we have launched 750 Fresh Life Toilets
in Nairobi’s slums, run by 350 operators. The network
of Fresh Life Toilets is used over 33,000 times per day.
Sanergy ensures the removal of 60 tons of waste from
the toilets per week, and the waste is converted into
by-products that help Kenyan farmers increase their
crop yields and keep their animals well-fed.

(7)
Commercial operators running two Fresh Life Toilets
generate about USD 2000 per year in profit from
charging a minimal usage fee to customers. Schools have
seen significant increases in attendance and enrolment
after installing Fresh Life Toilets, and in residential
compounds, plot owners have seen occupancy go up
by 60 percent, and more timely rent payments.

Looking forwward to reading more about Sanergy's work, including some answers to Arno's questions.

Regards,
Elisabeth

* = USD 782 with today's exchange rate]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Fri, 29 Jan 2016 08:38:38 +0000
Re: Production and Market Demonstration of Fecal Sludge By-Products At Scale (Sanergy, Kenya) - by: arno http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#16702 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#16702 Thanks for this description.

What is the potential for the Sanergy model to tackle large-scale slums like Kibera?

Can the franchises be integrated with solid waste collection? How is drinking water being managed - linkages there?

Are the franchise's subsidized even indirectly in anyway? Or can these businesses stay afloat on their own? Transportation seems to always be the major challenge to centralized sites for processing. Are the treatment and storage sites also being franchised?

Saw from Laura Kimani's presentation dated Jan 2015 the slide on "Nitrogen fertilizer from urine". How are you using/transforming urine into a fertilizer? Nitrification? Losses?

The management and logistics surrounding urine are very different compared to dry faecal material. The volume for urine is so much larger (at least 10-fold). Are urinals being promoted? What about franchising vegetable farms using urine where it is being produced following the standard WHO storage requirement?

Best wishes..]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Mon, 25 Jan 2016 16:20:04 +0000