Data acquisition and field support for sanitation projects (UKZN, South Africa)
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Variation in VIP latrine sludge contents 31 Jul 2012 15:48 #2954

  • ChrisBuckley
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Greetings,

I have added the results on an on-going study into the nature and composition of the contents of VIP latrines in Durban, South Africa to the Resources page [of the former Sanitation Network]. This work was carried out by Tunde Bakare a PhD student with the Pollution Research Group.

Variation in VIP latrine sludge contents

BF Bakare*, KM Foxon, CJ Brouckaert and CA Buckley


Pollution Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa

Abstract


This study investigated variations in the characteristics of the sludge content from different ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines and variation in these characteristics at specific depths within each pit. Faecal sludge from 16 VIP latrines within the eThekwini Municipality was collected and laboratory characterisation including moisture content, total and volatile solids, chemical oxygen demand, and aerobic biodegradability was performed. Sludge samples were collected from 4 specific depths within each pit investigated. The laboratory characterisation performed showed that none of the VIP latrines investigated had the same sludge characteristics, and that within a pit sludge characteristics varied with increasing depth in the pit. This supports the motivating hypothesis that, depending on household habits and local environmental conditions, there should be considerable variation in the organic contents, moisture content, non-biodegradable content and microbial population between different pits. This variation with increasing depth within a pit is expected, since fresh material is constantly being added to the pit overlaying older material which might have undergone a certain degree of stabilisation.

Keywords: stabilisation, household habits, aerobic biodegradability, sustainable

dx.doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v38i4.2

Available on website www.wrc.org.za
ISSN 0378-4738 (Print) = Water SA Vol. 38 No. 4 July 2012
ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 38 No. 4 July 2012 479
Chris Buckley
Pollution Research Group
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Durban
South Africa
prg.ukzn.ac.za/
Last Edit: 20 Dec 2012 22:56 by muench.

Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines 28 Sep 2012 10:52 #2957

  • ChrisBuckley
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Greetings,

I have added the draft of a paper submitted to Water SA entitled Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines to the ‘Resources’ tab [of the former Sanitation Network]. It is based on data obtained from pits in Durban, South Africa.

Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines

C.J. Brouckaert, K.M. Foxon and K. Wood.
Pollution Research Group, School of Engineering, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041,
South Africa, (E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it )

Abstract.


Excreta (faeces and urine) that is deposited into a pit latrine are subject to biodegradation,
which substantially reduces the volume that remains. On the other hand, other matter that
is not biodegradable usually finds its way into pit latrines. The net filling rate is thus
dependent on both the rate of addition of material and its composition. A simple material
balance model is presented which represents the faecal sludge as mixture of biodegradable
organic material, un-biodegradable organic material and inorganic material. Measurements
made on two pits in eThekwini, South Africa were used to determine parameters for the
model. Model predictions were then compared with data from 15 other pits in the same
area and filling rate data from previous South African studies. These comparisons
indicated that the pits studied exhibited relatively low filling rates resulting from orderly
disposal practices. The average composition of the pit (COD, biodegradable material and
inorganic fraction) changes with age, which will impact on any subsequent sludge
treatment process. Pit filling rates are greatly affected by the disposal of solid waste in
addition to the faecal material. For the pits studied, the model predicts that the filling time
could have been extended from 15 y to over 25 y if all solid waste had been excluded from
the pit.

Keywords: Pit latrine, filling rate, biodegradation, solid waste disposal
Chris Buckley
Pollution Research Group
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Durban
South Africa
prg.ukzn.ac.za/
Last Edit: 20 Dec 2012 22:53 by muench.

Data acquisition and field support for sanitation projects (UKZN, South Africa) 05 Feb 2013 10:47 #3370

  • ChrisBuckley
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Here comes the "formal" introduction of my research grant under the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge (RTTC) Round 1:

Title of grant: Data and design: mineralization of sanitation wastes from community ablution blocks

Subtitle (more descriptive title): Development of a three-way split pedestal with trash separation and extrusion of solid material

Name of lead organization: University of KwaZulu-Natal

Partner organisations:
Hering www.heringinternational.co.za
Envirosan www.envirosan.co.za
Partners in Development www.pid.co.za/
eThekwini Municipality www.Durban.gov.za
Water Research Commission www.wrc.org.za

Primary contact at lead organization: Chris Buckley

Grantee location: Durban, South Africa

Developing country where the research is being or will be tested: It is already being tested in South Africa.

Short description of the project:
The conceptual flowsheet was to produce three excreta containing streams (urine, washwater and a relatively dry solids). The scale would be a community ablution block serving 75 households (as is currently used in informal settlements in Durban). The solid stream would be separated into extrudeable pellets and detritus. The pellets would be dried and incinerated to ash. The urine stream would be filtered through a microfiltration membrane (under gravity) to remove colloidal material thereafter forward osmosis would be used to concentrate the saline components. The osmotic draw solution would be a recycled ammonium carbonate stream (urea decomposes to ammonia and carbon dioxide). The excess energy from the combustion of the faeces would be used to drive the Forward Osmosis system and to recover ammonia and carbon dioxide. The washwater would be separated by a membrane process. The concentrate would join the faecal stream and the filtrate would join the urine stream.

The project developed a three-way splitting pedestal in conjunction with Envirosan. An extrusion device was developed (based on the process used by eThekwini Water and sanitation in their LaDePa process) to separate faeces from non-faecal material. The viscosity of fresh faeces (with different moisture contents) was determined under a range of sheer rates, temperatures and pre-shearing conditions. A drying rig was constructed to determine the rate of drying of different geometry pellets and the conditions needed for pasteurisation of the pellets. This rig was not commissioned before the end of the project. No progress was made with the treatment of the washwater or the urine.

Goal(s): The goal of this project was to design, prototype, and evaluate a toilet system that can safely dispose of pollutants and recover valuable materials such as water and carbon dioxide from urine in community bathroom blocks.

Objectives:
The project was based on conditions pertaining to the conditions where the investigators are based. The objective of the project was to process the excreta from a community ablution block in an informal settlement, which would serve 75 households with an average of 5 people per dwell. (About 1 000 000 people live in informal settlements in Durban and are in the process of being served with community ablution blocks.) Further, the project builds on the experiences and developments of our project partners who are all involved in addressing the needs of poor unserved communities.

Start and end date: 20 June 2011 to September 30, 2012

Funding for this research currently ongoing? An application is in the pipeline for Phase II funding

Research or implementation partners: Partners in Development, Envirosan, Hering, eThekwini Water and Sanitation, Water Research Commission

Contacts, links, further readings: Factsheets, 7 posters and one powerpoint presentation are available here in the SuSanA library:
www.susana.org/lang-en/library?view=ccbk...p;type=2&id=1707

Please note that some scientific papers are currently in the making (they will be published in Water SA), so they cannot be shared yet. MSc theses are also not yet completed.

1-minute video about the concept (produced just after the Reinvent the Toilet Fair in Seattle, August 2012):
Chris Buckley
Pollution Research Group
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Durban
South Africa
prg.ukzn.ac.za/
Last Edit: 20 May 2013 21:16 by muench.

Re: Mineralization of sanitation wastes from community ablution blocks (South Africa, Chris Buckley) 21 Feb 2013 17:52 #3543

  • muench
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Dear Chris,

Thanks for making these interesting research results and concepts available. Those 7 posters that you shared are very well done and give an interesting overview.
(they can be accessed here in the SuSanA library:
www.susana.org/lang-en/library?view=ccbk...p;type=2&id=1707 )

I am a bit confused though. The goal of the project was very ambitious, given the very short time span of the project of just over a year! I suppose the time was just enough to develop concepts and carry out some initial tests, but now the funding has ended and what comes now? Is the further development currently on hold?

My other questions are:
  1. To what extent have you achieved the goal of the project?
  2. What has been the biggest frustrations to date?
  3. What have been the biggest successes? (which of the 7 posters actually describes the most promising aspect of the research project?)
  4. What have been enabling factors to make this project a success?
  5. When can your technology be brought to scale and under which conditions?
  6. Where do you see its biggest niche or application area?
  7. And what about the costs? What would the toilet or the ablution block cost in capital and in O&M if it was rolled out on a larger scale? (I know that the Gates Foundation had made exctremely low limits on allowable costs - was this achievable in the end?

(reminder about the costs:
”maximum costs of $0.05 per person and day; this goal refers to total costs, including capital and operating costs.”
, see also here a previous post about this:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-oth...g-capital-costs#2928)

I look forward to your responses. It is good to see that you have assembled such a big group of partners as well (see above the partner list in Chris' post). Hopefully they could also get engaged in this discussion.

Regards,
Elisabeth
Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
Independent consultant
Frankfurt, Germany
This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Twitter: @EvMuench
Website: www.ostella.de
Member of SuSanA (www.susana.org)
Last Edit: 21 Feb 2013 17:58 by muench.

Re: Mineralization of sanitation wastes from community ablution blocks (South Africa, Chris Buckley) 15 Apr 2013 11:31 #4147

  • SusanMercer
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Dear Elisabeth,
Below please find a response from Chris Buckley to your questions posed in your post:

I understand your confusion. I will provide the long answer…

The Pollution Research Group (together with eThekwini Water and Sanitation) is involved in a number of projects funded by the Gates Foundation because Durban is a popular research site. The projects include:
• University of Maryland – Menstrual Management and Sanitation. Path and SEI are co-partners
• Eawag – VUNA: Nutrients from Urine

The PRG also has consultancies:
- Mechanical Properties of Faecal Sludges. This project is to produce data on sludges from traditional pit latrines, VIP latrines, UDDTs, pour-flush toilets, community ablution block toilets and School toilets.
- Economic Evaluation of Faecal Sludge Disposal Routes: This project aims to develop a versatile economic model to enable a total cost comparison between the processing of the contents of Ventilated Pit Latrines ("VIP'') in order to:
(i) Sell Latrine Dehydration and Pasteurisation ("LaDePa") agricultural pellets and
(ii)Sell/ produce ash from a total combustion process.

At the end of the RTTC Phase 1, initial tests had been carried out to characterise the input waste streams and the processing of segregated faecal and solid waste and urine streams. A prototype pedestal was designed and tested on a laboratory scale, but was not taken further. A proposal for Phase II is being processed. It expands on the provision of data on different sanitation streams, supporting other RTTC grantees in the field testing of their prototypes, facilitating field and laboratory studies by other Grantees in Durban and adjacent countries, providing laboratory access to work with excreta samples. In addition, generic processes such as pumping, extrusion, filtration, drying and pasteurisation on excreta samples will be undertake. Generic transformation models will be produced.

In response to your particular questions:

1. To what extent have you achieved the goal of the project?

The prototype pedestal was built and tested, but was not developed any further. A limited number of analyses and tests were carried out. These will continue under the second phase.

2. What has been the biggest frustrations to date?

- Lack of suitable project team members from the start of the project – recruitment of students and staff was only possible after the start which delayed the work
- Lack of awareness as the amount of time that would be required for setting up collection procedures which resulted in delays for the rest of the project
- External laboratories are unwilling to test these types of samples which placed an additional burden on undertaking physical and chemical analyses in-house; and the setting up of specialised equipment

3. What have been the biggest successes? (which of the 7 posters actually describes the most promising aspect of the research project?)

- Data gathering has been very valuable
- The pit scanner proved to be invaluable in undertaking pit-filling investigations
- The sludge extruder focused attention on the large amount of non-excreta material in a pit
- The recognition that source separation provides many processing advantages was useful to other grantees;

4. What have been enabling factors to make this project a success?

The active assistance from eThekwini Water and Sanitation has been crucial to the success of this work

5. When can your technology be brought to scale and under which conditions?

It will not be brought to scale

6. Where do you see its biggest niche or application area?

Our change in focus to data collection (and the rapid publication in open access journals such as Water SA will ensure that the missing data reaches a wide audience)

7. And what about the costs? What would the toilet or the ablution block cost in capital and in O&M if it was rolled out on a larger scale? (I know that the Gates Foundation had made exctremely low limits on allowable costs - was this achievable in the end?

We did not examine costs at this stage of the technology development

I trust that this answers your questions? Please let me know if you need further information.

Below please find links to two YouTube videos on the work carried out by:
  • Konstantina Velkushanova on the Mechanical Properties of Faecal Sludge, and
  • Ruth Cottingham on the Reinventing the toilet at UKZN and Properties of Faecal Sludge.


Both were presented at the Second International Conference on Faecal Sludge Management (FSM2) that took place in Durban, South Africa during 29 to 31 October 2012.



Susan Mercer
Project Co-ordinator
Pollution Research Group
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Durban, South Africa
Last Edit: 17 Apr 2013 09:36 by muench. Reason: improved formatting

Mineralization of sanitation wastes from community ablution blocks (UKZN, South Africa) 01 May 2013 23:34 #4288

  • ChrisBuckley
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In order to give you all a bit more information "to chew on" for this grant that we carried out at our university in Durban, please find attached the final report with all the results for Phase 1. This report was submitted to the Foundation in November 2012.

Please let me know if you have any questions. I would be happy to answer them.

This attachment is hidden for guests. Please log in or register to see it.


Or see here in the SuSanA library (document number 16):
www.susana.org/lang-en/library/library?v...p;type=2&id=1707

Regards,
Chris
Chris Buckley
Pollution Research Group
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Durban
South Africa
prg.ukzn.ac.za/
Last Edit: 27 Jun 2013 11:19 by muench.

Re: Data acquisition and field support for sanitation projects (UKZN, South Africa) 15 Jul 2013 10:07 #5045

  • SusanMercer
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Here is the "formal" introduction of the Pollution Research Groups research grant under the Reinvent the Toilet Challenge (RTTC) Round 1 (Phase 2):

Data Acquisition and Field Support for Sanitation Projects

Name of lead organization: University of KwaZulu-Natal

Partner organisations:eThekwini Municipality www.Durban.gov.za

Primary contact at lead organisation: Chris Buckley

Grantee location: Durban, South Africa

Grant type and size: Reinvent the Toilet Challenge (RTTC), Round 1 Phase 2. Value of grant: USD 898,150

Start and end date: 15 May 2013 to 31 July 2014

Background:
The project awarded to the Pollution Research Group builds on the knowledge, strengths and experience gained by the team during the Phase 1 implementation. The objective is to characterise physical and chemical properties of excreta streams from dry on‐site sanitation systems or from decentralized low‐water consuming sanitation systems. The data will be passed to other grantees for use in their research.
Assistance will be provided to other BMGF grantees in establishing and evaluating their prototypes in Durban, and providing a support of their work by:
  • obtaining experimental data of a range of excreta streams,
  • undertaking generic process investigations on selected excreta streams,
  • developing process models of material flows and transformations,
  • facilitating field trials for BMGF grantees in Durban, and
  • obtaining data from other countries (either field or from prototypes) in the last few months of the project.

The Pollution Research Group is also able to provide the following facilities for any grantees willing to visit Durban:
  • Office space within the Pollution Research Group
  • Use of the Pollution Research Group’s laboratory and pilot areas
  • Access to field sites under the control of the eThekwini Municipality (Water and Sanitation Division).

Both fundamental characteristic data and operational data will be obtained to support the design of generic processing units which can be applied by other BMGF grantees in the design and evaluation of their particular processes. The output is a set of simplified process models and the combining of these models to support prototype development.

The specific tests include:
  • Lab testing of chemical, physical and mechanical properties of sludges from different sanitation facilities, such as: solids and moisture contents, pH, organic and nutrient contents (P, K, N), thermal conductivity, calorific value, specific heat and volume settlement index;
  • Pumping: the density and rheological properties of sludges and slurries;
  • Pelletisation: extrusion properties of sludges;
  • Drying: drying curves of sludges under a range of conditions (temperature, pressure, humidity);
  • Combustion: minimum temperature to prevent smoking and odour generation;
  • Vapour / liquid equilibrium: data for urine under different conditions;
  • Evaporation: concentrating urine to determine the quality of the distillate and fouling rate of the heat exchange surfaces;
  • Filtration: permeability and particle size analysis (0.01µm to 2100 µm) of faeces;
  • Membrane processing: separation using microfiltration, nanofiltration and forward osmosis for a range of feed streams.

The tests will be repeated with different types of feed material. Typical waste streams that are worked with are fresh faeces; sludges from Ventilated Pit Latrines (VIPS), Urine Diversion Dehydration Toilets (UDDTs), Community Ablution Blocks (CABs) and School Toilets; and urine.

This current project also links into a number of other research projects being carried out within the Pollution Research Group including:
  • Mechanical Properties of Faecal Sludge (BMGF funded project)
  • Economic Evaluation of Faecal Sludge Disposal Routes (BMGF funded Project)
  • Promoting Sanitation and Nutrient Recovery through Urine Separation (in collaboration with EAWAG through a BMGF funded project - VUNA)
  • Characterisation of on-site Sanitation Material and Products: VIP Latrines and Pour Flush Toilets (funded by the South African Water Research Commission)
  • An assessment of Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS) as a sanitation solution for housing developments not linked to the sewer (funded by BORDA)
  • An assessment of the use of wastewater from Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Systems (DEWATS) for agricultural purposes (undertaken by the University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Agriculture, Earth and Environmental Sciences and funded by the South African Water Research Commission)
  • Modelling of the anaerobic digestion process (funded by the South African Water Research Commission)

Survey of needs:
One of the first objectives of the project is to establish the requirements of other BMGF grantees in terms of data, field visits / work and laboratory work. In order to do this, a preliminary survey questionnaire will be sent to for completion on-line (Survey Monkey) and a link to a drop-box folder provided which will contain the following documentation:
  • A more detailed questionnaire on the grantees requirements in terms of data generation, field visits, field work and laboratory work;
  • A Laboratory Manual providing an overview of all equipment and tests that can be carried out in the laboratories, together with a list of health and safety requirements;
  • A Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) Manual with all the relevant SOP information, including those for health and safety in the laboratory and in the field;
  • A disclaimer that needs to be signed by all researchers planning to undertake work in the Pollution Research Group laboratories;
  • The ethical clearance requirements from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (please also refer to your contract with the BMGF); and
  • An overview of the field visits that can be undertaken within the eThekwini Municipal area.

Project Team:
The Pollution Research Group RTTC project team is headed up by Chris Buckley with overall project management being carried out by Susan Mercer and Konstantina (Tina) Velkushanova. Support is provided by an administrator, a laboratory manager and technicians, a workshop manager, a sampler for field work and a number of students registered for their MScEng degrees (and managed by a postdoc).

All research is carried out in close co-operation with the eThekwini Municipality, Water and Sanitation Division (EWS) who are sub-grantees to this project whereby the time of key personnel is budgeted into the project.
Susan Mercer
Project Co-ordinator
Pollution Research Group
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Durban, South Africa
Last Edit: 11 Feb 2014 09:41 by muench.

Modelling the filling rate in pit latrines 30 Jul 2013 21:06 #5177

  • ChrisBuckley
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Modelling the filling rate of pit latrines

CJ Brouckaert*, KM Foxon and K Wood

Pollution Research Group

School of Engineering

University of KwaZulu-Natal

Durban

South Africa


ABSTRACT
Excreta (faeces and urine) that are deposited into a pit latrine are subject to biodegradation, which substantially reduces the volume that remains. On the other hand, other matter that is not biodegradable usually finds its way into pit latrines. The net filling rate is thus dependent on both the rate of addition of material and its composition. A simple material balance model is presented which represents the faecal sludge as a mixture of biodegradable organic material, un-biodegradable organic material and inorganic material. Measurements made on 2 pits in eThekwini, South Africa, were used to determine parameters for the model. Model predictions were then compared with data from 15 other pits in the same area and filling rate data from previous South African studies, which exhibit a 20th to 80th percentile range of 200 to 453 ℓ∙pit−1∙yr−1. These comparisons indicated that the pits studied exhibited relatively low filling rates resulting from orderly disposal practices. The average composition of the pit (COD, biodegradable material and inorganic fraction) changes with age, which will impact on any subsequent sludge treatment process. Pit filling rates are greatly affected by the disposal of solid waste in addition to the faecal material. For the pits studied, the model predicts that the filling time could have been extended from 15 years to over 25 years if all solid waste had been excluded from the pit.
Keywords: Pit latrine, filling rate, biodegradation, solid waste disposal

dx.doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v39i4.15
Available on website www.wrc.org.za
ISSN 0378-4738 (Print) = Water SA Vol. 39 No. 4 July 2013
562 ISSN 1816-7950 (On-line) = Water SA Vol. 39 No. 4 July 2013
Chris Buckley
Pollution Research Group
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Durban
South Africa
prg.ukzn.ac.za/

Photos about research facilities at PRG group (University KwaZulu-Natal, Durban) 25 Jan 2014 09:18 #7105

  • SusanMercer
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Greetings all,

I would like to provide some further information on the services and activities offered by the University of the KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) through the Pollution Research Group (PRG) together with eThekwini Water and Sanitation (EWS) under our BMGF grant.

The eThekwini Municipality in Durban, South Africa is home to a wide variety of sanitation technologies and is therefore an ideal environment in which to conduct research into the optimization of sanitation services. EWS is responsible for the provision of water and sanitation services to more than 3.7 million people within the eThekwini municipal boundaries, which includes both urban and rural areas.

As of November 2013, there are in the region of 35 000 ventilated improved pit latrines (VIPs), 85 000 urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs) and 520 community ablution blocks (CABs). A research facility has recently been established at Newlands Mashu (north of Durban) in order to investigate the use of a decentralized wastewater treatment system and the reuse of treated effluent for agricultural purposes; the processing of urine to produce struvite; and the optimization of UDDT design. EWS undertakes to empty the VIP latrines on a 5-year cycle and has developed a pelletizing machine (LaDePa) to process this waste.

As outlined in my previous post, we are able to undertake various laboratory analyses and provide access to the above on-site sanitation systems for sampling, analysis and field testing of prototypes. Other Grantees are welcome to take advantage of the data results that we have collated to date, as well as to request further data sets, or visit Durban to experience the “Sanitation Tour” and spend some time in our laboratories and in the field.

To date, we have provided assistance to the following Grantees, either through provision of data, collaboration on research projects, field testing or hosting representatives in our laboratories:
• Beaumont Design
• University of Toronto
• Delft University of Technology
• Research Triangle Institute
• Oklahoma State University
• Plymouth Marine Laboratory
• Santec
• North Carolina State University
• University of the West of England, Bristol
• Duke University
• Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
• Asian Institute of Technology
• Cranfield University
• University of Colorado
• Janicki Industries
• Climate Foundation
• Cranfield University
• Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG)
• University of Toronto
• Sanergy (Nairobi)
• University College London

Below are some pictures providing an indication of the various types of sanitation systems in eThekwini, as well as some photographs of our laboratory facilities. Further information is provided in the two attached documents: Sanitation Tour (which provides an overview of the types of sites that can be visited) and Equipment Portfolio (providing a more detailed description of the laboratory equipment).

Figure 1: Sanitation systems in eThekwini (clockwise from top left): LaDePa pelletizer; VIP emptying; water reuse for agriculture; UDDT and old pit latrine; community ablution blocks; emptying of UDDT vault
picture1.jpg


Figure 2: View of the Newlands Mashu Research facility
picture2.jpg


Figure 3: Inside the basement laboratory at the Pollution Research Group
picture3.jpg


Figure 4: Laboratory-scale pelletiser machine in the PRG laboratories
picture4.jpg


Figure 5: Staff and students in the PRG
picture5.jpg



We are also in the process of launching a web site for the PRG, but in the meantime you can access our University page through the following link: chemeng.ukzn.ac.za/ResearchGroups/PollutionResearchGroup.aspx

Chris Buckley (UKZN-PRG), Tina Velkushanova (UKZN-PRG), Teddy Gounden (EWS) and myself (UKZN-PRG) will be attending the BMGF Toilet Fair in Delhi (India) in March (20-22 March), so please come and visit our stand to learn more about what we can offer if you are also at that fair.

Kind regards
Susan
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Susan Mercer
Project Co-ordinator
Pollution Research Group
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Durban, South Africa
Last Edit: 25 Jan 2014 11:18 by muench.

Re: Data acquisition and field support for sanitation projects (UKZN, South Africa) - Web page development 13 Jul 2014 11:58 #9330

  • ChrisBuckley
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Greetings
The PRG web page is now available at
prg.ukzn.ac.za/

Over the next month additional data and videos will be added.

Regards
Chris
Chris Buckley
Pollution Research Group
University of KwaZulu-Natal
Durban
South Africa
prg.ukzn.ac.za/
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