SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Mon, 24 Nov 2014 03:50:34 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Article in NY Times: Researchers Gather in India to Discuss Malnutrition’s Links to Sanitation - and Wikipedia pages on stunting and EE - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/10947-article-in-ny-times-researchers-gather-in-india-to-discuss-malnutritions-links-to-sanitation-and-wikipedia-pages-on-stunting-and-ee#10990 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/10947-article-in-ny-times-researchers-gather-in-india-to-discuss-malnutritions-links-to-sanitation-and-wikipedia-pages-on-stunting-and-ee#10990 Children in India, A Statistical Appraisal, Social Statistics Division, Central Statistics Office, Ministry of statistics and Programme Implementation), 10 MB – attached - gives the following anthropometric indices for assessing the physical development of
children:

• Height-for-age - inadequate Height-for-age indicate stunting
• Weight-for-height - inadequate weight-for-height indicate wasting
• Weight-for-age - inadequate weight-for-age indicate underweight

Table 4.1 captioned, Malnourishment in children below 5 year (%), (surprisingly, there are no page numbers!), shows that 24.3% of children are stunted and 23.7% are severely stunted.

F H Mughal]]>
Nutrition and WASH Fri, 14 Nov 2014 16:31:17 +0000
Re: Article in NY Times: Researchers Gather in India to Discuss Malnutrition’s Links to Sanitation - and Wikipedia pages on stunting and EE - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/10947-article-in-ny-times-researchers-gather-in-india-to-discuss-malnutritions-links-to-sanitation-and-wikipedia-pages-on-stunting-and-ee#10970 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/10947-article-in-ny-times-researchers-gather-in-india-to-discuss-malnutritions-links-to-sanitation-and-wikipedia-pages-on-stunting-and-ee#10970 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Environmental_enteropathy)

This article (from 1972!) argues that they are two different conditions/diseases: ajcn.nutrition.org/content/25/10/1047?re...egid=ajcn;25/10/1047]]>
Nutrition and WASH Thu, 13 Nov 2014 14:31:41 +0000
Re: Article in NY Times: Researchers Gather in India to Discuss Malnutrition’s Links to Sanitation - and Wikipedia pages on stunting and EE - by: WikiDocJames http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/10947-article-in-ny-times-researchers-gather-in-india-to-discuss-malnutritions-links-to-sanitation-and-wikipedia-pages-on-stunting-and-ee#10964 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/10947-article-in-ny-times-researchers-gather-in-india-to-discuss-malnutritions-links-to-sanitation-and-wikipedia-pages-on-stunting-and-ee#10964
I have started EE and changed the sprue artcile

J]]>
Nutrition and WASH Wed, 12 Nov 2014 22:59:44 +0000
Re: Article in NY Times: Researchers Gather in India to Discuss Malnutrition’s Links to Sanitation - and Wikipedia pages on stunting and EE - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/10947-article-in-ny-times-researchers-gather-in-india-to-discuss-malnutritions-links-to-sanitation-and-wikipedia-pages-on-stunting-and-ee#10963 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/10947-article-in-ny-times-researchers-gather-in-india-to-discuss-malnutritions-links-to-sanitation-and-wikipedia-pages-on-stunting-and-ee#10963
Tropical sprue, also known as "environmental enteropathy",[1]


So the two are actually the same? Then all we need is a redirect from "environmental enteropathy" and from "tropical enteropathy" to "tropical sprue" - if indeed that is the correct term to use according to the WHO classification on diseases?

I am not at all an expert on this but I have the feeling that there might be a desire to replace the adjective "tropical" with "environmental" because it may not just be confined to the tropics?

Help from medical people needed...!

(then again, we still speak of neglected tropical diseases, NTDs, see here:
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neglected_tropical_diseases)]]>
Nutrition and WASH Wed, 12 Nov 2014 22:49:04 +0000
Re: Article in NY Times: Researchers Gather in India to Discuss Malnutrition’s Links to Sanitation - and Wikipedia pages on stunting and EE - by: WikiDocJames http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/10947-article-in-ny-times-researchers-gather-in-india-to-discuss-malnutritions-links-to-sanitation-and-wikipedia-pages-on-stunting-and-ee#10962 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/10947-article-in-ny-times-researchers-gather-in-india-to-discuss-malnutritions-links-to-sanitation-and-wikipedia-pages-on-stunting-and-ee#10962 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_sprue]]> Nutrition and WASH Wed, 12 Nov 2014 22:29:50 +0000 Article in NY Times: Researchers Gather in India to Discuss Malnutrition’s Links to Sanitation - and Wikipedia pages on stunting and EE - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/10947-article-in-ny-times-researchers-gather-in-india-to-discuss-malnutritions-links-to-sanitation-and-wikipedia-pages-on-stunting-and-ee#10947 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/10947-article-in-ny-times-researchers-gather-in-india-to-discuss-malnutritions-links-to-sanitation-and-wikipedia-pages-on-stunting-and-ee#10947
This topic of malnutrition and stunting (particularly for children in India) and sanitation is getting more and more attention which is great, and long overdue. There was an article in the New York Times yesterday about a conference that UNICEF organised in India (New York Times is so good at bringing sanitation to the front page time and time again; someone should thank the responsible editor):

Talks in India to Focus on Link Between Hygiene and Growth

www.nytimes.com/2014/11/11/world/asia/re...sanitation.html?_r=0

It is perhaps cynical to say this but if the children of wealthy families are also shown to be affected by stunting, perhaps the politicians will finally jump into action!?

Dr. S V Subramanian, a professor of population health at Harvard University, told the gathering on Monday that even many Indian children of wealthy families were affected by stunting. Even if they have toilets at home, they live near others who do not and can be infected by bacteria carried by flies and water.


This is also interesting:

Stunting leaves children with mental and physical deficits. About 40 percent of the world’s stunted children live in South Asia, perhaps because the region has relatively few toilets and a highly concentrated population.

“If we don’t end open defecation, children will have constant diarrhea,” Karin Hulshof, Unicef’s regional director for South Asia, who helped to coordinate the conference, said in an interview. “And then it doesn’t matter how much food you give the child, they will be stunted.”


There is also another study out by Charles Schmidt:

Beyond Malnutrition: The Role of Sanitation in Stunted Growth

ehp.niehs.nih.gov/122-A298/

A quote from this study:

Meanwhile, mounting evidence has shown that poor hygiene and sanitation also constrain linear growth in children. One study found that Bangladeshi children who had access to clean drinking water, improved toilets, and facilities for handwashing with soap, for instance, had a roughly 50% improvement in HAZ scores compared with control children who didn’t.18 Similar results emerged from studies in Sudan19 and Mexico,20 yet it was unclear exactly why poor WASH would contribute to stunting and WASH improvements would help to ameliorate it.


See also here for more new documents on the role of sanitation in stunted growth:
sanitationupdates.wordpress.com/2014/11/...n-in-stunted-growth/

If there is so much new attention on stunting and sanitation, then some people may look up stunting in Wikipedia. Therefore, I have recently improved and updated that page because I think it is important that it contains good information on the role that sanitation can play to reduce stunting:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stunted_growth

The people who have subscribed to the SuSanA mailing list of working group 12 are aware of these efforts of mine, and several people have kindly sent me pieces of information or references that I should include in this Wikipedia article, after I sent an e-mail to the working group (thanks for that!).

The Wikpedia page on stunting is better now but is not yet complete nor perfect, and I urge anyone who knows a bit about this topic to tell me what else to add to the Wikipedia page to make it better. You could also add it yourself, of course.
However, I know the hurdle to write on Wikipedia is high, so I am happy to function as a "ghost writer" if needed. Just tell me what I should write or modify.

I have also done some edits on the much larger page on malnutrition (which also gets more views):
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malnutrition
(the two pages would obviously go hand in hand; I found it less daunting to start with the page on stunted growth).

I would also like to propose that we should create a new Wikipedia article on environmental enteropathy, as such a page doesn't exist yet. I don't want to tackle this on my own though, can I find any collaborators?
Just reply here or send me an e-mail if you are interested in contributing to the work for such a Wikipedia article.

Regards,
Elisabeth

P.S. For anyone who is interested about writing on Wikipedia himself or herself, I have compiled here some general information on how to write on Wikipedia, together with a listing of Wikipedia pages that I have edited or worked on so far. See attachment below. One thing to keep in mind (which I have recently been reminded of by people on Wikipedia watching the quality of the pages) is that you should write "in your own words" or at least paraphrase from articles - it is not sufficient nor allowed to simply copy & paste from articles; even quoting with inverted commas should only be used sparingly. See also the attachment for more explanations on this issue.]]>
Nutrition and WASH Wed, 12 Nov 2014 09:27:29 +0000
Re: Sector Wide Approach to Strengthen Health (SWASTH) in Bihar, India: helping communities to help themselves - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/7976-sector-wide-approach-to-strengthen-health-swasth-in-bihar-india-helping-communities-to-help-themselves#10138 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/7976-sector-wide-approach-to-strengthen-health-swasth-in-bihar-india-helping-communities-to-help-themselves#10138
And who knows, perhaps someone from this forum will even be part of the winning team for this consultancy work?

We had a related discussion here on the forum called "The elusive effect of water and sanitation on the global burden of disease":
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/26-hea...al-burden-of-disease

+++++++++++++++

From: Paromita Mukhopadhyay, India
Date: 2014-08-28 20:17 GMT+02:00
To: HIFA2015 - Healthcare Information For All by 2015 < This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it >


3ie RFQ: Impact evaluation of community-based health programmes in Bihar, India

3ie RFQ for designing impact evaluations for Gram Varta and Nodal Anganwadi Centre initiatives under SWASTH, Bihar, India

3ie requests qualifications from research teams for impact evaluation of Gram Varta and Uddeepan community mobilisation initiatives of the Sector Wide Approaches to Strengthen Health (SWASTH) programme implemented by the Government of Bihar. The key objective of these initiatives is to improve health, nutrition, and water, sanitation and hygiene-related outcomes among the population, particularly the poor and excluded, in the State of Bihar. Teams are invited to submit applications for impact evaluation of one or both of the initiatives.

The impact evaluation of the Gram Varta initiative will address knowledge gaps and findings from the evaluation will (a) improve programme accountability; (b) inform policy and decision making on scaling it up; and (c) contribute to the national and global evidence base.

The impact evaluation of the Uddeepan initiative will assess the impact of the programme on a range of child and maternal health outcomes especially nutritional outcomes. Findings from this study will also have implications for scaling-up this initiative in other states of India.

Please note that

1. Only legally registered organisations and consortia of registered organisations, not individuals, may apply.
2. 3ie will award a maximum of 2 proposal preparation grants under this call.
3. The maximum budget for each proposal preparation grant is US$20,000.
4. A study team can apply for proposal preparation grants for the impact evaluation of one or both of the initiatives.
5. The lead grant-holding organisations making the application must be located in India, with researchers of Indian nationality as the lead principal investigator(s).
6. The application may include other researchers, including those from outside India who are not employees of that organisation.
7. Applicants are encouraged to include a researcher with a demonstrated global reputation as one of the principal investigators (PI).

For more information, visit:
www.3ieimpact.org/en/funding/policy-wind...h-initiatives-bihar/

For all correspondence, please email This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it with ‘Bihar’ in the subject line. The deadline for submitting applications is 23:59 GMT, 23 September 2014.

HIFA profile: Paromita Mukhopadhyay is Online Communications Officer at the International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, India.
__________

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++++++++++++++]]>
Nutrition and WASH Fri, 12 Sep 2014 08:37:44 +0000
Re: WASH in Nut research project: comparative study on the effects of Ready to Use Therapeutic Food + P&G Purifier of Water in DRC - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9870-wash-in-nut-research-project-comparative-study-on-the-effects-of-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food--pag-purifier-of-water-in-drc#9878 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9870-wash-in-nut-research-project-comparative-study-on-the-effects-of-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food--pag-purifier-of-water-in-drc#9878 prebiotic, meaning we're not the only ones consuming what's placed in our mouths translating toward good health. We also need to feed our microbes and that's the power of ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). Poor sanitation shifts flora in the wrong direction resulting in malnutrition due to malabsorption syndrome.

This landmark 2013 paper reveals underlying microbial imbalance as cause of kwashiorkor, temporarily relieved with RUTF:
Gut microbiomes of Malawian twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3667500/

Here's a nice article about the study:
Gut Microbes Contribute to Mysterious Malnutrition
phenomena.nationalgeographic.com/2013/01...iorkor-malnutrition/

The problem is, nutrition alone isn't enough, as the paper Carlotta shared suggests. Nutrition temporarily helps by feeding commensal (good) gut flora, thereby creating balance through a process called competitive exclusion. But it's not so simple as we can also feed imbalance. Remission is common in treating gut imbalances.

Thanks, Carlotta, for sharing the paper!]]>
Nutrition and WASH Mon, 25 Aug 2014 18:57:41 +0000
Re: WASH in Nut research project: comparative study on the effects of Ready to Use Therapeutic Food + P&G Purifier of Water in DRC - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9870-wash-in-nut-research-project-comparative-study-on-the-effects-of-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food--pag-purifier-of-water-in-drc#9872 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9870-wash-in-nut-research-project-comparative-study-on-the-effects-of-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food--pag-purifier-of-water-in-drc#9872
I wonder though if the focus on short term SAM treatment combined with water treatment will really give much results, in fact I was surprised to read that you actually got some significant (but small and not cost efficient) effect.

As far as I can tell, the current research seems to indicate that WASH interventions (not limited to water treatment, but rather general household hygiene) will have a much larger effect on longer term child development (prevention of stunting and non-impaired brain development) which becomes significant after a few years and not 4 months as done in this study.

Never the less very interesting work ACF is doing there.]]>
Nutrition and WASH Mon, 25 Aug 2014 09:00:59 +0000
WASH in Nut research project: comparative study on the effects of Ready to Use Therapeutic Food + P&G Purifier of Water in DRC - by: carlottadenis http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9870-wash-in-nut-research-project-comparative-study-on-the-effects-of-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food--pag-purifier-of-water-in-drc#9870 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9870-wash-in-nut-research-project-comparative-study-on-the-effects-of-ready-to-use-therapeutic-food--pag-purifier-of-water-in-drc#9870
I would like to inform you about a study Action Against Hunger (ACF-USA) recently conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and whose final report was published in September, 2013. It took place in the Health Zone of Popokabaka, located in Bandundu Province, DRC, where there is limited access to safe drinking water, and where hygiene practices and sanitation facilities also remain poor.

This study evaluated the efficacy of P&G Purifier of Water, a point-of-use water treatment product produced and provided by Procter & Gamble. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the efficiency of using Ready-to-use-Food (RUTF) and treating domestic water with P&G Purifier of Water versus RUTF alone in the nutrition treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) children under the age of 5 years without medical complications.

The study was conducted in 7 health centers divided into 2 groups: a control group in the Southern part of the province (3 health centers, 102 children) and an intervention group in the Eastern part of the province (4 health centers, 105 children). Data collection lasted 4 months (from December, 2012 until March, 2013), and a total of 207 children were followed during their treatment and until 4 months after their discharge. The regular nutrition protocol was respected (ambulatory treatment with weekly follow-up at the health center). At the household level, a questionnaire was facilitated every two weeks on dietary consumption, hygiene practices and the use of P&G Purifier of Water.

The study was based on two hypotheses:

1) SAM cases without medical complications consuming RUTF + P&G Purifier of Water have a lower prevalence of waterborne diseases during the course of their treatment.

2) SAM children consuming RUTF + P&G Purifier of Water have better outcomes in terms of treatment time (shorter) and weight gain (higher).

Ultimately, the study determined the importance of promoting P&G Purifier of Water as part of the standard nutrition treatment of SAM children without medical complications, in areas with difficult or no access to clean drinking water.


Results:

The study showed a reduction of the length of treatment of 13% in the intervention group (26.4 days compared to 30.4 days in the control group). However, considering the price of P&G Purifier of Water vs. the price of RUTF, the reduction of 4 days treatment time would be able to cover 90.90% of the supplementary cost, and a reduction of 25% is needed for the intervention to be totally cost-effective.

Children in the intervention group also had a higher daily weight gain; however the difference is not statistically significant.

Water treatment was reported to be almost non-existent in the control group, while P&G Purifier of Water was used by more than 95% of the households in the intervention group, showing a very strong acceptance of the product.

In conclusion, there are significant results towards the reduction of length of stay; however additional studies are needed to improve the result validity (with larger sample sizes, in context with longer average treatment time, including additional alternative intervention options to improve water quality).

You will find attached the report of the study.




Please do not hesitate to share your comments on this study and its results. Do you know about similar studies that may have similar or different results?


Regards,
Carlotta]]>
Nutrition and WASH Mon, 25 Aug 2014 08:03:53 +0000
Re: The ACF WASH in Nutrition team is developing 3 posters which aim at explaining the links between WASH and Nutrition - by: Taber http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9270-the-acf-wash-in-nutrition-team-is-developing-3-posters-which-aim-at-explaining-the-links-between-wash-and-nutrition?limit=12&start=12#9847 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9270-the-acf-wash-in-nutrition-team-is-developing-3-posters-which-aim-at-explaining-the-links-between-wash-and-nutrition?limit=12&start=12#9847 Nutrition and WASH Fri, 22 Aug 2014 06:07:19 +0000 Re: The ACF WASH in Nutrition team is developing 3 posters which aim at explaining the links between WASH and Nutrition - by: KeithBell http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9270-the-acf-wash-in-nutrition-team-is-developing-3-posters-which-aim-at-explaining-the-links-between-wash-and-nutrition?limit=12&start=12#9842 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9270-the-acf-wash-in-nutrition-team-is-developing-3-posters-which-aim-at-explaining-the-links-between-wash-and-nutrition?limit=12&start=12#9842 An evolving perspective about the origins of childhood undernutrition and nutritional interventions that includes the gut microbiome
onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nyas.12487/abstract

The world is only beginning to understand the relationship between poor sanitation and malnutrition. This and previous papers by the same authors reveal gut dysbiosis/infection (using genetic tools such as PCR stool testing) as cause of malnutrition, not a simple matter of lack of food as we've wrongly believed for decades.

So, how is this relevant to sustainable sanitation (Rule 8 of the forum)? Open defecation and mixing our waste with drinking water is negatively affecting general health which begins in the intestines. This problem is associated with decline in cognitive health and diabetes, hardly a sustainable choice.

Carlotta, I stumbled on this drawing of leaky gut you may find useful; here it is attached.]]>
Nutrition and WASH Thu, 21 Aug 2014 16:26:54 +0000
Re: WASH and Nut research project: Impact of Household WASH package to nutrition program in Chad. - by: rob# http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9816-wash-and-nut-research-project-impact-of-household-wash-package-to-nutrition-program-in-chad#9821 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9816-wash-and-nut-research-project-impact-of-household-wash-package-to-nutrition-program-in-chad#9821
That's excellent and it would be a good opportunity if Karl or someone else from ACF could present this briefly as part of the SuSanA WG12 "WASH-Nutrition" meeting in Stockholm during World Water Week (Thursday, Sept. 4, 11:30, room t.b.a.).

What do you think?

Best

rob]]>
Nutrition and WASH Wed, 20 Aug 2014 13:38:49 +0000
Re: WASH and Nut research project: Impact of Household WASH package to nutrition program in Chad. - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9816-wash-and-nut-research-project-impact-of-household-wash-package-to-nutrition-program-in-chad#9820 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9816-wash-and-nut-research-project-impact-of-household-wash-package-to-nutrition-program-in-chad#9820
It might not actually show a lower prevalence of diarrhea though as those on/off heavy events are often caused by other reasons than polluted water, and hygiene is never perfect.

For water treatment you seem to be planning to use chlorine tablets or a combined product like PUR? Have these been pre-tested for acceptability (smell and taste of chlorine) and effectiveness (not too high turbidity)?]]>
Nutrition and WASH Wed, 20 Aug 2014 13:25:33 +0000
WASH and Nut research project: Impact of Household WASH package to nutrition program in Chad. - by: carlottadenis http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9816-wash-and-nut-research-project-impact-of-household-wash-package-to-nutrition-program-in-chad#9816 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/92-nutrition-and-wash/9816-wash-and-nut-research-project-impact-of-household-wash-package-to-nutrition-program-in-chad#9816
I would like to inform you about a research project Action contre la Faim (ACF) will be conducting in the next months, called Benefits of a household WASH package to Community Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) program in Chad.

The ‘WASH in Nut’ strategy for Sahel led to the introduction of a list of specific WASH activities for CMAM beneficiaries aiming at protecting malnourished children against worsening of their nutritional status, and potential relapses caused by WASH related infections. ACF now considers crucial to evaluate the effect of this package in a Sahelian context characterized by high prevalence of severe acute malnutrition, through a research project.

This research project will start in September, 2014 in the Kanem region in Chad, where ACF is already intervening in WASH and Nutrition. It will consist in assessing the benefit of adding a “home WASH package” (water treatment and hygiene kit + hygiene promotion) to nutritional rehabilitation of children under 5 suffering from Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) without medical complications receiving OTP (Outpatient Therapeutic Program) treatment.

The study design is a Randomized Controlled Trial with a total of 2500 children in 10 different areas: 50% in the control group (receiving OTP treatment) and 50% in the intervention group (receiving OTP treatment + the household WASH package).

Household Wash package is composed of a household water treatment and hygiene kit (water container, water disinfection consumables, soap, cup, hygiene promotion leaflet), hygiene promotion sessions to the child caregiver at health center level (hygiene kit and water treatment demonstrations, hygiene related care practices messages), and a household visit during the treatment (inclusing a hygiene refresh training).

3 hypotheses will guide the study:

1) Children affected by Severe Acute Malnutrition receiving OTP treatment and benefiting from a “home WASH package” have a lower prevalence of diarrhea during the course of their treatment.

2) They have better outcomes in terms of weight gain during treatment.

3) They are less at risk of relapse after successful treatment.

Please do not hesitate to share your comments on this study or to share other similar studies you might know about.

Regards,
Carlotta]]>
Nutrition and WASH Wed, 20 Aug 2014 09:25:54 +0000