SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Thu, 18 Sep 2014 01:37:55 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Software to identify and quantify pathogenic helminth eggs (University Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico) - by: BJimenezC
The Global Development Phase II, sponsored by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, is focused on the elaboration of an automatic image analysis software that performs the identification and quantification of helminth eggs of a processed sample of wastewater, sludge or excreta. Alongside our investigation, we work to train people through our academic programs such as social services and undergraduate, MSc and PhD.

An example of this is the MSc thesis developed in Phase I and for which the degree examination was done at the beginning of 2014:

Pérez Sánchez, J. D. (2013). Identificación y cuantificación automática de huevos de helmintos en muestras de agua residual (in Spanish) - Automatic identification and quantification of helminth eggs in wastewater samples. MSc thesis, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico.

For those of you who are interested in our software to quantify helminth eggs in wastewater samples, you might find this MSc thesis useful. It is in Spanish, but there is an English summary. You can find the full text on the link below:;type=2&id=2052

Here is a section of the English summary:

Given the complexity of biological automatic image analysis, we performed a comparative study of protocols for image processing techniques applicable for this study. The development of automatic identification technique used 360 images of different species (Ascaris lumbricoides (fertile and infertile), Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta, Schistosoma mansoni, Taenia sp., Toxocara canis and Trichuris trichiura), which allowed the training of the system and establishment of a range of values for each property classification.

System validation is always performed with residual water samples, we commonly classified it in three different qualities based on the total suspended solids (TSS). Class I was water with 150 mg / L (TSS), typical of untreated wastewater. This allowed us to validate the results according to the amount of solids present in water. For Class I and Class II, results were obtained identifying specificity 0.99 and 0.98, respectively, indicating that the system is able to distinguish between significant accuracy helminth egg and different objects. For the same quality of water, yielded a sensitivity of 0.83 and 0.80, respectively, indicating the system's ability to identify a species among other exceeds 80%. The Class III identification efficiency was considerably lower (15%) than samples I or II. So in the current conditions of the system, must be carried out a prior dilution of the samples before identification and quantification through software.

The advantages of the developed system versus the traditional technique are: a) No specific skills required for the recognition of the species. b) Samples with different amount of total suspended solids can be identified in approximately 10 minutes against three hours or more of the traditional technique. c) The initial cost of the software is 30,000 compared to 20,000 dls of the traditional technique, but the operating cost per sample is less in the case of software with 2 dlls per sample versus 10 - 35 dlls for traditional technique. Regarding the specificity and sensitivity of the developed software, both features exceed 80%, while the traditional technique depends on previously acquired human skills.

If you have questions, please don’t hesitate to ask.


Water Treated and Reuse Team (WTR Team)


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Enabling environment Fri, 12 Sep 2014 15:18:50 +0000
Re: Performance Assessment Systems (PAS) for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India (CEPT University, India) - by: KimAndersson Thanks for introducing your project, which is an exciting long-term and large-scale effort. Would be interesting to hear about some of the insights you have gained so far. Hence, here’s a set of questions that I hope you can comment on.

Regarding the performance monitoring, what are the indicators you have applied to follow-up sanitation? What are your strategies for collecting data? Have you implemented any innovating ways of monitoring? This is a most relevant international matter today, since the Post-2015 process is ongoing with new Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) coming up soon. There is a need to develop indicators that actually measure the sustainability of sanitation systems and allow for feasible monitoring mechanisms.

I’m also interested to know more about your 2-3 family-shared toilets. What is your learning from this approach? For example, how do you group families? Or do you only involve relatives? How do they manage ownership and O&M? What type of sanitation systems are you implementing/considering?

Best regards,
Enabling environment Thu, 11 Sep 2014 15:03:44 +0000
Re: SanMark-CITY: Intelligent Design in Urban Sanitation Marketing- quick glimpse - by: esthapit
 Most of the tiger toilets installed are working fine
 All the enbiolets and biofil are working well

All three technologies : enbiolet, biofil and SunMar, are already in the market in other parts of the world and are used extensively. Only in Bangladesh, it is the first time and therefore this pilot phase is very important. Regarding the high cost that you have mentioned, as compared to the easily available toilet made of rings and slab, it is not only SunMar, but all three others which are quite expensive in Bangladesh. The greatest advantage of the selected technologies however that needs to be considered most is the convenience i.e. no odor, no/less pollution, longevity, easy maintenance etc. Furthermore, one of the main objectives of the project is to making the toilets with locally available materials, which will significantly reduce the cost of each type of technologies included in the project.

Please feel free to come back for further information and/or clarification.]]>
Enabling environment Thu, 04 Sep 2014 09:50:44 +0000
The Website in english and in french of the PSMBV. - by: Onasbv

Thank you to find below the link of the website in french and in english of the Program of Structuring of Fecal Sludge Market for the Benefit of poor households in Dakar (PSMBV).
You are most welcome in our website and you can find all the informations and the news about the PSMBV inside.

Good reception.

Aissatou Basse]]>
Enabling environment Wed, 03 Sep 2014 09:06:44 +0000
Re: Catalyzing Sanitation Businesses (Water for People, USA, Malawi, Uganda, India) - by: smunyana Enabling environment Sat, 30 Aug 2014 11:02:52 +0000 Re: Evidence-based sanitation advocacy in India to promote latrine use - by: SangitaVyas
You are right. In India, very few people have inexpensive, simple latrines. These types of latrines are much more common to find in other parts of the developing world, even in South Asia. In Bangladesh, it's very common to find simple pit latrines, the kinds that UNICEF/WHO classifies as "unimproved." It's virtually impossible to find these in India. In India, people either build expensive latrines which often have septic tanks. And if they can't afford that, then they build nothing at all. There is no such thing as the sanitation ladder here.

Yes, there needs to be much more focus on IEC. In the past financial year, very little of the IEC budget was spent. We need to be spending all of it.

Enabling environment Fri, 29 Aug 2014 05:42:56 +0000
Re: Evidence-based sanitation advocacy in India to promote latrine use - by: pkjha
As per the guidelines of NBA (earlier TSC) financial incentive will be provided after the construction and use of latrines. At policy level there is no problem in this regard. Main problem is almost complete lacking of monitoring (of construction and use of toilets) at the state and centre levels. Lack of awareness in rural areas is the most important issue. In such areas sanitation is not regarded as a felt need problem due to lack of knowledge, awareness and motivation. In some states like Haryana, in a short period, there has been appreciable sanitation coverage due to involvement of Women Self Help Groups. Many households constructed toilets without taking any financial support from the Government.
Lack of sanitation is mainly a social issue- not financial or technical. One can easily see several households having good houses and personal vehicles but without toilet. Increasing rate of cash subsidy of construction of toilets is also one of the deterrents of the programme. Such subsidy has made the program a supply driven approach. In 2011 rural sanitation coverage, as per the IMS data of the Ministry (as provided by the States) was over 70%. However, Census 2011 data showed only 31-32% coverage. Obviously there were considerable no. of missing/ unfinished construction/ wrongly located toilets, constructed under subsidy, not fit for use. Therefore, proper construction of toilets is equally important. Without having a toilet there is no question of its use. The IEC program of the Ministry needs to be monitored by the States with measurable deliverables.
Enabling environment Fri, 29 Aug 2014 03:29:35 +0000
Re: Evidence-based sanitation advocacy in India to promote latrine use - by: SangitaVyas
You pose an interesting question. The government doesn't focus on latrine use simply because all incentives point towards focusing on construction.

Local level bureaucrats prefer construction projects to behavior change campaigns because they are more profitable. It is easier to skim money off construction projects. Politicians prefer construction projects because they are very visible, and they can easily claim responsibility. Many local level politicians actually get their names written on the latrines that are built during their time in office. And to people who don't know much about sanitation in India, construction sounds like the obvious solution. Finally, construction is the status quo. And inertia gets in the way of changing it.

Only a politician or bureaucrat who really cares about eliminating open defecation would emphasize latrine use.]]>
Enabling environment Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:28:38 +0000
Re: Evidence-based sanitation advocacy in India to promote latrine use - by: ggalli Thanks, for this. Had already followed your great work and the SQUAT report, and shared it internally within my organisation.

I have a question for you or your colleagues. The topic is named 'evidence-based sanitation advocacy' yet you end your post by saying that the biggest challenge is 'convincing politicians to emphasize latrine use, rather than construction'. Can you explain me what the reasons are why it is so difficult to convince politicians in India even though you have produced good evidence to back up your claim?

I am asking because more and more I am wondering whether we are wasting our time in generating more data and evidence. Political decisions are not made on basis of data, but on pressure, money and power. Maybe it is time to switch our strategy and start to get more 'dirty' (pun intended).]]>
Enabling environment Fri, 22 Aug 2014 15:10:34 +0000
Evidence-based sanitation advocacy in India to promote latrine use - by: SangitaVyas
Today I would like to tell you about a sanitation grant by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation that I am involved with at the r.i.c.e. (Research Institute for Compassionate Economics):

Title of grant: SQUAT (Sanitation Quality, Use, Access, and Trends): Evidence based sanitation advocacy for India
Subtitle (more descriptive title): To promote evidence-based sanitation policy-making in India that can reduce open defecation and improve children’s health by promoting latrine use
Name of lead organization: Research Institute for Compassionate Economics (r.i.c.e.)
Primary contact at lead organization: Sangita Vyas
Grantee location: Amston, CT (Connecticut, USA)
Developing country where the research is being or will be tested: India
Start and end date: February 2013 – July 2015
Grant type: Global Development (e.g. Global Challenges Explorations, Reinvent the Toilet Challenge, Other)
Grant size in USD: $262,340 (as per grant database:

Short description of the project:

Open defecation imposes enormous costs on children’s health and human capital, and is exceptionally widespread in India. We believe that there is convincing evidence of the benefits for health and human capital of safe latrine use. What is needed now is (1) to convince policy-makers of this, and (2) a better understanding of the local political economy, social forces, and economic factors that constrain or promote latrine use.

Ultimately, our goal is to influence Indian policy, such that the government – at its various levels – might better pursue an end to open defecation, especially in rural India, which is r.i.c.e.’s focus. We note that we can only be a small part of this large process. However, many policy-makers still do not recognize sanitation as a top priority; others are missing opportunities to make programs more effective; and nobody fully understands, including we ourselves, how rural communities can be best encouraged to use latrines. Thus, there is a need for basic persuasion of the urgency of safe excreta disposal; for advocacy of more effective policies, based on latrine use, not construction; and for research into the social, institutional, and political mechanisms that might successfully promote latrine use.


Policy advocacy goals:

1. Sanitation as a policy priority. Although the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) has been a “flagship program” of the Indian government, there is still much scope for increasing the prominence of sanitation as a policy priority. A key part of this will be emphasizing the link between sanitation and stunting, commonly called “malnutrition.” Many activists who worry about children’s health advocate a “right to food;” others seek to promote medical care, or even access to water (rather than safe excreta disposal in particular); none of these promote the crucial public good of ending open defecation. Among those who do, there is debate over whether negative externalities imply that eradication of open defecation is necessary for a locality to see health effects.

2. Focus on latrine use, not construction. Too much of the policy discussion centers on building latrines, however building latrines has not significantly reduced open defecation over the past 15 years in India. Information, education, and latrine use promotion need to be the cornerstones of any successful program to end open defecation.

3. Central measurement of latrine use. Recognizing that any goal that is not measured is not achieved, the government should establish an independent, accountable mechanism of monitoring latrine use, not latrine construction.

4. Latrine use requires a ground staff. Rural sanitation teams at the block and district level require a new, dedicated staff responsible only for behavior change and promotion of latrine use, not for latrine construction.

o Conducting a new survey on sanitation attitudes and behaviors in rural north India
• SQUAT report based on findings
• Short contributions from many stakeholders
• “Launch party” conferences in Delhi and two state capitals (probably UP and Bihar, or maybe MP, three very poor Indian states where we have experience and connections)

o Conference jointly produced with the Delhi School of Economics and World Bank Water and Sanitation Programme about stunting of Indian children
o Newspaper articles authored by and not authored by rice staff, in English and Hindi press
o Continuing to meet with policy-makers in Delhi to advocate policy goals and report findings
o Meeting with 15-25 District Magistrates or District Panchayati Raj Officers (or similar local officers) note that this will work towards both research and advocacy goals
o Meeting with relevant state officials in at least two states
o Presentation at LBNAA (IAS academy)
o Encouraging other advocates (e.g. World Bank WSP, UNICEF) to cite our research and to promote our messages
o Offering to help the government design systems for useful monitoring data collection

Research or implementation partners: Delhi School of Economics

Links, further readings – results to date:

A policy brief summarizing the findings of the SQUAT Study can be found here:
SQUAT Study’s website:
r.i.c.e.’s website, the home of our blog:
NY Times article covering our research:
The Economist article covering our research:

Current state of affairs:

In August 2013, we organized a conference on stunting. Leading scholars of child height—economists, epidemiologists, nutritionists, and pediatricians—and government officials came together to discuss why children in India are so short? Height is an important indicator of overall health and human development because the same good health that helps a child grow tall can also help her grow smart. In presentation after presentation at the conference, sanitation stood out as an important part of this puzzle.

We have completed the data collection and entry for the SQUAT Study. Our working paper is available on the SQUAT Study’s website and is forthcoming in Economic and Political Weekly. The data was collected in villages in five states in India: Bihar, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. We found that rural households do not build inexpensive latrines of the sort that commonly reduce open defecation and save lives in Bangladesh, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. Many survey respondents‘ behavior revealed a preference for open defecation: over 40% of households with a working latrine had at least one member who defecated in the open. In the sample from the four largest states, more than half of people in households which owned a government latrine defecated in the open. We applied a demographic model of latrine use which predicted that if the government were to build a latrine for every rural household that lacked one, without changing sanitation preferences, most people in our sample in these states would nevertheless defecate in the open. Further evidence supports a preference for open defecation: many survey respondents reported that open defecation is more pleasurable and desirable than latrine use. Among people who defecated in the open, a majority report that widespread open defecation would be at least as good for child health as latrine use by everyone in the village.

Numerous publications have covered our research including the New York Times, The Economist, The Hindu, among others. Additionally, numerous opinion pieces authored by us have appeared in a number of Indian newspapers.

In June and July of 2014, we sent the findings of our research and policy proposals to promote latrine use to 230 members of parliament, 377 ministry officials, and 389 district collectors by mail and email.

Biggest successes so far:

Sanitation has become a policy priority under the new government. We completed quantitative and qualitative research that explores sanitation attitudes and behaviors in north India perhaps more than any other study has. Our research and messages have been well-covered in the media.

Main challenges / frustration:

Convincing politicians who make policy decisions on sanitation to emphasize latrine use, rather than construction, in India’s sanitation policy.

We are happy to answer any questions you may have here on the forum.

Enabling environment Fri, 22 Aug 2014 10:16:16 +0000
Re: SanMark-CITY: Intelligent Design in Urban Sanitation Marketing- quick glimpse - by: JKMakowka
I am just a bit concerned that the choice of technology options will limit the analytical outcome of this; it looks like it will be a case of comparing apples with oranges as the systems are so different in their method of operation, costs and level of development.

For example the tiger-toilet is (as far as I know) still quite early in development and only a hand full of working examples exist. The functioning principle of the Enbiolet seems to be based on what is also sold microbial pit-additives and sanitation expert opinion is that this is largely a scam (i.e. no need to empty is unrealistic). I can't really comment on the biofil as too little info is given, but the Sun-Mar seems way out of reach in regards to affordability for the targeted Bangladeshi urban slum inhabitant.]]>
Enabling environment Wed, 20 Aug 2014 13:41:10 +0000
Re: SanMark-CITY: Intelligent Design in Urban Sanitation Marketing- quick glimpse - by: esthapit
Title of grant: SanMark-CITY
• Subtitle: SanMark-CITY: Intelligent Design in Urban Sanitation Marketing - Fostering Adaptation and Evolution
• Name of lead organization: ICCO Cooperation
• Primary contact at lead organization: Leonard Zijlstra
• Grantee location: The Netherlands
• Developing country where the research is being or will be tested: Bangladesh

Short description of the project:

The Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) report 2012 of the World Bank highlights the continuing corrosive effect that poor sanitation and public health has on the Bangladeshi economy. Health-related losses are estimated at over 4 billion dollars, the equivalent of 5% of GDP. (Economic Impacts of Inadequate Sanitation in Bangladesh, WSP 2012), and human waste still drives forty-nine distinct disease vectors throughout Bangladesh.

Most of the existing sanitation interventions in Bangladesh have been based on pit latrines and septic tanks. It appears that some households were offered little choice in terms of the type of system that was installed. Neither of these technologies are particularly sustainable from a technical point of view in the absence of good faecal sludge management systems. A survey of several sanitation projects in 2010 showed that in many cases pit filling and operation and maintenance were concerns for households. Further, in crowded slum areas there may not be sufficient space to install latrines and service their emptying. This report highlighted the lack of sustainable sanitation options for slum areas, and high-water table and flood-prone districts.

Technology and business driven solutions have a major role to play in helping to deliver better sanitation for the poor in Bangladesh. This project includes to explore the potential of four toilet technologies to overcome some of the challenges faced in delivering a sustainable impact on this problem. It takes a market-led approach, and will focus on the role of the private sector to develop commercial ventures which are sustainable and scalable as the implementation vehicles. In line with lessons learned about inclusive innovation, it recognises that development and implementation requires collaboration with a number of partners including NGOs, research organizations, government authorities, and building on existing service providers.

Drawing on its growing thought leadership in combining sanitation technology, ICCO Cooperation along with two other implementing partners i.e. International Development Enterprises (iDE) and Dushtha Shasthya Kendra (DSK) proposes to “adapt and evolve” four promising SanTechs similar to those developed through the Gates Foundation’s Reinvent the Toilet Challenges (RTTC) and Grand Challenges Explorations (GCE) to the realities and market systems of urban Bangladesh through the “Sanitation Marketing for Urban Onsite Sanitation in Bangladesh”, or “SanMark-CITY” project.

SanMark-CITY will explore critical gap that currently exist in introducing, adapting, and sustaining affordable sanitation technologies at scale for slums in urban Bangladesh and will inform key stakeholders in the public, private and nongovernmental sectors on how best to support the diffusion of such technologies for maximum impact.

The project has four objectives and through achieving these objectives, it would be possible to provide alternative toilet options to the poor slum dwellers of Bangladesh, which are affordable, environmentally sound, hygienic and approved by the institutes like Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (BUET) and Department of Public Health Engineering (DPHE). Through the business promotion interventions of the project, tested and approved toilets would be easily available in the market, which will enable the slum dwellers to get access to those. Besides, through direct involvement of DPHE in the project, it would be possible to make the toilets available at the Municipality level throughout the country in future.


The overall objective of the SanMark-CITY project is to successfully adapt and develop commercialization channels for 4 improved on-site sanitation technologies for urban areas of Bangladesh.

These sanitation technologies are (for details see flyer in post above):
  • Tiger Toilet - see here on the forum:

  • Sun-Mar

  • Enbiolet

  • [li]Biofil Digester


    1. To test four selected toilet technologies and localize design to demonstrate their potential to meet the sanitation needs of urban poor communities in Bangladesh in sustainable, affordable way
    2. To develop business model of viable toilet technologies
    3. To explore and identify the commercial capacity and supply chain in Bangladesh to meet the demands of consumers, suppliers and large-scale sanitation programs
    4. To facilitate knowledge management, dissemination and roll-out on a large scale

    Start and end date: 1 January 2014 and 30 June 2015

    Grant type: Global Development Grant Number OPP1097054

    Size: USD 699,587

    Research or implementation partners: International Development Enterprises (iDE) and Dushtha Shasthya Kendra (DSK)

    Links, further readings – results to date:

    Current state of affairs:

    Project is being implemented according to the plan. Few adjustments had to be made, which were done through consultation with the responsible Program Officer of the foundation.

    Biggest successes so far:
    The project is just above 6 months old. Updates will follow shortly

    Main challenges / frustration: There is no such issue yet.]]>
    Enabling environment Wed, 20 Aug 2014 08:31:47 +0000
    Performance Assessment Systems (PAS) for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation in India (CEPT University, India) - by: aasimmansuri
    Here are some details on the Performance Assessment System (PAS) Project that aims to develop appropriate methods and tools to measure, monitor and improve delivery of water and sanitation in urban India. The Project has three major components of performance measurement, monitoring and improvement. It covers all urban local bodies (ULBs) in Gujarat and Maharashtra.

    Looking forward to discussions on the forum.

    Title of grant: Performance Assessment Systems (PAS) for Urban Water Supply and Sanitation

    Name of lead organization: CEPT University

    Primary contact at lead organization: Dr. Meera Mehta / Dr. Dinesh Mehta

    Grantee location: Ahmedabad, Gujarat , INDIA

    Developing country where the research is being or will be tested: INDIA

    Short description of the project:
    Lack of reliable and updated information about operational and financial performance of urban water supply and sanitation services poses a key challenge in improving access to the poor and increasing efficiency of service delivery in India. New investments in urban water and sanitation are made, without proper performance assessment of existing system

    The Performance Assessment System (PAS) Project has developed appropriate methods and tools to measure, monitor and improve delivery of water and sanitation in urban India. The Project has three major components of performance measurement, monitoring and improvement. It covers all urban local bodies (ULBs) in Gujarat and Maharashtra. The project team has worked with the state and local governments to institutionalize the performance assessment system (PAS). More details on

    In recent years, the project team has focused on sanitation related activities. These include developing measurement systems and indicators for on-site sanitation, preparing and implementing city sanitation plans, developing tools for assessing sanitation improvement actions, and developing mechanisms for financing urban sanitation

    The main aim of the proposed project is to develop and test, through implementation in two states in India, a performance assessment system for urban water supply and sanitation. The working hypothesis of this project is that a well performing and sustainable PAS will make service delivery more efficient, equitable and sustainable.

    Objectives: The key objectives of the project are :

    o Objective 1 : To develop and implement a performance measurement system for regular and reliable UWSS information
    o Objective 2: To analyze and share results on a regular basis with ULBs, state government agencies and other stakeholders through performance monitoring and dissemination system for use in decision making and providing incentives.
    o Objective 3: To facilitate development of performance improvement plans by urban local bodies with support from state government, NGOs and private sector.
    o Objective 4: To develop an assessment framework and financially feasible planning approach for citywide sanitation

    Start and end date: 1st December, 2008 to 30th June, 2016

    Grant type: Research grant (see here in BMGF database :

    Grant size: USD 9,840,056

    Funding for this research currently ongoing: yes

    Research or implementation partners: Urban Management Centre (UMC), Ahmedabad, Gujarat and All India Institute of Local Self Government (AIILSG), Mumbai, Maharashtra

    Links, further readings – results to date:

    Current state of affairs:
    Well established systems of information and tools for performance monitoring and improvement have been set up in both the states. Apart from this during the course of the work in both the states, it was found that in nearly two-thirds of cities, on-site sanitation is practiced, and very little information is available for this aspect. Thus in January 2012, CEPT started to work on Sanitation related issues, focusing on sanitation assessment, developing sanitation plans and looking at governance of sanitation at local level. During the past years, various activities have been initiated on sanitation by the CEPT team, viz. development of a citywide sanitation assessment framework, preparation of city sanitation plans, exploring private sector engagement to improve service delivery and studies on regulation of onsite sanitation systems.

    Biggest successes so far:
    Over the five years period, CEPT has worked closely with state governments of Gujarat and Maharashtra and over 400+ cities in these two states to generate information. There is now a well-established system of information and tools for performance monitoring and performance improvement have been developed. State PAS/SLB Cells have been formed in both states for regular performance monitoring and support preparation of PIPs. They have actively coordinated data collection.

    The PAS web portal ( is fully operational and provides public access to performance information for last 5 years for 419 ULBs in the two states. Recently, information from other Indian States has been added. I tis now the largest information base for urban water and sanitation in India. PAS has also strengthened the data visualization component by developing interactive dashboards. These dashboards enable review of state and local level indicators by State and local Governments to monitor performance

    Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India has designated CEPT as National Technical Support Centre for benchmarking of water and sanitation. The PAS team has provided training to other States to adopt the PAS framework. PAS will also coordinate and support activities of the National Steering Committee on benchmarking water and sanitation

    A decision-support model for Performance Improvement Plans (PIPs) developed by PAS project team was used for city sanitation plan (CSP) exercises. The PIP model simulates outcomes and financial implications of a comprehensive set of actions to improve performance of water and sanitation services in municipalities. The model links capital and operational costs of improvement actions with overall municipal finance. It identifies financing options and tariff revisions for various options. A dashboard of the model enables quick comparison of major options.

    Challenges :

    Onsite Sanitation system: Most cities in India have either full on-site sanitation systems or mixed system with both sewerage and on-site system. However, there are no performance indicators (or benchmarks) to assess on-site sanitation. PAS team is working on developing a set of performance indicators across the sanitation value chain for non-networked cities. However, the information is not readily available with service providers.

    Moving away from community/shared toilets: Moving to Open Defecation Free (ODF) cities has emerged as an important agenda our sanitation work. PAS Project has provided support to a number of cities in developing plans for making their cities ODF. Current approach in India is to provide “community toilets”. Our work suggests that this is not an appropriate strategy, as it has high costs –both financial and administrative – to the local government. Instead providing a toilet for each family has a far greater benefit. This idea is being tested in two cities, where the Local City Council have adopted a programme that focuses on facilitating family or group toilets (shared by 2 or 3 families) and agreed to provide partial funds form council budget. Will this programme work?

    Sanitation Financing: The current mindset of most local governments is to wait for grants from state or national governments to undertake sanitation projects. This has been the fate of over 200 city sanitation plans in India that were prepared with expectation of large grants from the national government. However, this has not happened. Instead of large-scale centralized systems, we have advocated on-site sanitation. An advantage in such a system is that the investment costs are shared by public agencies and households. But how can cities and household mobilise additional resources? We are working with cities to explore PPPs for Integrated fecal sludge management (IFSM) and consumer finance for own toilets. We are also working at state and national levels to explore mechanisms of “Urban Sanitation Fund” to leverage private funding from corporates (CSR) and social investors (foundations, high net worth individuals, etc.)]]>
    Enabling environment Mon, 18 Aug 2014 07:15:48 +0000
    SanMark-CITY: Intelligent Design in Urban Sanitation Marketing (ICCO Cooperation, Bangladesh) - by: esthapit
    ICCO Cooperation, together with our partners iDE and DSK,is implementing the SanMark City Project funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. The project has been basically designed to explore the critical gap that currently exists in introducing, adapting and sustaining affordable on-site sanitation technologies on a large scale. The project aims to successfully adapt and develop commercialization channels for 4 improved on-site sanitation technologies for urban areas of Bangladesh.

    The flyer is attached and we will share with you the progress of the project shortly.

    Thanks, Eliza]]>
    Enabling environment Wed, 13 Aug 2014 11:37:20 +0000
    Re: Wanting a better way to test pathogen inactivation? Us too! Can you help me crowdsource a better way? - by: BJimenezC
    Enabling environment Fri, 25 Jul 2014 21:10:27 +0000