SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Sat, 25 Oct 2014 10:09:38 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience - by: denniskl http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10683 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10683
Interesting topic but I am not quite clear about what you are looking for.

By "Climate Resilient Development" are you raising design questions regarding sanitation systems that can be fortified / protected against climate change impacts?]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Fri, 24 Oct 2014 13:01:05 +0000
Re: latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks - by: Emilio http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10681 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10681
As Florian said water is not safe or pathogene free, the first chamber just retains suspended and floating solids. Now the water table depth at 1.5 - 2 m seems quite superficial, and in case of heavy rain it may flood specially if soil infiltration rate is low.

Under this conditions a two pit latrine may not be the best solution.

Please give more details on the site you are working

regards
Emilio]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Fri, 24 Oct 2014 12:24:45 +0000
Re: latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks - by: Florian http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10675 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10675 rhockkh wrote:
From the guidance I'm receiving from this forum and other sources, it seems that the use of this baffle if correctly placed, will allow for safer water to drain into the second soakaway tank. Would you agree?


Hi Richard,

as Emilio also explained, yes, it would be good to have an elbow or a T between the two tanks. Proper placement of the connecting pipe is part of the good technical design of the two chamber system. A properly placed connecting pipe allows achieving the indended better solids retention in the first tank, the liquid passing to the second tank being mostly solids free, which protects the soak pit of clogging.

However, while the liquid is solids free, it is not necessarly more "safe" in the sense of being less harmfull to the environment or human health (as I tried to explain above). So, distances to wells etc. should be the same as for single tank systems.

Lastly, let me also stress the importance to put a management system in place for regular desludging of the tanks. If they aren't desludged every few years, they become full, solids will pass over to the soak pit (just as with badly placed connecting pipes), soak pits will clogg and will need to be relaced. Without good management, the investment in the more expensive two chamber system makes not much sense.

Best regards,
Florian]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Fri, 24 Oct 2014 07:20:42 +0000
Re: latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks - by: rhockkh http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10671 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10671
I'm aware of the need to use a T, and we are looking at how our budget can accommodate this.

We have taken into account the population density and Sphere standards for the distance from drinking water sources and the location of the latrines. Soil characteristics are generally good and the water table is between 1.5 and 2ms below the surface.

From the guidance I'm receiving from this forum and other sources, it seems that the use of this baffle if correctly placed, will allow for safer water to drain into the second soakaway tank. Would you agree?

Best
Richard]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Fri, 24 Oct 2014 02:14:26 +0000
Re: latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks - by: Emilio http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10666 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10666
The use of a second chamber or a direct conection to a soak away and the pollution of water table depends on the population density (how many toilets per hectare and how many people use one toilet), available space for infiltration, soil caracteristics and the depth of the water table. There is also in function of the aforementioned conditions a minimum distance from the pit to the water well

By design it is admited than this type of latrines use 2-3 liters water at the most per flush then the water volume to dispose is small compared to a home septic tank where other waste water is recieved. For more details see Wagner and Lannoix Excreta disposal for rural areas and small comunities WHO 1958 ( apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/41687)
downloadable from this link]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Thu, 23 Oct 2014 17:19:09 +0000
Re: latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks - by: rhockkh http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10661 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10661
Thanks for your response - very interesting.

Essentially, I'm wondering if the additional piping (see red pipe in attachment 2) will ensure that 'safer' water will drain into the second soakaway tank than the original piping set up in attachment 1?

Richard]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Thu, 23 Oct 2014 01:48:42 +0000
Re: latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks - by: Florian http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10650 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10650
The baffle separates the tank in two compartments (some design have even 3 compartments), which helps retaining solids, either sludge sinking to the bottom or floating scum. The clarified liquid can be further treated or infiltrated. After a certain period, accumulated solids need to be pumped out, as otherwise volume for accumulation would become too small and solids start to be carried over to the next chamber or the soak pit.

Single chamber systems are less efficient for retaining solids, so more solids start entering earlier in the soak pit, where over time they lead to clogging.

The main difference between a well designed two-chamber septic tank and a single chamber tank is the life time: if the 2-chamber tank is properly maintained (desludged according to design intervalls) its lifetime is basically unlimited. A single chamber system will becomed clogged at some time (how fast depends on soil characteristics) and need to be replaced.

As for the contamination of groundwater, there is no difference between a one or a two chamber system. In a one chamber system, the solids will also be retained, just in the soil matrix around the soak pit rather in the tank itself. In both system, clarified wastewater (containing up to 50 % of the total BOD and still an important load of pathogens) will infiltrate and may contaminate the groundwater. If contamination of groundwater is really a problem depends of densitiy of the septic tanks, of soil properties, and of the type of use of the groundwater.

It's a bit different if the tanks do not drain into a soak pit but into suface water or a drainage ditch. Then pollution from single chamber systems (or badly maintained two-chamber systems) is definitely worse than from well maintained two-chamber septic tanks.

This is all generally speaking. I'm not so sure what exactly is the situation you are dealing with. Your attachment 2 shows the same as 1, also a 2 chamber system, just with some difference in the placement of the pipe connecting the two chamber.

I know that in Cambodia (and elsewhere) single chamber systems, soak pits are common in rural pour flush latrines. These fill up after some time and need to be replaced (often designes foresee two of such pits, to be used alternatively.

Regards, Florian]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Wed, 22 Oct 2014 10:08:32 +0000
latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks - by: rhockkh http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10648 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10648
I have a latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks (see attachment 1).

It has been suggested to me that it is very important to include a ‘baffle’ (see attachment 2) inside the first sealed tank to drain blackwater from the middle of the tank into the second soakaway tank.

This ‘baffle’ needs to drain water from the middle of the tank. It is very important for the connecting pipe not to drain blackwater from the top of the first tank as this will drain scum floating on and slightly below the water surface. The water that is then drained into the second soakaway tank from the middle of the first tank will be much safer to be then allowed to discharge into the local water table – approximately 70% harmless was quoted to me.

My question is why this ‘baffle’ is not a prominent feature of all septic tank designs used in Cambodia (where I currently work) – as in attachment 1 above where it is present but not to the specifications in attachment 2 (or as detailed in the literature)?

And why are single tank designs promoted in Cambodia that seem to take no account of the potential to contaminate local water tables?

Looking forward to any insight on this.

Best regards

Richard Hocking
Development Professional
Siem Reap
Cambodia]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Wed, 22 Oct 2014 09:33:18 +0000
Re: Sanitation risk assessment - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/6663-research-in-maputo-on-sanitation-system-risk-assessment-mozambique-funded-by-splash-participatory-rapid-sanitation-system-risk-assessment-methodology?limit=12&start=12#10436 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/6663-research-in-maputo-on-sanitation-system-risk-assessment-mozambique-funded-by-splash-participatory-rapid-sanitation-system-risk-assessment-methodology?limit=12&start=12#10436 [Start of Page 2 of the discussion]

Dear Jonathan and team,

I am just wondering if you can already give some feedback on what came out from the questionnaire work that you carried out in May or an update on this research project in Maputo?

I was prompted to ask because of this post about a project by TU Delft which deals with wastewater reuse in Maputo:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/40-irr...delft-unesco-ihe-uem

Their project is described here: sustainablewatermz.weblog.tudelft.nl/

I will also ask over in the other thread if there is any overlap or common interest with your project. Just wondering as they both deal with wastewater/sanitation in the same city.

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Fri, 10 Oct 2014 07:23:31 +0000
37th WEDC Oxfam Peepoo presentation - by: asaangelino http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/2275-peepoos-in-emergency-situations-eg-after-typhoon-haiyan-in-the-philippes?limit=12&start=12#10262 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/2275-peepoos-in-emergency-situations-eg-after-typhoon-haiyan-in-the-philippes?limit=12&start=12#10262 www.peepoople.com//wp-content/uploads/20...poo-presentation.pdf

For more details on Peepoo please contact
Åsa Angelino ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it )
Erik Josephsson ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it )


* Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippes, see also en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typhoon_Haiyan (note added by moderator EvM)]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Mon, 22 Sep 2014 15:40:35 +0000
Re: 3D printing: what does it mean for sanitation and shelter? - by: Angus http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9741-3d-printing-what-does-it-mean-for-sanitation-and-shelter#9753 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9741-3d-printing-what-does-it-mean-for-sanitation-and-shelter#9753
I've written a little bit more about it here:
policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/blog/2014/0...nse-to-another-level]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Fri, 15 Aug 2014 13:46:38 +0000
Re: 3D printing: what does it mean for sanitation and shelter? - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9741-3d-printing-what-does-it-mean-for-sanitation-and-shelter#9742 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9741-3d-printing-what-does-it-mean-for-sanitation-and-shelter#9742
Could be a cool tool to do some piloting closer to the actual users and then have a blueprint for larger scale production. But for the most part, there needs to be less piloting and more scale-up...

But as mentioned in the article, anything that needs a low volume of custom-made parts, like a leg prosthesis, could really benefit from this.]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Thu, 14 Aug 2014 18:03:53 +0000
3D printing: what does it mean for sanitation and shelter? - by: rahulingle http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9741-3d-printing-what-does-it-mean-for-sanitation-and-shelter#9741 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9741-3d-printing-what-does-it-mean-for-sanitation-and-shelter#9741
Just came across this interesting article and it is amazing what 3D printing technology can do. It would be interesting to explore its possible applications in the sanitation sector.

"Oxfam is already trialling 3D printing in its Lebanon office as part of efforts to improve sanitation across the country. The charity was donated a 3D printer by the company iMakr, and has used it to build parts of taps and faucets, as well as replacing missing parts of British sanitation kits imported to the region."

"Oxfam is also considering how 3D printing might help it develop emergency shelters. Gilles Retsin, co-founder of Softkill Design, is one of the first designers working on 3D printed housing in the UK. "There is quite a lot of interest in it from people involved in emergency housing and crisis housing. They come from the view that it might be possible to print something very quickly in an unexpected site without the need for shipping anything. We would transport a printer and then we would use the materials on the site, such as sand," he says."

Link to article: www.theguardian.com/global-development-p...t-sanitation-housing

cheers

Rahul]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Thu, 14 Aug 2014 16:00:11 +0000
Survey on product development in emergency sanitation - by: yokepean http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9583-survey-on-product-development-in-emergency-sanitation#9583 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9583-survey-on-product-development-in-emergency-sanitation#9583
I writing to request your support in completing a questionnaire on product development in the emergency sanitation sector. Some of you may have already received this via email.

The purpose of this study is to examine support for product development in the emergency sanitation sector. This is an area which has not been fully researched in the context of emergency sanitation. Specifically, the study is part of a doctoral research project to identify ways to support innovation in the emergency sanitation sector. The thread on my overall research may be found here:

forum.susana.org/forum/categories/61-wg-...isposal-phd-research

If you have even been involved or intended to become involved in developing new products or technologies for emergency sanitation, either directly or indirectly as a customer / aid agency, supplier, product developer / designer, funder, researcher, consultant, etc., your views on support for product development will be beneficial to the research and we would greatly appreciate your participation in our study.

If you participate in our study we will be pleased to send you the results of the survey. We would also like to seek your assistance in forwarding this questionnaire to relevant persons.

The questionnaire is attached in the thread and may be completed by filling in the document in your word processor or printing it out and filling it by hand:



This is a strictly confidential survey. No individual response or organization will be identified in our research. Only aggregate results will be reported.

If you require further information please do not hesitate to contact me. A good response rate is critical. Therefore, your time and effort will be greatly appreciated.

Thank you very much and I look forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely
Yoke]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Fri, 01 Aug 2014 06:19:50 +0000
Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience - by: pjbury http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#9374 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#9374
This is one of my first questions to the forum since I joined in 2012.
I'm working on Climate Resilient Development in the WASH sector, more in particular on providing principles based but practical guidance at national strategy and planning level (also there where this level guides decentralized levels).

I'm not sure I have categorized my question in the best possible way, as yes this is about building resilience and risk assessment based vulnerability reduction. I would have expected a category about national sector management including strategy and planning, but it seems that category is not available.

Question:

I'd like to get in touch with those of you working in the same field and be pointed to relevant resources, experiences, documentation and conversations.

Look forward to read reactions.

Greetings from near Bologna, Peter J. Bury (former IRC International Water and Sanitation)]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Wed, 16 Jul 2014 19:49:07 +0000