SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Fri, 29 Apr 2016 01:41:54 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Sanitation in Emergencies - by: F H Mughal Sanitation in Emergencies

News in today’s (12 March 2016) newspaper (Dawn, Karachi) informed of children exposure to the raw sewage, under the title “Children exposed to raw sewage, noxious fumes at Greek border camp

The news informed: “Days of heavy rain have turned Greece’s Idomeni border camp into a foul-smelling bog, exposing migrant children to raw sewage, noxious fumes and bitter cold, with aid workers describing conditions as “critical”. "The bathrooms are flooded, there is sewage water everywhere, you see a lot of children as well playing in the sewage water."

There are some publications that deal with WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) in emergencies. Some that I know of are:

Engineering in Emergencies – A Practical Guide for Relief Workers
Jan Davis and Robert Lambert
ITDG Publishing and RedR
The publication of 736 pp covers a wide range of topics like planning, management, assessment, environmental health, environmental sanitation, emergency water supply, water source development, water treatment and distribution, among others.

Emergency Sanitation – Assessment and Program Design
Harvey, Peter; Baghri, Sohrab; Reed, Bob.
This publication covers topics like wastewater management, wastewater management at medical centers, Hygiene promotion, solid waste management, community participation, rapid assessment, and program design.

Emergency Water Sources – Guidelines for Selection and Treatment

The 320pp publication is very useful and, I use it as an reference publication. As the title suggests, it is all about water treatment and distribution, with description on survival supply and, longer term supply of water.

The SPHERE series is also useful, especially the module: Minimum standards in Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion. The module has 7 sections. There are: Water supply, sanitation and hygiene promotion (WASH); Hygiene promotion; Water supply; Excreta disposal; Vector control; Solid waste management; and Drainage. This is useful publication, if one is interested in the minimum standards.

F H Mughal]]>
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Sat, 12 Mar 2016 07:23:50 +0000
Re: Key documents for the sub-category on schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools) - by: BelindaA
Very happy with this selection!

As a general feedback, it's important that this list includes that of humanitarian standards, The Sphere Project, for me has been critical to my work! It is translated in many different languages. Here's the link to the website. I apologise that I am unable to summarise for you. However, the kind colleagues in the Sphere Project could be contacted to assist, I am sure !

All the best,

Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Mon, 29 Feb 2016 04:27:28 +0000
Re: Key documents for the sub-category on challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues - by: yokepean
I would like to recommend the following as an important document:

Rush, H.; Marshall, N. Case Study: Innovation in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. CENTRIM, University of Brighton, Brighton, UK (2015) 63 pp.

Download from

The study examines the state of innovation in the WASH sector in terms of results, resources, relationships, etc (among other concepts), and helps us understand why gaps in the emergency sanitation are or are not being addressed effectively.]]>
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Thu, 18 Feb 2016 04:57:51 +0000
Re: five key documents for emergency sanitation - comments on my proposal - by: muench
I've looked at the dropbox folder where Jan had provided a range of documents. There is lots of good stuff there, I am just discussing with him and the secretariat in the background how best to share those documents.

Meanwhile, two documents that stuck out for me:

Gap Analysis in Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion
Andy Bastable and Lucy Russell, Oxfam GB for Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF)
July 2013

(edit by EvM: is now included in the Top-5 list)

From the executive summary:

The most significant gaps identified in emergency WASH were:
1. Latrines in locations where no pits are possible (urban, high watertable/flooding)
2. Community participation and empowerment of vulnerable groups, including monitoring and evaluation from the outset
3. Latrine emptying and desludging
4. Hygiene promotion and the importance of understanding context, including socioanthropology issues
5. Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and sanitation marketing
6. Urban alternatives for excreta disposal
7. Exit strategies and sustainability issues from the outset
8. Final sewage disposal options after desludging and treatment
9. Further development of non-toilet options/early response/mobile
10. Hand washing hardware and promotion and sustainability (including soap) and non-soap options
11. Water Treatment, particularly bulk and point of use household filters, including cost and sustainability issues
12. The need for low-tech WASH solutions acceptable and sustainable by locals


Emergency Sanitation Project (ESP) Final Report
June 2015
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), lead agency
WASTE, Oxfam Great Britain

From the executive summary:

The ESP included the following work streams:
· Alternative toilet and no toilet options, with a collection/disposal system
· Biodegradable bags
· Desludging
· Handwashing (household and communal)
· Latrine pit linings, superstructures, and raised latrines
· Locally produced latrine slabs
· Multipurpose and non-stick latrine slabs
· Urinals
· Wastewater treatment and disposal

Further comments regarding either key documents (Top 5) or other important documents and links to be included in the sticky post above are welcome!


P.S. These two documents were originally in the list of Top-5 but were later removed:

Luff, R. (2012). Compendium of WASH in Schools Facilities in Emergencies. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), New York, USA

The ‘Compendium of WASH in Schools Facilities in Emergencies’ has been prepared as a resource for coordination and management of WASH interventions in emergency preparedness, response and early recovery. The primary audience includes those who are implementing interventions in schools being used as emergency shelter and temporary learning spaces established by governments, non-governmental organizations, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, or United Nations agencies.

Harvey, P.A. (2007). Excreta Disposal in Emergencies - A Field Manual. WEDC, Loughborough, UK

In this manual existing, innovative and new technologies and approaches for excreta disposal in emergency situations are investigated. It provides practical guidance on how to select, design, construct and maintain appropriate excreta disposal systems to reduce facael transmission risks and protect public health in emergency situations. Relevant situations include natural disasters, relief for refugees and internally displaced persons, and complex emergencies, focusing on rural and peri-urban areas.
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Thu, 18 Feb 2016 02:55:51 +0000
Re: five key documents for emergency sanitation - comments on my proposal - by: jspit
Interesting setup. I can imagine the HIF WASH Gap analysis could be placed in the top 5 documents as it provides a clear guidance on what is still missing at the moment. (edit by EvM: is now included in the Top-5 list)

For a training for the German NGOs active in the WASH emergency world I prepared a dropbox folder with the documents that are most valuable a this moment. I have invited you for this dropbox folder and feel free to use the contents.*

I hope you find this useful.

Final date for Speedkits EU project is 1 March 2016. We have our final workshop on 7 and 8 April 2016.

And of course, tomorrow we have a new webinar on Faecal Sludge Treatment for VIA Water:

Best regards

Jan Spit

Adviser Sanitation
WASTE Advisers on Urban Environment and Development • Lange Houtstraat 26 • 2511 CW Den Haag • The Netherlands
Twitter @janspitdelft •

* Note by moderator (EvM): I will move documents from this dropbox folder that are not yet in the SuSanA library to the SuSanA library and will let you know tomorrow which documents Jan had provided there.]]>
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Wed, 17 Feb 2016 09:38:40 +0000
Key documents for the sub-category on challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues - by: muench For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category. It contains a recommendation and orientation for newcomers regarding the most important five documents and website links in this thematic area.

Recommended top five documents in the thematic area of "Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues", in reverse chronological order:

Grange, C. (2016). Faecal Sludge Management - WASH in Emergencies, Problem Exploration Report. HIF (Humanitarian Innovation Fund) Problem Exploration Report. Cardiff: ELRHA

Currently, there is a lack of available equipment and technical guidelines on how to manage excreta in emergencies. More standardised and reliable concepts need to be developed to facilitate the implementation and management of sanitation programmes. Furthermore, the management of excreta during an emergency in an urban context has very limited options. This is because there is a lack of available space to implement suitable infrastructures for the users. This report puts forward a few areas for further exploration and development.

Bryant, J. and Campbell, L. (2014) Urban WASH in Emergencies, ALNAP, RedR

In 2014, RedR held a pilot course for 24 WASH experts on the subject of addressing the social, institutional and technical gaps that currently exist for water, sanitation and hygiene provision in the urban emergency context. This document captures the key messages, lessons and experiences of both course facilitators and participants on the topic of WASH in urban emergency response.

Reed, B., Shaw, R., Chatterton, K. (2013). Technical Notes on Drinking-water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Emergencies. World Health Organization (WHO), Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough, UK
Also available in French here:

The following technical notes for emergencies have been prepared for the World Health Organization (WHO), by the Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC):

1. Cleaning and disinfecting wells, 2. Cleaning and disinfecting boreholes,
3. Cleaning and disinfecting water storage tanks and tankers, 4. Rehabilitating small-scale piped water distribution systems, 5. Emergency treatment of drinking water at the point of use
6. Rehabilitating water treatment works after an emergency, 7. Solid waste management in emergencies, 8. Disposal of dead bodies, 9. How much water is needed,
10. Hygiene promotion in emergencies, 11. Measuring chlorine levels in water supplies
12. Delivering safe water by tanker, 13. Planning for excreta disposal in emergencies,
14. Technical options for excreta disposal, 15. Cleaning wells after seawater flooding

Bastable, A., Russell, L. (2013). Gap Analysis in Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion. Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF), London, UK

Excreta disposal issues such as latrines in areas where pits cannot be dug, desludging latrines, no-toilet options and the final treatment or disposal of the sewage are the areas in which people have identified gaps in emergency responses. Unsurprisingly, given current patterns in urban migration and the nature of recent emergency responses, urban sanitation in particular was identified as a major gap. The other major issue highlighted was weak community participation and the critical importance of designing appropriate hygiene promotion activities for each context. Sustainability also emerged as an important issue for all WASH activities, as did the emergency development continuum, the importance of better preparation and resilience and the need for exit strategies and environmental considerations.

Johannessen, A., Patinet, J., Carter, W., Lamb, J. (2012). Sustainable sanitation for emergencies and reconstruction situations - Factsheet of Working Group 8. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)

This factsheet addresses current developments, challenges, gaps and solutions in the planning and implementation of sustainable sanitation for emergencies and reconstruction situations focusing on low and middle income countries. It is mainly intended for students, researchers, policy makers and practitioners.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here:

Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection?

Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Tue, 16 Feb 2016 11:34:28 +0000
South Sudan: Dramatic increase in patients in Malakal’s UN site as living conditions jeopardise health of thousands (MSF blog post) - by: F H Mughal Inadequate Water and Sanitation facilities Contribute to Health Risks

A news post by Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) gives a real-world impact of poor water and sanitation on health. Referring to the situation in South Sudan, MSF post says that there are three times as many hospital patients and five times as many sick children as there were five months ago at a refugee camp in South Sudan. The Malakal camp is sheltering 48,000 people, but overcrowding and inadequate water and sanitation facilities are contributing to health risks.

Monica Camacho, MSF Program Manager for South Sudan says, “The sickness of our patients is directly related to the overcrowded and deplorable conditions in which they are living.” “More space must be immediately allocated to the people seeking shelter, and aid organisations must urgently improve the provision of basic services and necessities.”

Monica has made a very strong point – relating patients’ sickness to poor provision of basic services (implying water and sanitation). Government hospitals in Sindh, Pakistan, have poor sanitation facilities.

MSF post says that access to clean water and sanitation is inadequate, and children play in the mud surrounded by barbed wire and rubbish. The post further says: “Living conditions and sanitation are inadequate throughout the entire camp. The UN has designated about 0.5 km2 for the displaced people to shelter in, despite their numbers being equivalent to the population of a small city. The overall living space for the population is barely more than 10 m2 per person, which includes pathways and other spaces not used for habitation. In the most populated areas, there is just one latrine per 70 people, less than one third of the ratio required by humanitarian standards. Access to clean water is also below acceptable levels and many families lack access to
essential items such as blankets.”

The post, beyond doubt, makes out a strong case of health risks caused by poor sanitation. The post can be seen at:

F H Mughal]]>
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Tue, 01 Dec 2015 16:09:18 +0000
Re: Dry toilets for refugees in Lebanon - by: lvolat
The urinals cost 25USD to make when we make them in the UK and ship them to the locations in the Middle East. They will be half that cost once we produce locally. Within that cost calculation is also the collection and treatment of the urine and reuse as a fertilizer (the services attached).

I have checked out your design when we were looking for existing urinals, however we wanted something a bit more durable, and acceptable by the users. If we get a good response, then we could try to pilot something like yours in a extreme emergency situations.
Rich Earth Institute are our knowledge partners! They are great!

Thanks for your comments.]]>
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Thu, 12 Nov 2015 12:49:35 +0000
Re: Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation (new paper) - by: jspit

We are also showing the add ons developed:]]>
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Thu, 12 Nov 2015 08:57:23 +0000
Re: Dry toilets for refugees in Lebanon - by: ecoloo
We'd be happy to provide sludge free waterless sanitation solution. However, water can still be used for hygiene purpose but not flushing. Kindly click the link below for better understanding our system.

Thank you and take care!]]>
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Wed, 11 Nov 2015 05:20:32 +0000
Re: Dry toilets for refugees in Lebanon - by: canaday
@Lillian. I saw your great video and I am surprised that your urinals cost $25... and I don't see any control of the odors that the gallons of fermenting urine in the jug would generate. Check out my English/Spanish blog,, to see how we make very functional unisex urinals from two 4-liter plastic bottles, at the cost of rescuing those bottles from the trash and little bit of tape and string. These are intended to be emptied onto garden soil or into storage tanks as soon as possible, or at least every morning. They get rinsed with water and have no problem with smell.

Also check out Youtube videos about the Rich Earth Institutes urine recycling project. They have a simple, inexpensive model. They do not talk about it, but they have a hose for the smelly air that is expelled to come out through. I am currently working on a simple model where this is filtered through enough soil to control the smell.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Wed, 04 Nov 2015 13:45:40 +0000
Re: Dry toilets for refugees in Lebanon - by: lvolat
I am on my last day here in Lebanon and unfortunately just seeing this message. We looking for a location and an organization with whom to pilot a unisex urinal in Lebanon that we have designed for emergency sanitation systems. The urinals are waiting to be used! We have a potential partnership with AUB to reuse the urine with some reforestation projects that are happening through LRI.

Our website is:
Please get in touch if you think this would be interesting for your situation.

Kind regards,
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Wed, 04 Nov 2015 08:53:34 +0000
Re: Dry toilets for refugees in Lebanon - by: Neige
Thank you very much for your recommendations and advices.

The NGO I work with, Social Humanitarian and Economical Intervention for Local Development (SHEILD [url=] ) is based in Tyre, and active in the South of Lebanon. SHEILD was part of Intersos, and became independent during the 2006 war.
We are working on emergencies, since 2011 related to the Syrian crisis. Our fields of action are mainly registration of refugees to the UNHCR, distribution of food/non-food items, education programmes and recreational activities for children and youth, etc.
In parallel, Sheild is also working on development programs, such as rehabilitation of the prisons, assistance to detainee’s families, enhancing access to justice, improving the administration of justice courts, but also livelihood programs, especially delivering vocational trainings and entrepreneurship trainings.

The problem with the toilets that are already in place is that they are conceived to use water but 1/ due to the lack of water, people use them without water 2/ there is no wastewater treatment system in Lebanon in general), and excrements are usually thrown in the sea. 3/ those toilets are spilled over, and since they are very close to refugee tents, it is a catastrophe especially when it rains.

This is why I would like to use the infrastructure of those toilets and transform them into urine diverting dry toilets, basically by elevating them and putting removable containers.

Concerning the cleansing, is it possible to make a hole inside the toilet, on the side of the squatting pan to evacuate water? So it wouldn’t go inside the urine/faeces holes.

I attached some pictures so you can have a better idea.]]>
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Mon, 02 Nov 2015 22:32:18 +0000
Re: Lactic Acid Fermentation, Urea and Lime Addition: Promising Faecal Sludge Sanitizing Methods for Emergency Sanitation (new paper) - by: ldepooter
Thanks for your interest in our study, I was part of the team testing the treatment options in the field. For urea addition, we added 2 - 2.5 % w/w to the sludge and sludge was treated in drums. All urea was converted after 2 - 3 days and the ammonia was contained in the drums (sealed drums). I hope this answers your question, more information can be found in the article!

kind regards, Lobke]]>
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Mon, 02 Nov 2015 20:46:35 +0000
Re: Dry toilets for refugees in Lebanon - by: cecile
About the lenght of use in festival, yes it is just a couple of days, but in many places (France, Australia, Canada), dry toilets are installed permanently in places far from networks but with high use such as touristic places.
I have had this kind of toilets and I have seen them in use in public places and there was no problem with flies. You can see pictures of the fly trap here : (pictures 7, 8 and 10). it is a natural light trap. There is an inverted cone inside a PVC pipe (on one side) and glass window on the the other side. The flies are attracted by the light and come inside but cannot get out. They fall dead in the bag underneath.

About the lack of water : if you decide to convey faeces from one place to another the transport is a risky step during which and after which you need to observe good hygiene practices and you need to take time to train people on these practices. In my view the conditions in a refugee camp and in emergency are not adapted to this, unless as you point out, it is a camp that is intended to be there for a long time.

@ Chris Canaday. I think the capacity building should be really done at the level of the emergency organisations (and there is a dynamic in this sense with the German Wash network who is organising training on sanitation in emergencies) so that ecological sanitation solutions become mainstream in emergencies and that emergency aid workers are able to provide operational toilets that protect the health and the environement. For people however, in emergency situations I am afraid there is not much space for long term education or interest in this topic...]]>
Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues Sun, 01 Nov 2015 12:50:22 +0000