SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Sat, 28 Feb 2015 20:47:01 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Up-scaling Basic Sanitation for the Urban Poor in Kenya (UBSUP) (WSTF and GIZ, Kenya) - by: mwaniki http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/4204-up-scaling-basic-sanitation-for-the-urban-poor-in-kenya-ubsup-water-services-trust-fund-and-giz-kenya?limit=12&start=12#11965 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/4204-up-scaling-basic-sanitation-for-the-urban-poor-in-kenya-ubsup-water-services-trust-fund-and-giz-kenya?limit=12&start=12#11965
Kindly note that Africa Water, Sanitation & Hygiene in its Sept- Oct 2012 edition carried an article entitled “Up-scaling Basic Sanitation for the Urban Poor in Kenya (UBSUP - Kenya)” by Doreen Mbalo and Cees Lafeber under the auspices of GIZ.

Its available on our website www.afriwater.org download Sept- Oct 2012 edition pdf version pp 28-30 from publications.

Kind regards / Mwaniki]]>
Enabling environment Mon, 09 Feb 2015 12:17:21 +0000
Re: Up-scaling Basic Sanitation for the Urban Poor in Kenya (UBSUP) (WSTF and GIZ, Kenya) - by: Doreen http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/4204-up-scaling-basic-sanitation-for-the-urban-poor-in-kenya-ubsup-water-services-trust-fund-and-giz-kenya?limit=12&start=12#11925 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/4204-up-scaling-basic-sanitation-for-the-urban-poor-in-kenya-ubsup-water-services-trust-fund-and-giz-kenya?limit=12&start=12#11925
Thank you for your questions. Here are the answers below.

First statement: 20 water service providers have been selected for award. When awarded, the 20 water service providers will proceed to implement in the first UBSUP call.

Question 1: What exactly would they implement? Would all 20 water service providers implement the same technology and systems?

Answer: An UBSUP project to be implemented by an awarded WSP, comprises of construction of household/ plot level toilets, training of the emptiers (both manual and mechanised) thus strengthening the emptying process for both UBSUP constructed toilets and improved existing toilets, Transportation (mechanized) and disposal of the emptied sludge at UBSUP financed decentralized treatment facilities. At the end of the chain (the lst component of a decentralized treatment facility), there is value addition, to enable reuse of the compost and dried sludge.

The technologies to be implemented will vary:
a) There is a menu of toilet technologies to select from based on specific criteria such as availability of water etc.
b) Financing of a decentralized treatment facility for water companies that do not have existing facilities. Based on the technologies selected in A it could be a simple drying bed or a standard decentralized treatment facility for waste water system which can also be fitted by a biodigester if there is a need for gas.

Question 2.How much money would each be awarded?
Answer: This is dependent on the technologies proposed

Question 3.Do you have particular mechanisms in place to avoid corruption disturbing your process?
Answer Yes we do. The Urban Project concept procedures have proven to be successful in mitigating corruption in water companies. This has been successfully piloted in UBSUP

Second statement: decentralised treatment facilities are currently under construction within those three towns that will cater for the existing and newly constructed sanitation facilities.

Question 4: Which technology or technologies did you select to treat the faecal matter (it is the dried faeces from the UDDTs that will be treated here, right? Or also conventional faecal sludge?).
For the UDDTs, composting beds shall be used, for the wet toilets such as pour flush and cistern, a conventional DTF comprising settlers, ABR and drying reed bed will be used.

2.Do you have any photos from the construction process that you could share?
To be provided in my next post.

Thanks and best regards,

Doreen]]>
Enabling environment Fri, 06 Feb 2015 15:32:18 +0000
Re: Up-scaling Basic Sanitation for the Urban Poor in Kenya (UBSUP) (WSTF and GIZ, Kenya) - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/4204-up-scaling-basic-sanitation-for-the-urban-poor-in-kenya-ubsup-water-services-trust-fund-and-giz-kenya?limit=12&start=12#11864 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/4204-up-scaling-basic-sanitation-for-the-urban-poor-in-kenya-ubsup-water-services-trust-fund-and-giz-kenya?limit=12&start=12#11864
Thanks a lot for this interesting update!

Could you explain a little bit more what this means:
20 water service providers have been selected for award. When awarded, the 20 water service providers will proceed to implement in the first UBSUP call.

  1. What exactly would they implement? Would all 20 water service providers implement the same technology and systems?
  2. How much money would each be awarded?
  3. Do you have particular mechanisms in place to avoid corruption disturbing your process?

Could you also tell us a bit more about this:
3 decentralised treatment facilities are currently under construction within those three towns that will cater for the existing and newly constructed sanitation facilities.

  1. Which technology or technologies did you select to treat the faecal matter (it is the dried faeces from the UDDTs that will be treated here, right? Or also conventional faecal sludge?).
  2. Do you hae any photos from the construction process that you could share?

And it seems that you are on a good track to have good involvement of local government (in your case: water services providers), which is something I asked about in this thread:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/142-up...n-for-the-urban-poor

Perhaps you could add your example into that thread and explain to us how this has been possible in the Kenyan context?

Thanks a lot.

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Enabling environment Tue, 03 Feb 2015 08:57:39 +0000
Re: Up-scaling Basic Sanitation for the Urban Poor in Kenya (UBSUP) (WSTF and GIZ, Kenya) - by: Doreen http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/4204-up-scaling-basic-sanitation-for-the-urban-poor-in-kenya-ubsup-water-services-trust-fund-and-giz-kenya?limit=12&start=12#11778 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/4204-up-scaling-basic-sanitation-for-the-urban-poor-in-kenya-ubsup-water-services-trust-fund-and-giz-kenya?limit=12&start=12#11778
I just wanted to give you an update on the current activities of the UBSUP programme in Kenya. A reminder: UBSUP stands for Up-scaling basic sanitation for the urban poor.

The UBSUP programme has developed, tested and piloted a concept for scaling up improved household/plot-level sanitation in low income urban areas of Kenya. The programme covers the full sanitation value chain and is embedded in the Water Services Trust Fund (WSTF). Financing is done through WSTF which is the pro-poor basket fund of the water sector and is implemented by regulated water service providers (water utilities). The programme is supported by the German Development Cooperation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). GIZ provides technical support through the Water Sector Reform Programme while KfW offers financial assistance.

UBSUP has now successfully completed the concept development phase, the testing phase and the pilot phase. We have constructed over 2000 toilets in 3 towns called Embu, Oloolaiser and Nakuru. Different sanitation technologies have been adopted by the different clients in the respective low income areas. 3 decentralised treatment facilities are currently under construction within those three towns that will cater for the existing and newly constructed sanitation facilities.

The 1st call for proposals to the Water Services Trust Fund was initiated in July/August 2014 and has so far attracted applications from 40 regulated water service providers ( water utilities). Last year (November and December 2014), the UBSUP team carried out field appraisals, visiting the different water service providers that had applied to verify and ensure that the information provided in their application forms met the needs of those living in the respective low income areas within their jurisdiction.
20 water service providers have been selected for award. When awarded, the 20 water service providers will proceed to implement in the first UBSUP call. 10 that performed well will be considered for funding in the second batch of the first UBSUP call. Our current tasks include preparing the water service providers for implementation of the 1st call.

Lessons learnt that I can share with you:

1. Water Service Providers are willing to engage in household on site sanitation if a proper concept is put in place
2. To achieve progress in onsite sanitation, one has to go beyond awareness creation and build low cost sustainable sanitation infrastructure
3. Timely payment of subsidies by the water service providers is crucial for demand creation.
4. Enforcement of the Public Health Act by County Health Officers is necessary
5. You can upscale without perfect policies and master plans in place
6. For up-scaling, low cost decentralised solutions are key (reaching more people at less per capita cost)
7. It is possible to address the entire sanitation value chain in low income urban areas
8. The permanent presence of social marketers and community health workers is crucial
9. The county governments in Kenya play a key role in ensuring project acceptability

I look forward to your feedback.

Best regards,

Doreen]]>
Enabling environment Wed, 28 Jan 2015 11:15:31 +0000
Urban Services Initiative (USI) (J-PAL, USA and India, Kenya, Zambia) - use of randomized evaluations to understand barriers to provision of urban services - by: tchupein http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/11579-urban-services-initiative-usi-j-pal-usa-and-india-kenya-zambia-use-of-randomized-evaluations-to-understand-barriers-to-provision-of-urban-services#11579 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/11579-urban-services-initiative-usi-j-pal-usa-and-india-kenya-zambia-use-of-randomized-evaluations-to-understand-barriers-to-provision-of-urban-services#11579
Title of grant: Urban Services Initiative (USI)

  • Name of lead organization: Abdul Latif Jameel Poverty Action Lab (J-PAL), www.povertyactionlab.org/
  • Primary contact at lead organization: Thomas Chupein, Policy Manager, J-PAL, www.povertyactionlab.org/chupein
  • Grantee location: Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  • Developing country where the research is being or will be tested: Various in Asia and Africa
  • Start and end date: 10/14/2011 – 10/31/2015
  • Grant type: (e.g. Global Challenges Explorations, Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, Other) Other
  • Grant size in USD: $4,874,457
  • (see www.gatesfoundation.org/How-We-Work/Quic...s/2011/11/OPP1037202)
  • Funding for this research currently ongoing (yes/no): Yes

Short description of the project:
Through use of randomized evaluations, the initiative aims to better understand and address important barriers to the provision of critical urban services.

More information about this methodology (randomized evaluations) is available here:
www.povertyactionlab.org/methodology

Goal(s):
To identify and rigorously evaluate, through randomized controlled trials, innovative methods designed to improve the welfare of the urban poor in Asia and Africa. USI covers a broad range of urban issues including water, sanitation, and hygiene, migrant integration and livelihoods, energy and the environment, transportation, housing and infrastructure, and delivery of health and education services.

Objectives:
Encourage innovative projects designed to address the challenge of delivering urban services, and use randomized evaluations to test the effectiveness of those innovations in the field; Establish strong research teams, and increase capacity for some developing countries’ researchers to design and conduct rigorous, randomized evaluations to test the effectiveness of their proposed solutions; Disseminate knowledge learned from USI research to policymakers and donors at the local, national, and international levels, so that effective solutions are promoted and scaled-up.

Research or implementation partners: Please see www.povertyactionlab.org/usi for more information on each of the eleven individual research projects’ institutional partners (also see below).

Links, further readings – results to date: www.povertyactionlab.org/usi

Current state of affairs:
On-going grantmaking for pilot and full randomized evaluations; eleven on-going research projects in Africa and Asia (see below).

Biggest successes so far:
Successfully executed four competitive rounds of grantmaking, awarding over $1 million to eleven unique research projects; held three conferences in Sri Lanka (2012), South Africa (2013), and Nepal (2014) to develop new research partnerships between J-PAL research affiliates and development practitioners. The most recent one took place in Nepal (see: www.povertyactionlab.org/event/usi-nepal-matchmaking-conference)

Main challenges / frustration:
See: www.povertyactionlab.org/USI/evaluations


Those projects under the USI programme with a focus on sanitation include the following five:

(1)
Wastewater as a Collective Action Problem: Effluent Trading for Water Quality in Urban India

Researchers: Rohini Pande, Michael Greenstone, Nick Hagerty, Nicholas Ryan, Anant Sudarshan
Partner(s): Indian state pollution regulator, and a common effluent treatment plant

Location: India
Timeline: 2014-2016
Type of Project: Full Study

The density that defines cities exacerbates collective action problems: my garbage litters your street, my sewage taints your drinking water. Households and firms often do not see the true cost that their waste imposes on others, which leads to excessive discharge. The resultant pollution of common resources, like waterways and reservoirs, imposes high costs on downstream residents. Researchers will investigate whether markets for pollution—specifically, the discharge of industrial effluent in urban India—can provide better incentives for conservation. Such trading markets have never been used to manage water pollution in India. Researchers will partner with an Indian state regulator and a common effluent treatment plant to set up a cap-and-trade system for effluent in a large group of industrial plants. Markets theoretically yield efficient water conservation, provided there are clear property rights and low transaction costs. Researchers will conduct a randomized evaluation of the initial allocation of discharge permits to test this fundamental relationship. This trial will provide policy guidance on the scope for market instruments to address collective action problems in public services with externalities from overuse.


(2)
Handwashing and Habit Formation

Researchers: Atonu Rabbani, Reshmaan Hussam, Giovanni Reggiani, Natalie Rigol
Partner(s):Society for Health and Demographic Surveillance, India

Location: India
Timeline: 2014-2015
Type of Project: Pilot Study

This project addresses poor hand hygiene, a leading driver of child mortality via bacterial and viral contamination and resulting diarrhea and acute respiratory infection. Public health campaigns focused on handwashing with soap have consistently failed to generate long term behavioral change, despite the effectiveness of the practice in clinical studies in improving health. In collaboration with the MIT Media Lab, researchers have developed an innovative measurement tool for handwashing that generates the precise data and feedback loop required to study and nurture systematic behavioral change via the habit loop; the project then employs this device across a large sample of households and nursery schools along with a series of incentive-driven interventions intended to generate sustained habit formation.
This pilot study will take place in West Bengal, India. The study intervention will target mothers and children below age five directly in their homes and through government-funded nurseries. The pilot study will randomize households into one of four treatment arms: 1) handwashing with soap and information, 2) treatment 1 plus monitoring, 3) treatment 2 plus incentives, and 4) treatment 3 plus self-commitment. Each treatment will be cross-randomized with a reminder treatment via text message. Immediate outcomes include frequency and timing of handwashing; long term outcomes include changes in household valuation for soap and detailed child-level health measures.


(3)
Creating a Toilet Habit

Researchers: Mushfiq Mobarak, Judy Chevalier, Johann Caro Burnett
Partner(s): Sanergy

Location: Kenya
Timeline: 2013-2015
Type of Project: Full Study

Public health externalities from unhygienic sanitation remain a significant development challenge, even in areas where hygienic latrines are accessible or affordable. We hypothesize that behaviors like open defecation may persist because they represent ingrained habits that are difficult to change. Inspired by findings from psychology and neuroscience, we propose field experiments that are designed to instill a revised habit of community toilet use among the slum population of Nairobi. Our partner, Sanergy has created a network of hygienic latrines in Nairobi, but face a challenge of low demand for the toilets. Habit loops have been successfully created by private sector firms to increase demand for many household products and behaviors such as brushing regularly with Pepsodent toothpaste, or spraying Febreze air freshener. We propose to create such a loop for Sanergy toilets using a combination of economic incentives and a marketing campaign that is attentive to psychological cues and rewards. The experiments are designed to separate habit formation from other closely related models of risk aversion and learning.

(4)
Demand for Sanitation in Kenyan Urban Slums

Researchers: Paul Gertler, Sebastian Galiani
Partner(s): Athi Water and Sanitation Board, Nairobi, Kenya; The World Bank; Water and Sanitation Program

Location: Kenya
Timeline: 2014-2016
Type of Project: Full Study

We propose to study the demand for household connection to municipal sewage systems in informal slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Governments are investing in expensive sewerage systems to bring sanitation services to the household door. The cost-effectiveness of these investments depends on the number of households that connect to the sanitation systems. However, there are large fixed costs to connect to sewage systems including both the costs charged by the utility investment in household sanitation facilities, and pipes to connect from the house to the network. We propose to use a RCT to estimate price elasticity of the demand for connections, and the extent to which the price elasticity depends on information about the relationship between sanitation and health. We also consider complications related to collective action in multi-household compound connections, and resident versus non-resident landlords. Results from this study are critical to developing pricing/subsidy and information campaign policies to cost-effectively improve connectivity.

(5)
Encouraging the Adoption of Improved Sanitation Solutions in Lusaka

Researchers: Muthoni Ngatia, William Pariente, Roland Rathelot
Partner(s): Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP)

Location: Zambia
Timeline: 2014-2016
Type of Project: Full Study

We propose to partner with Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) to carry out a research study to test different strategies to encourage the urban poor in three peri-urban areas in Lusaka to build pour-flush latrines that connect to sewerage services. The study further proposes to study the public health implications of having various proportions of a community connected to modern sewerage solutions and to gain a better understanding of low-income urban housing markets.

As this post is quite long I also attach the same content in a pdf file.

Any questions? Please post them here.

Regards,
Thomas


*Thomas Chupein*

Policy Manager, J-PAL <povertyactionlab.org/> 30 Wadsworth St, E53-334, Cambridge, MA 02142
USA
Follow us on Twitter <twitter.com/#%21/JPAL_Global>, Facebook <www.facebook.com/JPAL.Global>]]>
Enabling environment Mon, 12 Jan 2015 17:48:58 +0000
Re: Data acquisition and field support for sanitation projects (UKZN, South Africa) - Web page development - by: ChrisBuckley http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/3370-data-acquisition-and-field-support-for-sanitation-projects-ukzn-south-africa#9330 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-enabling-environment/3370-data-acquisition-and-field-support-for-sanitation-projects-ukzn-south-africa#9330 The PRG web page is now available at
prg.ukzn.ac.za/

Over the next month additional data and videos will be added.

Regards
Chris]]>
Enabling environment Sun, 13 Jul 2014 10:58:56 +0000