SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Sun, 26 Apr 2015 13:03:45 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: VUNA - Valorisation of Urine Nutrients in Africa (EAWAG, Switzerland, and South Africa) - by: ben http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#12519 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#12519
This project is a great reference. This is an amazing seed that you just shared with us, I have no doubt that a lot of practicioners will start growing trees out of this research all around the world.

Looking forward to be in 10 years time, when there will be nitrification reactors just everywhere !

Best,

Ben]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 18 Mar 2015 10:49:05 +0000
Re: VUNA - Valorisation of Urine Nutrients in Africa (EAWAG, Switzerland, and South Africa) - by: kudert http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#12517 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#12517
We are happy to announce that the final report of the VUNA Project is now accessible on www.vuna.ch

The final report gives a concise and quick overview of all activities within the VUNA Project:

Urine treatment processes
  • Complete nutrient recovery
  • Nitrification
  • Distillation
  • Electrolysis
  • Struvite precipitation
  • Process control


Risks of using urine

  • Removing pharmaceuticals
  • Inactivating pathogens

Agriculture
  • Fertiliser trials

Urine collection networks
  • Optimising urine collection
  • Performance modelling

Social and economic aspects
  • Social acceptance
  • Campaigning for health and hygiene
  • Incentives for urine production
  • Business model


We thank all sponsors for the financial support and guidance. The VUNA Project was initiated by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which also provided most of the funding. Additional funding was provided by the Swiss National Science Foundation, the United States National Science Foundation, and the project partners. We also thank all researchers, field workers, laboratory and administrative staff for their great commitment to the project.

Best regards
Teddy Gounden, Bastian Etter and Kai Udert]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 18 Mar 2015 09:16:48 +0000
Re: faecal reuse - building materials!? - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#12315 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#12315
Yes, there is a section on "Dry sludge as fuel for combustion" although I'm not sure if this is the same as 'briquettes'.

It says that in Dakar "all interviewees were interested in the potential of faecal sludge as a fuel, but first wanted to see a demonstration to verify the feasibility."

In Kampala "45% of the interviewed companies were immediately willing to use faecal sludge if it met their requirements, 30% were dependent on verification of compatibility with current infrastructure, and 25% were undecided."]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 02 Mar 2015 14:56:48 +0000
Re: faecal reuse - building materials!? - by: Marijn Zandee http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#12314 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#12314
I also don't see it as a very likely solution. What is your main problem with it, considering that bricks are baked at high temperature? Handling of the sludge mixed clay by the people who make the bricks?

By the way, is there anything in the paper regarding using dried sludge briquettes as fuel in the kilns?

Regards

Marijn

By the]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 02 Mar 2015 14:50:58 +0000
Re: faecal reuse - building materials!? - by: CeliaWay http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#12308 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#12308 Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Mon, 02 Mar 2015 12:20:15 +0000 Re: VUNA - Valorisation of Urine Nutrients in Africa (EAWAG, Switzerland, and South Africa) - by: scottchen http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#11725 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#11725 The urine processor is very useful. I need it.
best regards
Sott]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 21 Jan 2015 21:58:09 +0000
Re: faecal reuse - building materials!? - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#11308 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#11308
Apparently the faecal waste is turned to ash, which is then used in the bricks. Probably not the kind of practice which would be applicable in a developing country, but maybe the idea is not as unlikely as it first sounded.

The company is here: www.encosltd.com/]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 09 Dec 2014 11:02:28 +0000
faecal reuse - building materials!? - by: joeturner http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#11307 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/11307-faecal-reuse-building-materials#11307
The paper is here: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921344914000913

The paper lists various types of faecal reuse including fuel, feedstock for insects, biogas and soil conditioning. It also has a paragraph on the use in building materials.

It says:

Brick manufacturing is pervasive in Kampala, so the use of faecal sludge in building materials was pursued during interviews with brick manufacturers. However, there was a relatively negative perception among brick manufacturers with regard to this enduse. The main reasons given during interviews were concerns about consistent characteristics of faecal sludge, and the abundance of conventional raw materials negates the need for an alternative. This indicates that faecal sludge incorporation into building materials can be considered but would probably only be of interest in areas where raw materials are limited.


This seems rather unlikely (and undesirable) to me, is it a common practice anywhere that anyone is aware of?

I ought to add that using animal faeces in building construction is a common practice, including here in the UK in the past. I have never heard of anyone suggesting this is or should be a practice for human faeces, though.]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Tue, 09 Dec 2014 10:53:59 +0000
Re: Nitrification reactor set up - by: winniek http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9953 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9953 [Start of Page 4 of the discussion]


I will start with suspended biomass and ensure the biomass isn't washed out and recycling just incase.
Thanks a lot.]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 31 Aug 2014 15:39:31 +0000
Re: Nitrification reactor set up - by: kudert http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9952 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9952 Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 31 Aug 2014 15:13:12 +0000 Re: Nitrification reactor set up - by: winniek http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9951 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9951 Thanks for the attached and I have already read through the paper.
I was thinking of using this "hybrid membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) was
used for the nitrification experiment" as i believe i wont have easy access to the Kaldnes rings.
I have seen the reactor but if you have more pictures of it. I would be grateful as i will get a better understanding on the set-up]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 31 Aug 2014 15:08:42 +0000
Re: Nitrification reactor set up - by: kudert http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9950 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9950 4+. Since nitrification lowers the pH value, this amount of ammonium is not lost during distillation (except for a very small fraction). I attach a paper, in which we describe the fate of ammonia during distillation in more detail.]]> Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 31 Aug 2014 14:50:42 +0000 Re: Nitrification reactor set up - by: winniek http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9949 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9949 did you anaylse the effluent N- concentrations, i.e. NH4+, NO2- and NO3- ? is so what was were there.
If the urine was partially nitrified does it mean only 50% of ammonium was converted to N03- . In that case what happened to the rest of the NH4+ when the effluent proceeded to the vacuum distiller]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 31 Aug 2014 14:44:08 +0000
Re: Nitrification reactor set up - by: kudert http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9947 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9947
In our current system we use biofilm carriers. The fill rate is about 60%. The biofilm carriers are mixed by aeration and the oxygen concentration is therefore close to saturation. The maximum ammonia oxidation rate is about 400 gN/m3/d. The minimum hydraulic retention time can be calculated based on the ammonia concentration in the influent and the ammonia oxidation rate. For example, if the ammonia concentration in the influent is 4000 gN/m3/d, the hydraulic retention time will be 5 days, because half of the ammonia is oxidized.
The pH has to be kept in a narrow range by adjusting the influent rate. If the influent concentration and the temperature are constant, this can done by hand otherwise you might want to use a process controller, which keeps the pH in a narrow range of 0.1 units by switching the influent on and off. An optimal pH value is 6.
A detailed description of our pilot reactor can be downloaded at:
www.eawag.ch/forschung/eng/gruppen/vuna/...Udert_2013_Vancouver

Let me know, if you need any additional information.
Kai]]>
Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Sun, 31 Aug 2014 13:16:48 +0000
Re: Nitrification reactor set up - by: winniek http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9895 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-resource-recovery-from-excreta-or-faecal-sludge/3285-vuna-valorisation-of-urine-nutrients-in-africa-eawag-switzerland-and-south-africa?limit=12&start=36#9895 I am interested in carrying out a similar lab experiment and i would want to know more about the reactor set up that you used. What type of reactor, what was the flow rate the Hydraulic retention time , the volumes the concentration of the Dissolved oxygen. Basically the methodology and reactor set up. Thank you very much]]> Resource recovery from excreta or faecal sludge Wed, 27 Aug 2014 10:43:01 +0000