SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Fri, 28 Nov 2014 08:23:40 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Performance Assessment Systems (PAS) for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India (CEPT University, India) - by: F H Mughal
The PAS system is interesting and is fairly comprehensive. As I understand, the system has its application in all urban local bodies in Gujarat and Maharashtra. What were the results and outcomes, and how the assessment enabled improvement in service delivery?

PAS is for “urban” water supply and sanitation, but some of the components (e.g., septic tanks) shows that it includes “rural” water supply and sanitation, as well.

Please comments on the absence of the following aspects:

Incidence of waterborne diseases – reduction of the diseases can be a good indicator

Hygiene – hygiene is an important adjunct of water and sanitation

Impact on reduction of open defecation (OD) – Reduction of OD cases is a useful indicator

Unit production costs ($/cubic meter of water) – Reduction in unit production costs in water treatment reflects efficiency

Stakeholders’ satisfaction – Increased percentage of stakeholders’ satisfaction, or conversely, increased complaints from the consumers, constitute a useful indicator

Please keep us posted on the milestones achieved in future.

Good luck!


F H Mughal]]>
Enabling environment Sun, 09 Nov 2014 15:32:48 +0000
Re: Performance Assessment Systems (PAS) for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India (CEPT University, India) - by: aasimmansuri
We have recently uploaded two presentations on Susana Library for you all to refer and get an update regarding our PAS project activities.

One presentation briefly describes the activities that we have taken up in the PAS project for last 5 years and other presentation briefly describes various urban sanitation activities that have been undertaken by the PAS project.

You will find this presentations on the following link:

Please do let us know if you have any feedback / comments / queries.

Enabling environment Wed, 05 Nov 2014 11:09:25 +0000
Re: Performance Assessment Systems (PAS) for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India (CEPT University, India) - by: aasimmansuri
Thank you for your interest in PAS project of CEPT University.

The indicators that we have been using in our work are mentioned in this link (go in framework section of performance assessment tab). More recently, we are developing indicators for onsite sanitation assessment and we will be sharing this soon. We will be happy to receive your comments. Hopefully, the post-2015 sanitation monitoring can use some of these indicators.

Regarding shared toilets, we are trying out this idea in a few small and medium towns in Maharashtra, India. We strongly believe that shared sanitation facilities provided by public agencies are not viable. Its life cycle cost is much higher and it is not safe. Instead, we promote one family- one toilet concept. However, in dense communities, where there is no space in the house for a toilet, we advocate provision of a toilet for 2-3 families, which is collectively owned and maintained by them. In the towns, where we are working, we have designed an incentive subsidy scheme, where a family without a toilet is given a small grant by the local government. So if more households are willing to share the toilet the subsidy amount per toilet will increase.

Enabling environment Mon, 13 Oct 2014 13:09:33 +0000
Re: Performance Assessment Systems (PAS) for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India (CEPT University, India) - by: KimAndersson Thanks for introducing your project, which is an exciting long-term and large-scale effort. Would be interesting to hear about some of the insights you have gained so far. Hence, here’s a set of questions that I hope you can comment on.

Regarding the performance monitoring, what are the indicators you have applied to follow-up sanitation? What are your strategies for collecting data? Have you implemented any innovating ways of monitoring? This is a most relevant international matter today, since the Post-2015 process is ongoing with new Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) coming up soon. There is a need to develop indicators that actually measure the sustainability of sanitation systems and allow for feasible monitoring mechanisms.

I’m also interested to know more about your 2-3 family-shared toilets. What is your learning from this approach? For example, how do you group families? Or do you only involve relatives? How do they manage ownership and O&M? What type of sanitation systems are you implementing/considering?

Best regards,
Enabling environment Thu, 11 Sep 2014 15:03:44 +0000
Performance Assessment Systems (PAS) for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India (CEPT University, India) - by: aasimmansuri
Here are some details on the Performance Assessment System (PAS) Project that aims to develop appropriate methods and tools to measure, monitor and improve delivery of water and sanitation in urban India. The Project has three major components of performance measurement, monitoring and improvement. It covers all urban local bodies (ULBs) in Gujarat and Maharashtra.

Looking forward to discussions on the forum.

Title of grant: Performance Assessment Systems (PAS) for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation

Name of lead organization: CEPT University

Primary contact at lead organization: Dr. Meera Mehta / Dr. Dinesh Mehta

Grantee location: Ahmedabad, Gujarat , INDIA

Developing country where the research is being or will be tested: INDIA

Short description of the project:
Lack of reliable and updated information about operational and financial performance of urban water supply and sanitation services poses a key challenge in improving access to the poor and increasing efficiency of service delivery in India. New investments in urban water and sanitation are made, without proper performance assessment of existing system

The Performance Assessment System (PAS) Project has developed appropriate methods and tools to measure, monitor and improve delivery of water and sanitation in urban India. The Project has three major components of performance measurement, monitoring and improvement. It covers all urban local bodies (ULBs) in Gujarat and Maharashtra. The project team has worked with the state and local governments to institutionalize the performance assessment system (PAS). More details on

In recent years, the project team has focused on sanitation related activities. These include developing measurement systems and indicators for on-site sanitation, preparing and implementing city sanitation plans, developing tools for assessing sanitation improvement actions, and developing mechanisms for financing urban sanitation

The main aim of the proposed project is to develop and test, through implementation in two states in India, a performance assessment system for urban water supply and sanitation. The working hypothesis of this project is that a well performing and sustainable PAS will make service delivery more efficient, equitable and sustainable.

Objectives: The key objectives of the project are :

o Objective 1 : To develop and implement a performance measurement system for regular and reliable UWSS information
o Objective 2: To analyze and share results on a regular basis with ULBs, state government agencies and other stakeholders through performance monitoring and dissemination system for use in decision making and providing incentives.
o Objective 3: To facilitate development of performance improvement plans by urban local bodies with support from state government, NGOs and private sector.
o Objective 4: To develop an assessment framework and financially feasible planning approach for citywide sanitation

Start and end date: 1st December, 2008 to 30th June, 2016

Grant type: Research grant (see here in BMGF database :

Grant size: USD 9,840,056

Funding for this research currently ongoing: yes

Research or implementation partners: Urban Management Centre (UMC), Ahmedabad, Gujarat and All India Institute of Local Self Government (AIILSG), Mumbai, Maharashtra

Links, further readings – results to date:
Project website:
Entry in SuSanA library:

Current state of affairs:
Well established systems of information and tools for performance monitoring and improvement have been set up in both the states. Apart from this during the course of the work in both the states, it was found that in nearly two-thirds of cities, on-site sanitation is practiced, and very little information is available for this aspect. Thus in January 2012, CEPT started to work on Sanitation related issues, focusing on sanitation assessment, developing sanitation plans and looking at governance of sanitation at local level. During the past years, various activities have been initiated on sanitation by the CEPT team, viz. development of a citywide sanitation assessment framework, preparation of city sanitation plans, exploring private sector engagement to improve service delivery and studies on regulation of onsite sanitation systems.

Biggest successes so far:
Over the five years period, CEPT has worked closely with state governments of Gujarat and Maharashtra and over 400+ cities in these two states to generate information. There is now a well-established system of information and tools for performance monitoring and performance improvement have been developed. State PAS/SLB Cells have been formed in both states for regular performance monitoring and support preparation of PIPs. They have actively coordinated data collection.

The PAS web portal ( is fully operational and provides public access to performance information for last 5 years for 419 ULBs in the two states. Recently, information from other Indian States has been added. I tis now the largest information base for urban water and sanitation in India. PAS has also strengthened the data visualization component by developing interactive dashboards. These dashboards enable review of state and local level indicators by State and local Governments to monitor performance

Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India has designated CEPT as National Technical Support Centre for benchmarking of water and sanitation. The PAS team has provided training to other States to adopt the PAS framework. PAS will also coordinate and support activities of the National Steering Committee on benchmarking water and sanitation

A decision-support model for Performance Improvement Plans (PIPs) developed by PAS project team was used for city sanitation plan (CSP) exercises. The PIP model simulates outcomes and financial implications of a comprehensive set of actions to improve performance of water and sanitation services in municipalities. The model links capital and operational costs of improvement actions with overall municipal finance. It identifies financing options and tariff revisions for various options. A dashboard of the model enables quick comparison of major options.

Challenges :

Onsite Sanitation system: Most cities in India have either full on-site sanitation systems or mixed system with both sewerage and on-site system. However, there are no performance indicators (or benchmarks) to assess on-site sanitation. PAS team is working on developing a set of performance indicators across the sanitation value chain for non-networked cities. However, the information is not readily available with service providers.

Moving away from community/shared toilets: Moving to Open Defecation Free (ODF) cities has emerged as an important agenda our sanitation work. PAS Project has provided support to a number of cities in developing plans for making their cities ODF. Current approach in India is to provide “community toilets”. Our work suggests that this is not an appropriate strategy, as it has high costs –both financial and administrative – to the local government. Instead providing a toilet for each family has a far greater benefit. This idea is being tested in two cities, where the Local City Council have adopted a programme that focuses on facilitating family or group toilets (shared by 2 or 3 families) and agreed to provide partial funds form council budget. Will this programme work?

Sanitation Financing: The current mindset of most local governments is to wait for grants from state or national governments to undertake sanitation projects. This has been the fate of over 200 city sanitation plans in India that were prepared with expectation of large grants from the national government. However, this has not happened. Instead of large-scale centralized systems, we have advocated on-site sanitation. An advantage in such a system is that the investment costs are shared by public agencies and households. But how can cities and household mobilise additional resources? We are working with cities to explore PPPs for Integrated fecal sludge management (IFSM) and consumer finance for own toilets. We are also working at state and national levels to explore mechanisms of “Urban Sanitation Fund” to leverage private funding from corporates (CSR) and social investors (foundations, high net worth individuals, etc.)]]>
Enabling environment Mon, 18 Aug 2014 07:15:48 +0000
Re: Data acquisition and field support for sanitation projects (UKZN, South Africa) - Web page development - by: ChrisBuckley The PRG web page is now available at

Over the next month additional data and videos will be added.

Enabling environment Sun, 13 Jul 2014 10:58:56 +0000
Modelling the next generation of sanitation systems - NewSan Simulator (University College London, UK) - by: luizacampos
Very interesting work done by Sharma and colleagues. It seems to contains information we have been looking for.

So yes, we can build in NewSan (Prototype) the technologies Mr Sharma's group has analysed. I will get in touch with him.

Thanks a lot.

Enabling environment Tue, 18 Feb 2014 21:01:11 +0000
Modelling the next generation of sanitation systems - NewSan Simulator (University College London, UK) - by: AquaVerde May you answer my question?

Additional is your upcoming system flexible enough, to incorporate future "new" developments like this: “Carbon is Money” From Wastewater to Energy – Exploration of Concepts ?

Detlef SCHWAGER]]>
Enabling environment Tue, 18 Feb 2014 15:52:37 +0000
Re: Modelling the next generation of sanitation systems - NewSan Simulator (University College London, UK) - by: dorothee.spuhler
Nelson from SEI asked some questions at the end of the re-recording of Luiza's presentation. As volume is quite low, we thought it would be worth to complete the write-up also with a summary of this discussion.
So, here you go…

How do you acquire the input values in order to run your simulations?

The model is based on a simple Material Flow Analysis which needs for the simulation input data and process in order to calculate output flows
Currently all the data used was collected from the literature: input concentrations as well as what happens in the process: e.g. energy consumption or production, decay of nitrogen etc.
Currently only examples were simulated based on the data from literature (e.g. the one's you have see on the diagrams in the presentations).
In the future, the model needs to be validated and calibrated. For this, case studies are needed from places were systems with similar outputs as NewSan produced are implemented. The problem is that most of the technologies, NewSan is looking at only exist at pilot scale and even data from pilot scale does vary if you scale up.

What are the Phosphorus and Nitrogen flows through the system on the slide with the UDDT?

The slide is only showing CAPEX and OPEX. But the simulator can also calculate phosphorus and nitrogen flow or any other of the currently available options (e.g. coliforms, carbon, BOD). They are calculated based on the settlement data which determines the inflows and the transformation and transportations they undergo through the systems.

Are you aware of the washcost project IRC has in the Netherlands has been carrying out?

Yes, and washcosts data was used in the in the work so far. A future collaboration would be welcome but currently, the NewSan Prototyp needs funds.
To have financial resources would help the team to keep the development going more and to validated and calibrate it.
See e.g. here for more info on washcost:


So if you have are working on the implementation of the “new generation of sanitation systems” and have a case study or data to offer to the team, especially on anaerobic digestion or biochar production, let them know...

Cheers, Dorothee]]>
Enabling environment Wed, 05 Feb 2014 15:09:16 +0000
Re: Modelling the next generation of sanitation systems - NewSan Simulator - Sankey diagrams - by: AquaVerde
If possible may you in-cooperate results and calculations by Mr. Sharma and colleagues in your project “NewSan” simulation tool? Is your coming system flexible enough to do so?

Waste to Energy, Technical and Financial Analysis, India
Technical and financial analysis for opportunities and obstacles associated with various FS to energy processing options

Although it is stated, all is based on typical Indian condition, in my educated guessing this conditions are very representative to too many places on earth.

Detlef SCHWAGER]]>
Enabling environment Wed, 05 Feb 2014 11:59:32 +0000
Re: Modelling the next generation of sanitation systems - NewSan Simulator - Sankey diagrams - by: masch What sort of experience do others have with the use of Sankey diagrams?

Many regards


Dr. Manfred Schütze
ifak - Institut fuer Automation und Kommunikation e.V. Magdeburg
Wasser und Energie / Water and Energy / Agua y Energía
Werner-Heisenberg-Str. 1
39106 Magdeburg
Tel.: +49-391-9901470, -9901481
Fax: +49-391-9901590
E-Mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Enabling environment Wed, 05 Feb 2014 11:17:37 +0000
Re: Modelling the next generation of sanitation systems - NewSan Simulator (University College London, UK) - by: dorothee.spuhler
„Does the thickness of the arrows have any significance?“
Manfred explained that the results are displayed in “Sankey” diagrams. This means that the width of the arrows is shown proportionally to the flow quantity (nutrients, energy, etc.)]]>
Enabling environment Wed, 05 Feb 2014 11:12:34 +0000
Re: Modelling the next generation of sanitation systems - NewSan Simulator (University College London, UK) - by: dorothee.spuhler
The recording of the presentation of Luiza from our webinar number 5 on "Resource recovery and reuse", with the highest number of participants so far, is now available.

Due to the technical problems because of a new subscription and server with Adobe Connect, the recording of the entire webinar is not available. But Luiza was so kind to re-record the presentation and this is the one you can watch under the link below.
Additionally to that, we also did a short write up of the the main issues discussed during the webinar based on the questions of the audience.
Feel free to ask them any other questions here on the forum!


Modeling the next generation of sanitation systems

University College London, UCL, Luiza Campos

Watch the video

Or here:

Powerpoint slides from her presentation are available in the attached file below.

Short description of the project
This project developed a draft version of a simulation tool to enable local decision makers to assess the implications of adopting alternative sanitation strategies at scale. It is based on the simulation of material and resource fluxes through different sanitation systems along the entire sanitation chain, which are built by the user based on processes for the user interface, conveyance/collection, storage and treatment and reuse or recharge. The simulation methodology has been already applied successfully by ifak in several networked sanitation contexts in developing countries. The NewSan Prototype simulator has extended the concept for non-networked systems. The model outputs are, at present, the main energy and nutrients balances. However, other criteria can be added easily. This should help to demonstrate systems which have increased commercial viability due to waste reuse/nutrients recovery. The flexibility of the simulator allows also to include additional modules for sanitation technologies developed in the future.

Issues and questions raised during the webinar discussion with participants:

1) Processes/technologies that could be included in the simulations:
Several people asked if additional or new processes could be included in the overall system modeling tool (e.g. the ones from the Gates projects). Manfred from ifak said yes and he has already made available a questionnaire for this (now posted on the forum here:
Steve Mecca asked precisely how to do to simulate a sanitation system based on his micro-flush toilet with NewSan:
Luiza said that she could offer a project for UCL students to develop the building box of Steve’s system in order to model/simulate with Steve’s system.

2) Software requirements:
NewSan Prototype Simulator is a prototype version and download/use is not available yet to the general public (current version is called "NewSan Prototype Simulator"). However, anyone interested in its later application is invited to contact the developers.
The “NewSan Prototype Simulator” does not need any commercial third-party software. It uses only Microsoft .NET Framework 4 (which is preinstalled on most newer Windows computers; otherwise it can be downloaded free of charge from Microsoft's webpage).
The aim of the Gates founded project was the development of a draft - and that has been achieved. Obviously, it would be nice to further develop it and to improve and to extend its facilities. This, however, would require additional funding (as ifak's funds within this Gates project have long run out).
Suggestions for extending/improving the simulator are most welcome. Those suggestions directed at the simulator program itself (which was developed by ifak) could also be sent directly to ifak ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ) or write them here on the forum

3) Validation of the model/tool:
Proper validation hasn’t been done yet but some (crude) plausibility check has been done for the model in the Durban case.
NewSan’s team is hoping to get additional funding to support the proper calibration and validation of the tool: the validation would require large sets of appropriate data.

4) A question was raised if Kai Udert from the Vuna project could use this tool:
He said at the moment no plans, also he would need a dynamic model (and NewSan Prototype Simulator is a steady-state model). Manfred from ifak commented to Kai that extensions of the simulator to allow also fully dynamic simulation could indeed be thought of. These are, however, beyond the present scope of NewSan Prototype simulator. If Kai or somebody else should be interested in including fully dynamic simulation, contact ifak ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ) or write about it here on the forum.]]>
Enabling environment Mon, 03 Feb 2014 11:38:24 +0000
Photos about research facilities at PRG group (University KwaZulu-Natal, Durban) - by: SusanMercer
I would like to provide some further information on the services and activities offered by the University of the KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) through the Pollution Research Group (PRG) together with eThekwini Water and Sanitation (EWS) under our BMGF grant.

The eThekwini Municipality in Durban, South Africa is home to a wide variety of sanitation technologies and is therefore an ideal environment in which to conduct research into the optimization of sanitation services. EWS is responsible for the provision of water and sanitation services to more than 3.7 million people within the eThekwini municipal boundaries, which includes both urban and rural areas.

As of November 2013, there are in the region of 35 000 ventilated improved pit latrines (VIPs), 85 000 urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs) and 520 community ablution blocks (CABs). A research facility has recently been established at Newlands Mashu (north of Durban) in order to investigate the use of a decentralized wastewater treatment system and the reuse of treated effluent for agricultural purposes; the processing of urine to produce struvite; and the optimization of UDDT design. EWS undertakes to empty the VIP latrines on a 5-year cycle and has developed a pelletizing machine (LaDePa) to process this waste.

As outlined in my previous post, we are able to undertake various laboratory analyses and provide access to the above on-site sanitation systems for sampling, analysis and field testing of prototypes. Other Grantees are welcome to take advantage of the data results that we have collated to date, as well as to request further data sets, or visit Durban to experience the “Sanitation Tour” and spend some time in our laboratories and in the field.

To date, we have provided assistance to the following Grantees, either through provision of data, collaboration on research projects, field testing or hosting representatives in our laboratories:
• Beaumont Design
• University of Toronto
• Delft University of Technology
• Research Triangle Institute
• Oklahoma State University
• Plymouth Marine Laboratory
• Santec
• North Carolina State University
• University of the West of England, Bristol
• Duke University
• Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
• Asian Institute of Technology
• Cranfield University
• University of Colorado
• Janicki Industries
• Climate Foundation
• Cranfield University
• Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG)
• University of Toronto
• Sanergy (Nairobi)
• University College London

Below are some pictures providing an indication of the various types of sanitation systems in eThekwini, as well as some photographs of our laboratory facilities. Further information is provided in the two attached documents: Sanitation Tour (which provides an overview of the types of sites that can be visited) and Equipment Portfolio (providing a more detailed description of the laboratory equipment).

Figure 1: Sanitation systems in eThekwini (clockwise from top left): LaDePa pelletizer; VIP emptying; water reuse for agriculture; UDDT and old pit latrine; community ablution blocks; emptying of UDDT vault

Figure 2: View of the Newlands Mashu Research facility

Figure 3: Inside the basement laboratory at the Pollution Research Group

Figure 4: Laboratory-scale pelletiser machine in the PRG laboratories

Figure 5: Staff and students in the PRG

We are also in the process of launching a web site for the PRG, but in the meantime you can access our University page through the following link:

Chris Buckley (UKZN-PRG), Tina Velkushanova (UKZN-PRG), Teddy Gounden (EWS) and myself (UKZN-PRG) will be attending the BMGF Toilet Fair in Delhi (India) in March (20-22 March), so please come and visit our stand to learn more about what we can offer if you are also at that fair.

Kind regards
Enabling environment Sat, 25 Jan 2014 08:18:44 +0000
Re: Questionnaire for modelling of new sanitation systems - by: luizacampos
Most of the cost (capex and opex) equations for technologies used in NewSan Prototype was taken from SANEX. For others the cost have been approximately estimated from existing case studies or sanitation projects (from literature). For energy it was the same, values and equations from literature. However, these information are not always available.

For example we need at the moment information on CAPEX and OPEX for both anaerobic digestion (one and 2-phase CSTR) and pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization. If you guys have any data on these please contact me ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ).

The simulator is based on MMFA but with further development (in future work), process dynamic can be included.

Best wishes,

Enabling environment Wed, 22 Jan 2014 23:30:57 +0000