SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sat, 10 Oct 2015 06:59:53 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Use of grab bars in squat toilets? - by: Carol McCreary
Both of the documents you recommend are wonderful! The why and how of making toilet use easier is clearly illustrated. (And no, I didn't know about them). The one from WEDC is long and comprehensive and is great for awareness and advocacy; very useful for Working Group 9. The Oxfam document has images of grab bars using every kind of materials.

Good design like this serves everyone. I'd like to see grab bars everywhere. We're all TABs - Temporarily Able-Bodied. I worked in Pakistan in the 1990s but now I study good public toilet design for North America. I think squat toilets with grab bars and washing facilities are good design period. They can serve the minority of people who wash for cultural reasons and make it easier for others to wash up following accidents.]]>
Inclusion and disability Tue, 06 Oct 2015 14:45:40 +0000
Re: Use of grab bars in squat toilets? - by: JKMakowka
You are probably aware of this comprehensive book that has several examples for PwD adaptations of squatting toilets:

I have also attached a shorter technical brief from Oxfam that mostly takes pictures and examples from the above book.

Back in 2010 when I was working with handicap international in Pakistan we also brainstormed a few ideas and experimented a bit with various options (but don't have good pictures I can share).

But it was similar to this drawing in from the book above:

But had a second GI pipe below the first to insert a wooden board with a hole to sit. This way it is usable both as a handrail for people with clutches but also as a seat for people that can not squat at all (someone in a wheelchair for example).

Another interesting example I found (picture not from me, I guess it was from another colleague from HI) is this:

I hope this gives you some ideas ]]>
Inclusion and disability Tue, 06 Oct 2015 11:31:05 +0000
Use of grab bars in squat toilets? - by: Carol McCreary
My question is about the use of grab bars in squat toilets. The Wikipedia page on Flush Toilets
has a nice new photo of a contemporary flush squat toilet. Squatting is not easy for all people, especially older people. And young children like something to hold on to as well. Therefore I'd like to find out about the use grab bars or other simple things that help toilet users avoid falls.

  1. Have you ever seen a squat toilet with a grab bar?
  2. Where would be the best location for a grab bar?
  3. Should grab bars be horizontal, vertical or angled to help a user squat and get up from a squat?
  4. Do you have photos of squat toilets with grab bars?

Professor Clara Greed, author of Inclusive Urban Design: Public Toilets
, has suggested that where direct access facilities with private stalls are planned, one toilet room contains a squat toilet and a hose for personal washing. I'd really like to see this in the United States. This could serve members of cultural groups for whom washing after toilet use is the norm or by those who face emergencies where they need to wash: people with Inflammable Bowel Disease or Crohn’s and Colitis and menstruating women. Such a room might also be equipped to serve people needing to change ostomy bags.

What do you think?]]>
Inclusion and disability Mon, 05 Oct 2015 16:44:40 +0000
Unsafe water, its health consequences and disability - national network on Fluorosis in India - by: VikasR
Fluorosis, particularly skeletal fluorosis is a disease that's hugely disabling . It also has a huge psychological cost to the individual who it affects as there is loss of social acceptance and ability to contribute for him, his familiy suffer as well.

There are two things that can prevent the very disabling fluorosis from happening and they are safer water and improved nutrition

For the past 2 years(we started in 2013) We've been trying to link together people through a national network on Fluorosis in India where the problem of Fluoride in groundwater which causes fluorosis is acute,

Rural areas are most affected, as people here mostly rely on groundwater.Though the problem is acute and severely affects rural communities it's not talked about much, not as much atleast as other health issues are talked about.

We have been trying to get people's movements going (people from varied backgrounds; researchers, ngo workers,field organisations, specialists) in the states that have been affected most, and we have also been putting in efforts to bring in health and water related government departments into the bigg picture. We've made our presence felt in states of Assam, Telangana, Karnataka and there have been successes.

The issue needs all the support it can get through the varied ability that this group possesses, I'm creating this new topic "Unsafe Water, it's health consequences and Disability" under the Health and Hygeine, schools forum so a flury of ideas can come in. I urge members to come forward with what they think, with ideas on funding support if possible to help the network spread it's impact in getting people, government to act, communities to get more aware and referal facilities for people suffering to improve.

You can find more about the network on and more about the issue on Please join our facebook group and be part of the conversations around all that's happening in the network.

Please do get in touch at This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it and This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it if you'd like to connect through email.]]>
Inclusion and disability Sun, 12 Jul 2015 04:49:36 +0000
Key documents for the sub-category on inclusion and disability - by: muench For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category.
It contains a recommendation for new people regarding the most important 3-5 documents in the thematic area of "inclusion and disability".

The initial selection was done by me, but this is open for discussion and can be adjusted regularly.

Recommended top 5 documents in the thematic area of "inclusion and disability":*

Jones, H., Wilbur, J. (2014). Compendium of accessible WASH technologies. WEDC, WaterAid, Share, UK

The compendium is designed for use by staff working directly with communities - e.g. health workers and community volunteers working with disabled and older people and their families in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

A few examples of technologies are presented that families can adapt to suit their needs and budgets. Many more options are possible. Most of the ideas are suitable for disabled and older people, but are not only for them. As we get older, many of us find it increasingly difficult to squat and balance, or we might be injured or sick. These technologies might also make facilities easier and more comfortable to use by everyone in the family. The ideas are designed to be suitable for household facilities, not for institutional facilities - e.g. schools and clinics - although some ideas might also be useful in these settings.

WaterAid (2011). What the Global Disability Report means for the WASH sector. WaterAid, UK

This report gives an overview of the information relevant to the water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) sector in the world’s first report on disability. It also highlights how WaterAid is addressing the recommendations in the report, as well as where we could develop our approaches further.

The report states that disability is less about health conditions and more about social and economic barriers to inclusion. Health conditions that increase the risk of disability include environmental factors such as low birth weight and a lack of essential dietary nutrients. The situation is worsened by exposure to poor sanitation, unsafe water, a lack of access to healthcare and malnutrition. A person’s environment has a major effect on the prevalence and extent of disability. For this reason, the WHO report puts safe water and sanitation at the centre of helping to prevent disability and poverty.

Jones, H., Reed, B. (2005) Water and sanitation for disabled people and other vulnerable groups: Designing services to improve accessibility, WEDC Loughborough, UK, ISBN: 9781843800798
Or here on the WEDC website:
(pdf files are available by chapter or for the complete version; in English and French - see under "Links")

Based on three years of international research and collaboration with water and sanitation and disability sector organisations, this book fills a significant gap in knowledge, and should be of interest to the following audiences:
  • Water and sanitation sector planners, to enable them to consider the needs of disabled people in low-income communities in the development of strategies and general programme design;
  • Water and sanitation service providers, to enable them to implement ordinary programmes and services in ways that include disabled people;
  • Organisations providing disability services, to enable them to address the issue of access to water and sanitation in their work; and
  • Disabled people's organisations, providing information and ideas to use in advocacy for access and rights, and to engage in the consultation process.

Wilbur, J., Jones, H. (2014) Disability - making CLTS fully inclusive, Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights Issue 3, Brighton: IDS

This document focusses on people with disabilities and particular needs for access. There are many forms of disability, including mobility impairments, sensory impairments (affecting sight or hearing), chronic illness, impairments caused by older age or mental health issues. People affected tend not to be present at triggering, to lack voice in the community, to have their needs overlooked, and may even be hidden by their families. This issue outlines the reality of the experiences of people with disabilities, the varied nature of their needs and how they can be met, and concludes with practical recommendations for facilitators and all those engaged in CLTS to make the different phases and processes of CLTS more inclusive.

von Münch, E., Düring, I. (2011). Making sustainable sanitation inclusive for persons with disabilities - Factsheet. Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Eschborn, Germany

This factsheet is intended for water/sanitation sector professionals in Germany and international development cooperations, especially those implementing water/sanitation programs in partner countries. It describes the challenges, scale of the problem, background, barriers which stop people with disabilities from accessing sanitation facilities, approach to sanitation system planning, technical adjustments for accessible toilets and additional costs.

It also gives one example for an innovative accessible dry toilet, the bench urine diversion dehydration toilet (UDDT). A main advantage of this type of dry toilet is that it can be indoors, thus reducing access distances compared to pit latrines. This also reduces security risks for women and girls with disabilities.

The following Wikipedia articles exist on related topics, but they do not yet make any reference to WASH issues (this should still be added in order to raise awareness):

(7) Further resources

There are many more important documents dealing with this topic. Here is how to find them:
  1. We invite you to browse the SuSanA library by using the search terms inclusion, disability or accessible, e.g.:
  2. Staff members at WEDC, UK, have extensively published on this topic, therefore searching the WEDC knowledge base is also a good idea. These are the search results for the search term disability:
  4. WEDC's page on Equity and Inclusion in WASH:
  5. Asksource quicklist on Inclusive WASH and Disability (International online resource centre on disability and inclusion by Handicap International):
  6. WaterAid Inclusive WASH website:


* The documents recommended here all focus on issues in developing countries and countries in transition. They do not specifically address inclusion and WASH issues in developed countries, although many of the underlying principles would apply to all countries of the world.]]>
Inclusion and disability Wed, 18 Feb 2015 14:01:28 +0000
Compendium of accessible WASH technologies - by: Doreen
Thought I would share this with you.

WaterAid and WEDC developed an images-based compendium (photos, drawings and diagrams) for use at community level in rural sub-Saharan Africa.
The compendium provides information for households on how to make their latrines and other WASH facilities more accessible and user-friendly.

Free to download from:

This publication and all images in it are also free to download:

Best regards,

Inclusion and disability Wed, 28 Jan 2015 11:30:58 +0000
Compendium of Accessible WASH Technologies - to improve the accessibility of household WASH facilities (WaterAid, WEDC, SHARE) - by: F H Mughal Compendium of accessible WASH technologies.

The compendium gives low-cost technologies, an aspect that is favorable for the poor developing countries, and is designed to make WASH facilities easily accessible to the disabled people. It can also be used by the aged people. The main focus of the publication is on the household facilities.

The most attractive aspect of the compendium is that, it gives high resolution pictures (provided the high resolution version is accessed), and attractive, colorful line diagrams, thus increasing the usefulness of the publication.

The compendium can be accessed at

F H Mughal]]>
Inclusion and disability Mon, 22 Dec 2014 05:18:54 +0000
Recording and additional resources from webinar on Disability- making CLTS fully inclusive - by: Petra
You can now listen to a recording of the webinar and download the powerpoint presentation here on the CLTS website:
You will also find a list of resources for further reading on disability, equity and inclusion in WASH.

Get in touch if you have specific questions that follow on from the webinar or post your questions, ideas and views here.

More about the webinar

CLTS aims at total sanitation. For that it has to be inclusive. There are ethical reasons for this, but the bottom line is that while any open defecation continues, all are affected. This webinar will focus on people with disabilities and their particular needs for access to sanitation. People affected tend not to be present at triggering, to lack voice in the community, to have their needs overlooked, and may even be hidden by their families. An initial presentation will outline the reality of the experiences of disabled people, the varied nature of their needs and share examples of how their needs can be met. This will be followed by an open discussion about practical steps that people engaged in CLTS can take to make the different phases and processes of CLTS more inclusive.]]>
Inclusion and disability Tue, 11 Nov 2014 09:16:40 +0000
Re: Questionnaire on Inclusive WASH in schools in low income countries - by: christian.rieck thank you for sharing the Fit for School files. However they are not the lastest documents and thus out-dated. Please check this latest manual called "school community manual"

Once I am getting infos on the inclusion approach of Fit for School I will post again.

Best regards,
Inclusion and disability Fri, 07 Nov 2014 11:14:03 +0000
Re: Questionnaire on Inclusive WASH in schools in low income countries - by: darao
thank you very much for sharing the link and documents.
"Fit for school" provide good example to understand current progress, approach and practice of school hygiene as part of collaborative effort to improve all health related practices of school children.
It will be very interesting when " Future collaboration with the water and sanitation sector is expected to result in improved sanitation facilities and further community development". happens with consideration of participation of children disabilities.
Yes, we have a long way to go!


Inclusion and disability Thu, 30 Oct 2014 12:41:16 +0000
Re: Disability and inclusion- follow on from the webinar - by: Petra]]> Inclusion and disability Thu, 30 Oct 2014 11:29:15 +0000 Disability and inclusion- follow on from the webinar - by: Petra
Inclusion and disability Thu, 30 Oct 2014 11:27:17 +0000
Re: Questionnaire on Inclusive WASH in schools in low income countries - by: F H Mughal
While the attached documents may not answer your point, I found them interesting. Please add them to the SuSanA library, if possible. Most are co-sponsored by GTZ!

F H Mughal]]>
Inclusion and disability Wed, 29 Oct 2014 10:41:30 +0000
Re: Questionnaire on Inclusive WASH in schools in low income countries - by: muench
Sorry, with "highly pregnant" I meant women towards the end of their pregnancy. When the belly gets so huge that you feel like a whale (i.e. 8th and 9th month of pregnancy)...

The Fit for Schools program that you mentioned is awesome. We also had it on the forum here:
It is one of the very few examples of something that has really gone to scale - because the government agencies took it on board!

However, they do not emphasise particularly on inclusion aspects, as far as I know? If they do, please point me towards one of their releveant publications?

Inclusion and disability Wed, 29 Oct 2014 08:47:49 +0000
Re: Questionnaire on Inclusive WASH in schools in low income countries - by: F H Mughal
Please visit: for some useful information.

In addition, the attached publications should also help you.


F H Mughal

PS: Elisabeth: What do you mean by "highly pregnant?"]]>
Inclusion and disability Wed, 29 Oct 2014 05:37:57 +0000