SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Sat, 01 Nov 2014 04:01:05 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10731 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10731
I would, however, request ODI to kindly develop adaptation to CC manual in WASH sector for Pakistan. That would be a great contribution by DFID/ODI for Pakistan.

Regards,

F H Mughal]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Wed, 29 Oct 2014 10:46:40 +0000
Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience - by: jdoczi http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10724 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10724
Not yet, but keep an eye on our large DFID/IDRC-funded CARIAA project, known as PRISE (Pathways to Resilience in Semi-Arid Economies) (no project website yet, but here's the donor website: www.idrc.ca/en/programs/agriculture_and_...ails.aspx?NewsID=620). This project will be looking at water sector and green growth strategies for several countries, including Pakistan and Tajikistan.

We also have a project with BGS that's surveying groundwater resources in the Indo-Gangetic basin. Again, no publications out yet, but you can see a brief of the project here: www.odi.org/projects/2670-groundwater-re...-indo-gangetic-basin

Thanks and best wishes,

Julian]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Wed, 29 Oct 2014 08:22:13 +0000
Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10720 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10720
That is an interesting study on adaptation to CC in WASH in Africa. Does ODI have similar study for Pakistan or South Asia?

Regards,

F H Mughal]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Wed, 29 Oct 2014 04:52:05 +0000
Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience - by: jdoczi http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10716 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10716
Apologies to have missed your question from July until now, but glad it has been revived.

I work for the Overseas Development Institute, the UK's leading international development think tank. In our water policy team, we have done a lot of work on this exact topic of climate resilient WASH and water resources management.

Please allow me to share our most relevant resource with you - a three-country assessment we did for DFID, where we built a climate risk screening tool for national and donor-level WASH investments and a modified cost-benefit analysis method for assessing potential adaptation options.
Here's the link: www.odi.org/publications/8154-climate-ch...ash-water-sanitation

Please do get in touch if you'd like to discuss more, and do also peruse our website for more useful reports and opinion pieces on the subject.

Many thanks,

Julian Doczi
Research Officer, Water Policy
Water Policy Programme
Overseas Development Institute, London, UK]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Tue, 28 Oct 2014 20:27:40 +0000
Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10699 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10699
Dennis, I am glad you found the Minimalist UDDT on my blog interesting and I look forward to hearing about your trials of it:
inodoroseco.blogspot.com/2013/10/a-free-...ist-uddt-part-1.html
(Remember to follow to Part 2 for more explanation of its functionality,
inodoroseco.blogspot.com/2013/10/a-free-...ist-uddt-part-2.html)
Yes, privacy structures are very important, but are independant of the actual toilet. Part of this minimalist concept is that it could be applied in a corner of a slum dwelling (maybe with a curtain) or out in a field with palm leaves stuck in the ground around it. I propose that this be considered a solid, bottom rung in the ladder of functional, dependable and acceptable UDDTs, and one that can be applied in extreme poverty, emergencies, or to gain experience and demonstrate understanding of the UDDT concept, with essentially no monetary investment.

Elsewhere on my blog, there are more elegant and permanent models of UDDT.

I am sure that the 96-page document that Mughal posted must have some very important analyses, but, to me, it seems to be only bla bla bla. For example, in no place does it even mention the UDDT or the concept that if water resources become more limited maybe we should avoid (or reduce) mixing precious clean water with excrement. In fact, the following quote (which seems to be the only mention of the word 'toilet') seems to show that the author has little concept of water quality, blind faith that all wastewater treatment in the world is 100% effective, and/or no concept of the importance of water conservation:

---
For example, in the case of a typical house connected to a
main sewer system, some 95% of the water delivered by the water utility is returned
for treatment and subsequent reuse. Regardless of this fact, wild claims are often
made in respected journals that vast quantities of water can be ''saved'' by increasing
''efficiency'' through the use of low-flow showers and mini-flush toilets. Contrary to
this, the fact remains that the consumptive use of a shower bath or toilet is nearly zero if they are connected to a sewer. Just as importantly, it is invariably the hydrological
location of the diversion and return flows that determines the impact of shower or
toilet designs on total water use and consumption.
---

The author also includes the following questionable concept (or wording):

---
Optimal ignorance: Optimal ignorance is understanding the difference between
what is worth knowing and what is not. This avoids the collection of too much
irrelevant data. Appropriate imprecision recognises that in conventional assessments,
much of the information collected has a degree of precision that is unnecessary and/or
is inconsistent (in terms of precision) with other information that is being collected.
---

Maybe it is optimal to keep wasting and contaminating water while looking the other way, but I do not think so.

Peter, please share with us what you find on resiliency of WASH to Climate Change. Do you have students who may want to do a thesis on this? (Does anyone else?)

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Sun, 26 Oct 2014 11:11:14 +0000
Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10697 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10697
The attached IRC publication would be useful to you.

Enjoy!

F H Mughal]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Sun, 26 Oct 2014 05:45:30 +0000
Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience - by: denniskl http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10694 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10694
Love the simple UDDT design at the links (am going to build out a few for the experience:) but I think it will need the inclusion of the "frills" - seat, privacy structure, etc - to make it more acceptable to users

Otherwise it looks like a temporary "thing" that I think permanent residents will balk at (even now, a lot of the trouble with UDDT's seems to be the perception of them being inferior to a flush sewer or septic tank toilet - again, the marketing needs to be better!)

Great concept though - cheap, easy to make, easy to manage, but people being people, marketing and packaging is what will get them to aspire to it (and therefore want it and use it)]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Sat, 25 Oct 2014 14:57:14 +0000
Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10693 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10693
Thanks for posting this very important topic that needs much more attention. It would be great for someone to do a thesis to bring together all the numbers on this, but it is clear the UDDTs have much to offer. In the following text from my blog, I mention some of the factors involved.

----
inodoroseco.blogspot.com/2014/02/the-dry...weapon-to-fight.html

The Dry Toilet as a Weapon to Fight
Global Climate Disruption

We are all becoming more and more aware that our world's climate is getting messed up. It is not raining when, where and how it should ... and it is all due to what the human species has done, burning petroleum, burning forests, grazing cattle, and defecating in the water.

You may not have known about that last one, but it is a bigger factor than you may think.
Urine-diverting Dry Toilets (www.ecosanres.org, www.susana.org) have much to offer:

--If we mix everything in water, it ferments in the absence of oxygen and produces large amounts of Methane (Greenhouse Gas #2).
--The urine goes as straight as possible to the soil as fertilizer, thus keeping the feces drier and these also get covered in an absorbant dry material, like soil or wood ash. Some CO2 is produced as they decompose, but the plants that are fertilized absorb more CO2.
--Water consumption is greatly reduced and this almost always has petroleum or electricity invested in its pumping and treatment.
--The need for chemical fertilizers is greatly reduced, and these are responsable for emitting Nitrous Oxide (Greenhouse Gas #3) in their production and use. (And, of course, we have to start forgetting about chemical fertilizers, as they are all non-renewable resources.)
--We sequester carbon into the soil, improving its water-holding capacity.
--Less cement would be needed to build sewers.

It is clear that water scarcity will intensify with Global Climate Disruption and the spread of disease will become more unpredictable (class.coursera.org/warmerworld-001/lecture/41). So this is all the more reason to resolve our own problems productively, on our own, instead of dumping them into the global atmosphere.

----

The UDDT a key tool for adapting to ever scarcer water.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Sat, 25 Oct 2014 13:49:22 +0000
Re: Integrating Climate Resilience in (national) Sanitation and Hygiene Strategy and Plans - looking for resources and experience - by: denniskl http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10683 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/9374-integrating-climate-resilience-in-national-sanitation-and-hygiene-strategy-and-plans-looking-for-resources-and-experience#10683
Interesting topic but I am not quite clear about what you are looking for.

By "Climate Resilient Development" are you raising design questions regarding sanitation systems that can be fortified / protected against climate change impacts?]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Fri, 24 Oct 2014 13:01:05 +0000
Re: latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks - by: Emilio http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10681 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10681
As Florian said water is not safe or pathogene free, the first chamber just retains suspended and floating solids. Now the water table depth at 1.5 - 2 m seems quite superficial, and in case of heavy rain it may flood specially if soil infiltration rate is low.

Under this conditions a two pit latrine may not be the best solution.

Please give more details on the site you are working

regards
Emilio]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Fri, 24 Oct 2014 12:24:45 +0000
Re: latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks - by: Florian http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10675 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10675 rhockkh wrote:
From the guidance I'm receiving from this forum and other sources, it seems that the use of this baffle if correctly placed, will allow for safer water to drain into the second soakaway tank. Would you agree?


Hi Richard,

as Emilio also explained, yes, it would be good to have an elbow or a T between the two tanks. Proper placement of the connecting pipe is part of the good technical design of the two chamber system. A properly placed connecting pipe allows achieving the indended better solids retention in the first tank, the liquid passing to the second tank being mostly solids free, which protects the soak pit of clogging.

However, while the liquid is solids free, it is not necessarly more "safe" in the sense of being less harmfull to the environment or human health (as I tried to explain above). So, distances to wells etc. should be the same as for single tank systems.

Lastly, let me also stress the importance to put a management system in place for regular desludging of the tanks. If they aren't desludged every few years, they become full, solids will pass over to the soak pit (just as with badly placed connecting pipes), soak pits will clogg and will need to be relaced. Without good management, the investment in the more expensive two chamber system makes not much sense.

Best regards,
Florian]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Fri, 24 Oct 2014 07:20:42 +0000
Re: latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks - by: rhockkh http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10671 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10671
I'm aware of the need to use a T, and we are looking at how our budget can accommodate this.

We have taken into account the population density and Sphere standards for the distance from drinking water sources and the location of the latrines. Soil characteristics are generally good and the water table is between 1.5 and 2ms below the surface.

From the guidance I'm receiving from this forum and other sources, it seems that the use of this baffle if correctly placed, will allow for safer water to drain into the second soakaway tank. Would you agree?

Best
Richard]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Fri, 24 Oct 2014 02:14:26 +0000
Re: latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks - by: Emilio http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10666 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10666
The use of a second chamber or a direct conection to a soak away and the pollution of water table depends on the population density (how many toilets per hectare and how many people use one toilet), available space for infiltration, soil caracteristics and the depth of the water table. There is also in function of the aforementioned conditions a minimum distance from the pit to the water well

By design it is admited than this type of latrines use 2-3 liters water at the most per flush then the water volume to dispose is small compared to a home septic tank where other waste water is recieved. For more details see Wagner and Lannoix Excreta disposal for rural areas and small comunities WHO 1958 ( apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/41687)
downloadable from this link]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Thu, 23 Oct 2014 17:19:09 +0000
Re: latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks - by: rhockkh http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10661 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10661
Thanks for your response - very interesting.

Essentially, I'm wondering if the additional piping (see red pipe in attachment 2) will ensure that 'safer' water will drain into the second soakaway tank than the original piping set up in attachment 1?

Richard]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Thu, 23 Oct 2014 01:48:42 +0000
Re: latrine technology question about the use of two chamber rural latrine septic tanks - by: Florian http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10650 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/67-sanitation-systems-for-special-conditions-resiliant-risk-reduction/10648-latrine-technology-question-about-the-use-of-two-chamber-rural-latrine-septic-tanks#10650
The baffle separates the tank in two compartments (some design have even 3 compartments), which helps retaining solids, either sludge sinking to the bottom or floating scum. The clarified liquid can be further treated or infiltrated. After a certain period, accumulated solids need to be pumped out, as otherwise volume for accumulation would become too small and solids start to be carried over to the next chamber or the soak pit.

Single chamber systems are less efficient for retaining solids, so more solids start entering earlier in the soak pit, where over time they lead to clogging.

The main difference between a well designed two-chamber septic tank and a single chamber tank is the life time: if the 2-chamber tank is properly maintained (desludged according to design intervalls) its lifetime is basically unlimited. A single chamber system will becomed clogged at some time (how fast depends on soil characteristics) and need to be replaced.

As for the contamination of groundwater, there is no difference between a one or a two chamber system. In a one chamber system, the solids will also be retained, just in the soil matrix around the soak pit rather in the tank itself. In both system, clarified wastewater (containing up to 50 % of the total BOD and still an important load of pathogens) will infiltrate and may contaminate the groundwater. If contamination of groundwater is really a problem depends of densitiy of the septic tanks, of soil properties, and of the type of use of the groundwater.

It's a bit different if the tanks do not drain into a soak pit but into suface water or a drainage ditch. Then pollution from single chamber systems (or badly maintained two-chamber systems) is definitely worse than from well maintained two-chamber septic tanks.

This is all generally speaking. I'm not so sure what exactly is the situation you are dealing with. Your attachment 2 shows the same as 1, also a 2 chamber system, just with some difference in the placement of the pipe connecting the two chamber.

I know that in Cambodia (and elsewhere) single chamber systems, soak pits are common in rural pour flush latrines. These fill up after some time and need to be replaced (often designes foresee two of such pits, to be used alternatively.

Regards, Florian]]>
Sanitation systems for special conditions, resiliant risk reduction Wed, 22 Oct 2014 10:08:32 +0000