SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Tue, 21 Oct 2014 11:55:15 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Software to identify and quantify pathogenic helminth eggs (University Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico) - by: BJimenezC
As you can see, the problem of helminthes is not an easy one, and I would add that even though they are killing all their hosts, they still may cause death in severe cases. The Bill and Melinda Gates are aware of the importance of helminthes worldwide and thus they are working hard to implement solutions on different aspects (detection, treatment, control, etc.).
We are not aware of studies that report the effect of helminthes on immunity for other diseases but we suppose that they may increase the risk of infection due to other microorganisms. We also agree that to break the cycle of this type of parasites, sanitation is not sufficient to control them, it should be accompanied by deworming and educations programs that reduce the risk of people exposed to wastewater and sludge.

With respect to Cholera, the agent responsible of this disease is a bacterium that is not as resistant as helminthes to conventional treatment processes, however, if the infection is not treated on time it may cause death. On the other hand, Ebola is a disease that we are not familiar with and thus would not like to emit an uninformed opinion.

Best regards,]]>
Enabling environment Sat, 18 Oct 2014 02:50:08 +0000
Re: Software to identify and quantify pathogenic helminth eggs (University Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico) - by: arno
When it comes to deworming a community, this is much more than a challenge for medical doctors. All the "other" vectors and sources need to be covered including soil surfaces, yards, toilets, septic tanks, sewer pipes, etc. So practices like open defecation, dumping of collected faecal sludge in open areas and ditches and discharge of untreated wastewater, septage and sewerage are all suspected vectors of transmission.

Add pathogens like Cholera to these rather "open" systems and the risk of widespread epidemics can be explained. What then are the risks of Ebola spreading among members of communities knowing how dysfunctional these systems are.]]>
Enabling environment Fri, 17 Oct 2014 07:13:15 +0000
Re: Software to identify and quantify pathogenic helminth eggs (University Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico) - by: BJimenezC
You have reason about the 5 million, this does not correct, the "precise" number is 3,500 million (3.5 billion).

We included a table with information about this number of worldwide´s infections by helminthiases.

In this moment we are working with the validation of the final system.

Regards and thanks for your note.

WTR Team]]>
Enabling environment Fri, 17 Oct 2014 00:25:19 +0000
Re: Software to identify and quantify pathogenic helminth eggs (University Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico) - by: arno Thanks for the news on automated image analysis of Helminth eggs and the Perez Sanchez thesis. Is this method now being used routinely in Mexico?

I noticed in your article from 2009 "Helminth ova control in wastewater and sludge for advanced and conventional sanitation" ( you write that there are some 5 million people with Helminth infections. How does this compare with the estimated number by WHO which is so much higher at 2 billion. Could be you were referring to Ascaris only?

My thesis is that hygiene and treatment of faeces remain so poor across the developing world that this monster has just kept growing for the past 50 years even with some concerted deworming programmes. This is by far the single most widespread public health problem dwarfing all others.

Easier and automated monitoring may help lead to more measurements to better determine risk. Hopefully this will motivate communities to push for more stringent sanitation and hygiene.]]>
Enabling environment Mon, 13 Oct 2014 15:09:14 +0000
Re: Performance Assessment Systems (PAS) for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India (CEPT University, India) - by: aasimmansuri
Thank you for your interest in PAS project of CEPT University.

The indicators that we have been using in our work are mentioned in this link (go in framework section of performance assessment tab). More recently, we are developing indicators for onsite sanitation assessment and we will be sharing this soon. We will be happy to receive your comments. Hopefully, the post-2015 sanitation monitoring can use some of these indicators.

Regarding shared toilets, we are trying out this idea in a few small and medium towns in Maharashtra, India. We strongly believe that shared sanitation facilities provided by public agencies are not viable. Its life cycle cost is much higher and it is not safe. Instead, we promote one family- one toilet concept. However, in dense communities, where there is no space in the house for a toilet, we advocate provision of a toilet for 2-3 families, which is collectively owned and maintained by them. In the towns, where we are working, we have designed an incentive subsidy scheme, where a family without a toilet is given a small grant by the local government. So if more households are willing to share the toilet the subsidy amount per toilet will increase.

Enabling environment Mon, 13 Oct 2014 13:09:33 +0000
Re: Evidence-based sanitation advocacy in India to promote latrine use - by: neilpw
Thank you for this comment. I would be interested to hear what works (and what doesn't) with regards to IEC*. Below are some possible methods, but I am not sure where and how they have been tried, and with what results:
- Community Health Workers (or ASHAs in India) explain importance of sanitation as part of routing health education (one-to-one, or in groups)
- Health education / sanitation posters (at health facilities and/or in public places)
- Health education / sanitation leaflets (at health facilities and/or in public places)
- SMS text messaging (health education "behavior change" messages)
- short videos on feature phones (basic mobile phones with SD cards)

Women's learning groups have been successful in reducing maternal and child mortality in many countries, through learning and preparedness for childbirth and child diseases. I am sure they have an important potential role in sanitation also.

Best wishes,
Neil Pakenham-Walsh, HIFA moderator (

* IEC stands for Information, Education, Communication (note added by moderator)]]>
Enabling environment Thu, 09 Oct 2014 13:39:10 +0000
Structuring of the fecal sludge market for the benefit of poor households in Dakar, Senegal (ONAS) - optimising faecal sludge emptying, transportation, processing - by: mbaye
Sorry for the delay in responding. Here are my answers to your questions from your post on 14 July:

You wrote:
I am very interested to learn note about the call centre works that you refer. As well increasing competition and lowering prices for the customer, this may also help with monitoring and regulation. So, as you say, this is a novel idea that can have various benefits.

I would be very interested to hear more about how this is structured according to different customer groups

Is this the same for all types of customer? Are there service levels that are specified that the operator needs to adhere to/achieve?

Is this only for small businesses for trucks? Presumably, the operators have to be registered to receive the request for pit emptying - do they also need to be members of the association of pit emptiers?

Thank you for your interest about the call center. This tool is designed for the emptying of household's pit but it can be used by any entity that needs an desludging service.
It applies to all emptying companies, the smallest to the largest. All these companies are identified, their trucks geolocalized and therefore present in the database of the call center. The auctions do not apply to companies but to individual trucks. You do not need to be a member of the Association of emptiers for your participation in the auction.

You wrote:
I understand that the bargaining is based on one submission from the desludging company. What happens if the job turns out to be much more difficult than they expected due to local situation? The benefit of negotiation on the ground is that the desludger can assess more easily the scale/nature of the job and adjust the charge accordingly. If this is done remotely, then this is difficult. I suppose the desludger can visit the site, but I am not sure that this is realistic. So, there is possibility that the householder ends up paying more than they were quoted for, or the operator takes a loss or does the job poorly to cut costs.... what happens in this case ?

Under these conditions, it is possible that some emptiers, once on the ground, face difficulties in accessing or the customer requires several rotations. In this case, they do not empty the pit and inform the center.
It must be said that the desludgers are very familiar with the neighborhoods in which they operate. The location is listed in the auction and in this case, they adjust their prices accordingly. In a case where an emptier win the market and made a bad quality work, the customer shall inform the Centre during the call quality control (which is done after every emptying activity) and then the desludger is sanctioned. Example of penalty: at its upcoming participation in an auction, the system automatically puts 2,000 FCFA more on his offer; which will make him less competitive.

I remain at your disposal for any other questions.

Enabling environment Tue, 07 Oct 2014 11:52:24 +0000
Re: Software to identify and quantify pathogenic helminth eggs (University Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico) - by: BJimenezC
The Global Development Phase II, sponsored by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, is focused on the elaboration of an automatic image analysis software that performs the identification and quantification of helminth eggs of a processed sample of wastewater, sludge or excreta. Alongside our investigation, we work to train people through our academic programs such as social services and undergraduate, MSc and PhD.

An example of this is the MSc thesis developed in Phase I and for which the degree examination was done at the beginning of 2014:

Pérez Sánchez, J. D. (2013). Identificación y cuantificación automática de huevos de helmintos en muestras de agua residual (in Spanish) - Automatic identification and quantification of helminth eggs in wastewater samples. MSc thesis, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico.

For those of you who are interested in our software to quantify helminth eggs in wastewater samples, you might find this MSc thesis useful. It is in Spanish, but there is an English summary. You can find the full text on the link below:;type=2&id=2052

Here is a section of the English summary:

Given the complexity of biological automatic image analysis, we performed a comparative study of protocols for image processing techniques applicable for this study. The development of automatic identification technique used 360 images of different species (Ascaris lumbricoides (fertile and infertile), Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta, Schistosoma mansoni, Taenia sp., Toxocara canis and Trichuris trichiura), which allowed the training of the system and establishment of a range of values for each property classification.

System validation is always performed with residual water samples, we commonly classified it in three different qualities based on the total suspended solids (TSS). Class I was water with 150 mg / L (TSS), typical of untreated wastewater. This allowed us to validate the results according to the amount of solids present in water. For Class I and Class II, results were obtained identifying specificity 0.99 and 0.98, respectively, indicating that the system is able to distinguish between significant accuracy helminth egg and different objects. For the same quality of water, yielded a sensitivity of 0.83 and 0.80, respectively, indicating the system's ability to identify a species among other exceeds 80%. The Class III identification efficiency was considerably lower (15%) than samples I or II. So in the current conditions of the system, must be carried out a prior dilution of the samples before identification and quantification through software.

The advantages of the developed system versus the traditional technique are: a) No specific skills required for the recognition of the species. b) Samples with different amount of total suspended solids can be identified in approximately 10 minutes against three hours or more of the traditional technique. c) The initial cost of the software is 30,000 compared to 20,000 dls of the traditional technique, but the operating cost per sample is less in the case of software with 2 dlls per sample versus 10 - 35 dlls for traditional technique. Regarding the specificity and sensitivity of the developed software, both features exceed 80%, while the traditional technique depends on previously acquired human skills.

If you have questions, please don’t hesitate to ask.


Water Treated and Reuse Team (WTR Team)


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Enabling environment Fri, 12 Sep 2014 15:18:50 +0000
Re: Performance Assessment Systems (PAS) for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India (CEPT University, India) - by: KimAndersson Thanks for introducing your project, which is an exciting long-term and large-scale effort. Would be interesting to hear about some of the insights you have gained so far. Hence, here’s a set of questions that I hope you can comment on.

Regarding the performance monitoring, what are the indicators you have applied to follow-up sanitation? What are your strategies for collecting data? Have you implemented any innovating ways of monitoring? This is a most relevant international matter today, since the Post-2015 process is ongoing with new Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) coming up soon. There is a need to develop indicators that actually measure the sustainability of sanitation systems and allow for feasible monitoring mechanisms.

I’m also interested to know more about your 2-3 family-shared toilets. What is your learning from this approach? For example, how do you group families? Or do you only involve relatives? How do they manage ownership and O&M? What type of sanitation systems are you implementing/considering?

Best regards,
Enabling environment Thu, 11 Sep 2014 15:03:44 +0000
Re: SanMark-CITY: Intelligent Design in Urban Sanitation Marketing- quick glimpse - by: esthapit
 Most of the tiger toilets installed are working fine
 All the enbiolets and biofil are working well

All three technologies : enbiolet, biofil and SunMar, are already in the market in other parts of the world and are used extensively. Only in Bangladesh, it is the first time and therefore this pilot phase is very important. Regarding the high cost that you have mentioned, as compared to the easily available toilet made of rings and slab, it is not only SunMar, but all three others which are quite expensive in Bangladesh. The greatest advantage of the selected technologies however that needs to be considered most is the convenience i.e. no odor, no/less pollution, longevity, easy maintenance etc. Furthermore, one of the main objectives of the project is to making the toilets with locally available materials, which will significantly reduce the cost of each type of technologies included in the project.

Please feel free to come back for further information and/or clarification.]]>
Enabling environment Thu, 04 Sep 2014 09:50:44 +0000
The Website in english and in french of the PSMBV. - by: Onasbv

Thank you to find below the link of the website in french and in english of the Program of Structuring of Fecal Sludge Market for the Benefit of poor households in Dakar (PSMBV).
You are most welcome in our website and you can find all the informations and the news about the PSMBV inside.

Good reception.

Aissatou Basse]]>
Enabling environment Wed, 03 Sep 2014 09:06:44 +0000
Re: Catalyzing Sanitation Businesses (Water for People, USA, Malawi, Uganda, India) - by: smunyana Enabling environment Sat, 30 Aug 2014 11:02:52 +0000 Re: Evidence-based sanitation advocacy in India to promote latrine use - by: SangitaVyas
You are right. In India, very few people have inexpensive, simple latrines. These types of latrines are much more common to find in other parts of the developing world, even in South Asia. In Bangladesh, it's very common to find simple pit latrines, the kinds that UNICEF/WHO classifies as "unimproved." It's virtually impossible to find these in India. In India, people either build expensive latrines which often have septic tanks. And if they can't afford that, then they build nothing at all. There is no such thing as the sanitation ladder here.

Yes, there needs to be much more focus on IEC*. In the past financial year, very little of the IEC budget was spent. We need to be spending all of it.


* IEC stands for Information, Education, Communication (note added by moderator)]]>
Enabling environment Fri, 29 Aug 2014 05:42:56 +0000
Re: Evidence-based sanitation advocacy in India to promote latrine use - by: pkjha
As per the guidelines of NBA (earlier TSC) financial incentive will be provided after the construction and use of latrines. At policy level there is no problem in this regard. Main problem is almost complete lacking of monitoring (of construction and use of toilets) at the state and centre levels. Lack of awareness in rural areas is the most important issue. In such areas sanitation is not regarded as a felt need problem due to lack of knowledge, awareness and motivation. In some states like Haryana, in a short period, there has been appreciable sanitation coverage due to involvement of Women Self Help Groups. Many households constructed toilets without taking any financial support from the Government.
Lack of sanitation is mainly a social issue- not financial or technical. One can easily see several households having good houses and personal vehicles but without toilet. Increasing rate of cash subsidy of construction of toilets is also one of the deterrents of the programme. Such subsidy has made the program a supply driven approach. In 2011 rural sanitation coverage, as per the IMS data of the Ministry (as provided by the States) was over 70%. However, Census 2011 data showed only 31-32% coverage. Obviously there were considerable no. of missing/ unfinished construction/ wrongly located toilets, constructed under subsidy, not fit for use. Therefore, proper construction of toilets is equally important. Without having a toilet there is no question of its use. The IEC program of the Ministry needs to be monitored by the States with measurable deliverables.
Enabling environment Fri, 29 Aug 2014 03:29:35 +0000
Re: Evidence-based sanitation advocacy in India to promote latrine use - by: SangitaVyas
You pose an interesting question. The government doesn't focus on latrine use simply because all incentives point towards focusing on construction.

Local level bureaucrats prefer construction projects to behavior change campaigns because they are more profitable. It is easier to skim money off construction projects. Politicians prefer construction projects because they are very visible, and they can easily claim responsibility. Many local level politicians actually get their names written on the latrines that are built during their time in office. And to people who don't know much about sanitation in India, construction sounds like the obvious solution. Finally, construction is the status quo. And inertia gets in the way of changing it.

Only a politician or bureaucrat who really cares about eliminating open defecation would emphasize latrine use.]]>
Enabling environment Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:28:38 +0000