SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Sat, 13 Feb 2016 19:20:54 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Production and Market Demonstration of Fecal Sludge By-Products At Scale (Sanergy, Kenya) - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#16756 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#16756
There was recently a paper published by David Auerbach about the Sanergy work in Kenya. I checked it out and it doesn't answer Arno's questions above but it may nevertheless be useful for those who are not so familar with the Sanergy approach.

It is in this journal:
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2379

Article title:
Auerbach, D. (2015). Sustainable Sanitation Provision in Urban Slums – The Sanergy Way, in Sustainable Sanitation Practice - Financing Sanitation, Issue 24, October 2015, Sustainable Sanitation Practice (SSP) Journal

The abstract:

Sanergy, a Nairobi-based social enterprise, builds healthy prosperous communities by making hygienic sanitation accessible and affordable in urban informal settlements. We take an innovative, systems-based approach that addresses the entire sanitation value chain. We build high-quality, low-cost sanitation units, known as Fresh Life Toilets, which we franchise to community members, who run them as businesses. We collect the waste on a regular basis, removing it from the community. We then convert the waste into valuable by-products, including organic fertilizer and insect-based animal feed, which we sell to regional farmers. Through this model, we are making it profitable – and thus sustainable – to provide hygienic sanitation in urban slums.


I checked through the paper for any financial figures (as it's in a journal issue called Financing Sanitation) and didn't find many, only these paragraphs which I've copied from different parts of the paper:

(1)
For the last three years, we have had a partnership with
Kiva, an online micro-lending platform, to help potential
FLOs gain access to interest-free loans with which to
purchase an FLT, which costs around 500 USD. Once
approved for a loan, FLOs are able to choose between
either a 12-month or a 24-month loan. After paying an
initial down payment of about 20%, they use revenue
generated from running the toilet to pay down the
balance of the loan. Our credit team services the loans,
ensuring timely payments and low default rates.

FLT = Fresh life toilet (= urine-diverting dry toilet)
FLO = Fresh life operator (= toilet operator)


(2)
With an average of 50 users per day, a Fresh Life Operator can earn 80,000
Kenyan shillings
* per toilet per year – a solid income for
residents of Nairobi’s informal settlements. Most Fresh
Life Operators run at least two toilets, which increases
their income even more.

(3)
We have also built a robust and efficient waste-collection
network, which currently removes 9-10 tons of waste per
week that works in complement with our infrastructure
distribution network. In addition to the cost of the toilet,
Fresh Life Operators pay an annual renewal fee of about
90 USD for our waste collection services. This renewal
fee is less expensive and more convenient than hiring a
vacuum truck or other exhaustion service, as pit latrine
owners have to do.

(4)
Sanergy’s R&D is primarily funded through grant capital, allowing for
experimentation to ensure we can develop by-products
that efficiently convert waste into something of value for
our customers.

(5)
As a young company, Sanergy is not yet profitable;
however, we are confident we have developed an
economically viable model that will allow the sustainable
provision of hygienic sanitation in urban informal
settlements. We are working to scale the model to reach
profitability, in addition to achieving maximum impact.

(6)
The results of the Sanergy model so far are promising. In
just four years, we have launched 750 Fresh Life Toilets
in Nairobi’s slums, run by 350 operators. The network
of Fresh Life Toilets is used over 33,000 times per day.
Sanergy ensures the removal of 60 tons of waste from
the toilets per week, and the waste is converted into
by-products that help Kenyan farmers increase their
crop yields and keep their animals well-fed.

(7)
Commercial operators running two Fresh Life Toilets
generate about USD 2000 per year in profit from
charging a minimal usage fee to customers. Schools have
seen significant increases in attendance and enrolment
after installing Fresh Life Toilets, and in residential
compounds, plot owners have seen occupancy go up
by 60 percent, and more timely rent payments.

Looking forwward to reading more about Sanergy's work, including some answers to Arno's questions.

Regards,
Elisabeth

* = USD 782 with today's exchange rate]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Fri, 29 Jan 2016 08:38:38 +0000
Re: Production and Market Demonstration of Fecal Sludge By-Products At Scale (Sanergy, Kenya) - by: arno http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#16702 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/13593-production-and-market-demonstration-of-fecal-sludge-by-products-at-scale-sanergy-kenya#16702 Thanks for this description.

What is the potential for the Sanergy model to tackle large-scale slums like Kibera?

Can the franchises be integrated with solid waste collection? How is drinking water being managed - linkages there?

Are the franchise's subsidized even indirectly in anyway? Or can these businesses stay afloat on their own? Transportation seems to always be the major challenge to centralized sites for processing. Are the treatment and storage sites also being franchised?

Saw from Laura Kimani's presentation dated Jan 2015 the slide on "Nitrogen fertilizer from urine". How are you using/transforming urine into a fertilizer? Nitrification? Losses?

The management and logistics surrounding urine are very different compared to dry faecal material. The volume for urine is so much larger (at least 10-fold). Are urinals being promoted? What about franchising vegetable farms using urine where it is being produced following the standard WHO storage requirement?

Best wishes..]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Mon, 25 Jan 2016 16:20:04 +0000
Re: PhD project – Resource-oriented systems for small Italian communities - by: Nevenka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16208 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16208
tank you for your advice, this kind of reminder are always very welcomed!
My PhD proposal fortunately was already accepted (one year ago); in that proposal and in my research I try to surf the line between what I want to do (benefit italian small communities) and what an engineering department requires. But still, the feedback I receive from the evaluation commission is that my work is not “engineering” enough. I believe that the reason lies in the fact that the sustainable sanitation concept is still not very known in the Italian research.

Thank you!
A smile
Nevenka]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Wed, 09 Dec 2015 13:27:19 +0000
Re: PhD project – Resource-oriented systems for small Italian communities - by: AquaVerde http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16099 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16099
I am not sure, I am really in the right know-how position to advice to you on your upcoming Ph.D. proposal.

Based on my personal experiences, I can see a bit of "science"-conflicts for your self:

If you look "just" for the benefit of "small communities" (regardless of nation) you may go most as possible for very-very SIMPLE recovery systems, many people in this "small communities" might understand YOUR WORK without much explanation by "experts". But with "just" this approach, this systems proposed may not be over-complicated "enough" for being seen "scientific" by "colleagues" and possible copyrights will not emerge to make selfish money. In my opinion, therefore "colleagues" will not support your proposed approach...

At least what ever you do, keep your Ph.D. proposals (selfish "Open Source" = "Open Design" = "Open Access" and SIMPLE as possible, to allow "small communities" and even this "colleagues" just to copy YOUR WORK.

In short: be resourceful to "small communities" like many people in this sanitation-forum try to be.

Good Luck
Detlef]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Mon, 30 Nov 2015 07:45:15 +0000
Re: PhD project – Resource-oriented systems for small Italian communities - by: Nevenka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16081 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16081
after your post, I tried to contact a person who was involved in the writing of the environmental Italian regulation and I hope to be able to talk to her next week and better understand what is allowed or tolerated in Italy.

About the Closed-loop Blackwater Recycling, I had already read your past post before and thought it may be a promising alternative to conventional systems. In fact, I included it in my list of "sustainable or ecological sanitation systems for rich countries" that I want to explore.

Thank you so much for all these feedback.
Nevenka

p.s. Coincidence: some weeks ago, I run into the web-site of Parque Etno-Botànico Omaere and I just realized you were one of the two names in the contact page! Wow, congratulations for the amazing project!]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Fri, 27 Nov 2015 22:52:48 +0000
Re: PhD project – Resource-oriented systems for small Italian communities - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16051 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16051
At the very least, it should be legal and acceptable to bury decomposed feces under some thickness of soil and to disperse urine via perforated hoses in the soil. The latter is not so different from standard leach lines from septic tanks, only without so much water pushing everything toward the groundwater and rivers.

Another great option for EcoSan in rich countries (but that apparently no one has done yet and you can be the first) is Closed-loop Blackwater Recycling. This would allow for biogas production in the Anaerobic Digestion (such as ABR) and production of grass for cows in Subsurface Treatment Wetlands. This also has the advantages of water conservation and avoiding entirely the contamination of rivers with treated or untreated blackwater, especially in terms of the pharmaceuticals that cannot be reliably removed. After this treatment, the water will be colorless, odor-free and safe with respect to infectious diseases, plus no one touches the water in the toilet bowl.
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-gre...-constructed-wetland

Good luck with your project.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:24:40 +0000
Re: PhD project – Resource-oriented systems for small Italian communities - by: Nevenka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16039 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16039 Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Wed, 25 Nov 2015 12:16:41 +0000 Re: PhD project – Resource-oriented systems for small Italian communities - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16035 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16035 Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Wed, 25 Nov 2015 12:04:21 +0000 Re: PhD project – Resource-oriented systems for small Italian communities - by: Nevenka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16034 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16034
yes, I am looking for systems which are appropriate (what you defined as technically possible) in the EU and in Italy in particular. I know that the reuse of urine and faeces in EU is not allowed, and here in Italy we are still very far from accepting this concept. Anyway, I want to bring the attention of the Italian sanitation research on this topic, and this is the first reason I decided to do this Ph.D. even if its approach definitely differs from my Engineering Department way of thinking to sanitation and human development in general.

All the best,
Nevenka]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:59:08 +0000
Re: PhD project – Resource-oriented systems for small Italian communities - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16030 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16030
Of course, that's a big question: but there is also a difference between things which are "technically possible" and those which are easy to do in the EU due to (for example) EU Directive 86/278, which is about the use of human faecal wastes in agriculture.]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:16:58 +0000
Re: PhD project – Resource-oriented systems for small Italian communities - by: Nevenka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16029 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16029
thank you very much for your reply. You made me think a lot!

When I wrote my Ph.D. proposal, I was focused on ecological sanitation since I was interested in enhancing the Italian isolated communities' self-sufficiency. After some interviews to communities members, I realized that often communities are not interested in resource recovery (and maybe sometimes it is not even the optimal choice), and, therefore, I decided to include sustainable sanitation systems in the MCA framework. Since they are not systems included one in the other, I refer to them as "sustainable or ecological sanitation systems".

For what concerns the distinction into "technologies for developing countries versus developed countries", I also think that many solutions proposed for the developing countries perfectly fit also in the "rich countries", and, therefore, I dug into the SuSanA resources and case studies to extract all the alternatives that I believe appropriate for the Italian context. I was just wondering if a collection specifically thought for sustainable sanitation for the developed countries has already been done.

Once I concluded the definition of the spectrum of appropriate sanitation trains, I will investigate each specific case study and, based on it, compare the sanitation systems (after having screened out the technically unfeasible alternatives, thanks to a set of technical criteria) by means of several sustainability criteria (I attached to this post the scheme of the criteria and indicators I selected).

Thank you again,
a smile and al the best,
Nevenka]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Wed, 25 Nov 2015 11:04:26 +0000
Re: PhD project – Resource-oriented systems for small Italian communities - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16023 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16023
I am a bit confused regarding what you're looking for. You said:
"sustainable and/or ecological sanitation systems" *

Joe replied regarding composting toilets, but that's just one of many options (as mentioned in the Eawag-Sandec compendium). Or are you specifically limiting your search to those?

Many of the technologies mentioned in the Eawag-Sandec Compendium are equally applicable to "rich country" contexts (however, they are not focussed on sustainable or ecosan systems in particular); similarly with the SuSanA case studies, they deal with examples of sustainable sanitation systems from many countries (mostly developing countries but also some non-developing countries).

Or are you referring more to cold climates (e.g. allowing the option of freezing toilets, see elsewhere on the forum about those by putting "freezing" in the search field)? Or to countries where effluent quality standards are really high and where highly-qualified maintenance staff is available and cost is not a major consideration (e.g. allowing options for household membrane bioreactor type systems?).

It's pretty important to know exactly what you're looking for and why.

The distinction into "technologies for developing countries versus developed countries" may not work so well anyhow, because some countries combine both worlds in one, e.g. South Africa I would classify as both a developing country and a developed country in one; same for India and Mexico, isn't it? Even e.g. Kenya or Zambia... Therefore if anything doesn't it make more sense to distinguish either by urban/rural or by climate or by ability to pay and expectation regarding service and effluent quality?

Just some thoughts.

Regards,
Elisabeth

* As you're a PhD student who's diving into this topic deeply, please take a look at previous discussions where we pondered definitions for sustainable sanitation versus definitions for ecosan (not the same thing; check out also the two Wikipedia pages on these two terms): forum.susana.org/forum/categories/166-de...naries-mapping-tools]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Wed, 25 Nov 2015 05:23:15 +0000
Re: PhD project – Resource-oriented systems for small Italian communities - by: Nevenka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16017 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16017
I am going to check this Finnish Association.

Have a nice day
Nevenka]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Tue, 24 Nov 2015 16:15:14 +0000
Re: PhD project – Resource-oriented systems for small Italian communities - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16016 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16016
I don't think such a scholarly compendium exists for "developed world" ecosan systems. There are a range of enthusiasts producing materials about composting toilets, but these rarely contain much that could be described as a "Multi-criteria analysis framework".

Have you tried looking at the Dry Toilet Association of Finland? You might find some researchers from Europe and North America featured in their recent conference www.huussi.net/en/]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Tue, 24 Nov 2015 15:34:13 +0000
Re: PhD project – Resource-oriented systems for small Italian communities - by: Nevenka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16014 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-faecal-sludge-or-wastewater/15743-phd-project--resource-oriented-systems-for-small-italian-communities?limit=12&start=12#16014
For my Phd project (described in my previous post), I am developing a Multi-criteria analysis framework for sustainable sanitations appropriate for small communities in the Italian context.
I am now defining the alternatives of sustainable sanitation systems to be included in the framework. I found a lot of material about sanitation for developing countries (such as the Eawag-Sandec Compendium of Sanitation Systems) and demonstrative cases applied to the developed world (such as the SuSanA case studies).

From the literature review I conducted, I am not able to find a compendium that gathers sustainable and/or ecological sanitation systems appropriate for the "developed" world.
To your knowledge, does such a work exist?

Thank you in advance
All the best,
Nevenka]]>
Resource recovery from excreta, faecal sludge or wastewater Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:47:40 +0000