Key documents for the sub-category on challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues

  • muench
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Key documents for the sub-category on challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues

For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/10-gen...d-sub-category-level

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This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category. It contains a recommendation and orientation for newcomers regarding the most important five documents and website links in this thematic area.

Recommended top five documents in the thematic area of "Challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues", in reverse chronological order:

(1)
Grange, C. (2016). Faecal Sludge Management - WASH in Emergencies, Problem Exploration Report. HIF (Humanitarian Innovation Fund) Problem Exploration Report. Cardiff: ELRHA
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2455

Currently, there is a lack of available equipment and technical guidelines on how to manage excreta in emergencies. More standardised and reliable concepts need to be developed to facilitate the implementation and management of sanitation programmes. Furthermore, the management of excreta during an emergency in an urban context has very limited options. This is because there is a lack of available space to implement suitable infrastructures for the users. This report puts forward a few areas for further exploration and development.


(2)
Bryant, J. and Campbell, L. (2014) Urban WASH in Emergencies, ALNAP, RedR
www.urban-response.org/resource/19245

In 2014, RedR held a pilot course for 24 WASH experts on the subject of addressing the social, institutional and technical gaps that currently exist for water, sanitation and hygiene provision in the urban emergency context. This document captures the key messages, lessons and experiences of both course facilitators and participants on the topic of WASH in urban emergency response.


(3)
Reed, B., Shaw, R., Chatterton, K. (2013). Technical Notes on Drinking-water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Emergencies. World Health Organization (WHO), Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough, UK
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/1825
Also available in French here: www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/1929

The following technical notes for emergencies have been prepared for the World Health Organization (WHO), by the Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC):

1. Cleaning and disinfecting wells, 2. Cleaning and disinfecting boreholes,
3. Cleaning and disinfecting water storage tanks and tankers, 4. Rehabilitating small-scale piped water distribution systems, 5. Emergency treatment of drinking water at the point of use
6. Rehabilitating water treatment works after an emergency, 7. Solid waste management in emergencies, 8. Disposal of dead bodies, 9. How much water is needed,
10. Hygiene promotion in emergencies, 11. Measuring chlorine levels in water supplies
12. Delivering safe water by tanker, 13. Planning for excreta disposal in emergencies,
14. Technical options for excreta disposal, 15. Cleaning wells after seawater flooding


(4)
Bastable, A., Russell, L. (2013). Gap Analysis in Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion. Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF), London, UK
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2452

Excreta disposal issues such as latrines in areas where pits cannot be dug, desludging latrines, no-toilet options and the final treatment or disposal of the sewage are the areas in which people have identified gaps in emergency responses. Unsurprisingly, given current patterns in urban migration and the nature of recent emergency responses, urban sanitation in particular was identified as a major gap. The other major issue highlighted was weak community participation and the critical importance of designing appropriate hygiene promotion activities for each context. Sustainability also emerged as an important issue for all WASH activities, as did the emergency development continuum, the importance of better preparation and resilience and the need for exit strategies and environmental considerations.


(5)
Johannessen, A., Patinet, J., Carter, W., Lamb, J. (2012). Sustainable sanitation for emergencies and reconstruction situations - Factsheet of Working Group 8. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA)
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/797

This factsheet addresses current developments, challenges, gaps and solutions in the planning and implementation of sustainable sanitation for emergencies and reconstruction situations focusing on low and middle income countries. It is mainly intended for students, researchers, policy makers and practitioners.



You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here: Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection?

Regards,
Elisabeth

Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
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  • jspit
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Re: five key documents for emergency sanitation - comments on my proposal

Hi Elisabeth,

Interesting setup. I can imagine the HIF WASH Gap analysis could be placed in the top 5 documents as it provides a clear guidance on what is still missing at the moment. (edit by EvM: is now included in the Top-5 list)

For a training for the German NGOs active in the WASH emergency world I prepared a dropbox folder with the documents that are most valuable a this moment. I have invited you for this dropbox folder and feel free to use the contents.*

I hope you find this useful.

Final date for Speedkits EU project is 1 March 2016. We have our final workshop on 7 and 8 April 2016.

And of course, tomorrow we have a new webinar on Faecal Sludge Treatment for VIA Water:

www.viawater.nl/news/second-faecal-sludge-webinar


Best regards

Jan Spit

Adviser Sanitation
WASTE Advisers on Urban Environment and Development • Lange Houtstraat 26 • 2511 CW Den Haag • The Netherlands
Twitter @janspitdelft • www.waste.nl


* Note by moderator (EvM): I will move documents from this dropbox folder that are not yet in the SuSanA library to the SuSanA library and will let you know tomorrow which documents Jan had provided there.
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  • muench
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Re: five key documents for emergency sanitation - comments on my proposal

Hi,

I've looked at the dropbox folder where Jan had provided a range of documents. There is lots of good stuff there, I am just discussing with him and the secretariat in the background how best to share those documents.

Meanwhile, two documents that stuck out for me:

Gap Analysis in Emergency Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion
Andy Bastable and Lucy Russell, Oxfam GB for Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF)
July 2013
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/2452

(edit by EvM: is now included in the Top-5 list)

From the executive summary:

The most significant gaps identified in emergency WASH were:
1. Latrines in locations where no pits are possible (urban, high watertable/flooding)
2. Community participation and empowerment of vulnerable groups, including monitoring and evaluation from the outset
3. Latrine emptying and desludging
4. Hygiene promotion and the importance of understanding context, including socioanthropology issues
5. Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and sanitation marketing
6. Urban alternatives for excreta disposal
7. Exit strategies and sustainability issues from the outset
8. Final sewage disposal options after desludging and treatment
9. Further development of non-toilet options/early response/mobile
10. Hand washing hardware and promotion and sustainability (including soap) and non-soap options
11. Water Treatment, particularly bulk and point of use household filters, including cost and sustainability issues
12. The need for low-tech WASH solutions acceptable and sustainable by locals

and:

Emergency Sanitation Project (ESP) Final Report
June 2015
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), lead agency
WASTE, Oxfam Great Britain

From the executive summary:

The ESP included the following work streams:
· Alternative toilet and no toilet options, with a collection/disposal system
· Biodegradable bags
· Desludging
· Handwashing (household and communal)
· Latrine pit linings, superstructures, and raised latrines
· Locally produced latrine slabs
· Multipurpose and non-stick latrine slabs
· Urinals
· Wastewater treatment and disposal

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Further comments regarding either key documents (Top 5) or other important documents and links to be included in the sticky post above are welcome!

Elisabeth


P.S. These two documents were originally in the list of Top-5 but were later removed:

Luff, R. (2012). Compendium of WASH in Schools Facilities in Emergencies. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), New York, USA
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/1683

The ‘Compendium of WASH in Schools Facilities in Emergencies’ has been prepared as a resource for coordination and management of WASH interventions in emergency preparedness, response and early recovery. The primary audience includes those who are implementing interventions in schools being used as emergency shelter and temporary learning spaces established by governments, non-governmental organizations, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, or United Nations agencies.



Harvey, P.A. (2007). Excreta Disposal in Emergencies - A Field Manual. WEDC, Loughborough, UK
www.susana.org/en/resources/library/details/359

In this manual existing, innovative and new technologies and approaches for excreta disposal in emergency situations are investigated. It provides practical guidance on how to select, design, construct and maintain appropriate excreta disposal systems to reduce facael transmission risks and protect public health in emergency situations. Relevant situations include natural disasters, relief for refugees and internally displaced persons, and complex emergencies, focusing on rural and peri-urban areas.


Dr. Elisabeth von Muench
Independent consultant
Community manager of this forum via SEI
(see: www.susana.org/en/resources/projects/details/127 )
Wikipedian, co-founder of WikiProject Sanitation: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:WikiProject_Sanitation

Location: Frankfurt, Germany
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Twitter: @EvMuench, website:...

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  • yokepean
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Re: Key documents for the sub-category on challenging environments, emergencies, reconstruction situations, resilience issues

Dear Elisabeth,

I would like to recommend the following as an important document:

Rush, H.; Marshall, N. Case Study: Innovation in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. CENTRIM, University of Brighton, Brighton, UK (2015) 63 pp.

Download from r4d.dfid.gov.uk/Output/201207/Default.aspx

The study examines the state of innovation in the WASH sector in terms of results, resources, relationships, etc (among other concepts), and helps us understand why gaps in the emergency sanitation are or are not being addressed effectively.

Yoke Pean Thye | PhD Candidate | Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)
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  • BelindaA
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Re: Key documents for the sub-category on schools (sanitation and hygiene in schools)

Dear Elisabeth and all,

Very happy with this selection!

As a general feedback, it's important that this list includes that of humanitarian standards, The Sphere Project, for me has been critical to my work! It is translated in many different languages. Here's the link to the website. www.sphereproject.org/handbook/ I apologise that I am unable to summarise for you. However, the kind colleagues in the Sphere Project could be contacted to assist, I am sure ;)!

All the best,

Belinda

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Belinda Abraham

Hanoi, Vietnam
+84 (0)1685580482
skype: Belinda.Abraham2

WASH Specialist, over 15 years in Eastern and Southern Africa, South East Asia, primarily working for UNICEF
Key areas of interest: WASH in Schools, WASH Communication and Community-based Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion

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  • F H Mughal
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Re: Sanitation in Emergencies

Sanitation in Emergencies

News in today’s (12 March 2016) newspaper (Dawn, Karachi) informed of children exposure to the raw sewage, under the title “Children exposed to raw sewage, noxious fumes at Greek border camp
www.dawn.com/news/1245092/children-expos...at-greek-border-camp

The news informed: “Days of heavy rain have turned Greece’s Idomeni border camp into a foul-smelling bog, exposing migrant children to raw sewage, noxious fumes and bitter cold, with aid workers describing conditions as “critical”. "The bathrooms are flooded, there is sewage water everywhere, you see a lot of children as well playing in the sewage water."

There are some publications that deal with WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) in emergencies. Some that I know of are:

Engineering in Emergencies – A Practical Guide for Relief Workers
Jan Davis and Robert Lambert
ITDG Publishing and RedR
The publication of 736 pp covers a wide range of topics like planning, management, assessment, environmental health, environmental sanitation, emergency water supply, water source development, water treatment and distribution, among others.

Emergency Sanitation – Assessment and Program Design
Harvey, Peter; Baghri, Sohrab; Reed, Bob.
WEDC
This publication covers topics like wastewater management, wastewater management at medical centers, Hygiene promotion, solid waste management, community participation, rapid assessment, and program design.

Emergency Water Sources – Guidelines for Selection and Treatment
WEDC
reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/...0water%20sources.pdf

The 320pp publication is very useful and, I use it as an reference publication. As the title suggests, it is all about water treatment and distribution, with description on survival supply and, longer term supply of water.

The SPHERE series is also useful, especially the module: Minimum standards in Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion. The module has 7 sections. There are: Water supply, sanitation and hygiene promotion (WASH); Hygiene promotion; Water supply; Excreta disposal; Vector control; Solid waste management; and Drainage. This is useful publication, if one is interested in the minimum standards.


F H Mughal

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