SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sat, 30 May 2015 12:21:45 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: World Toilet Day: cities can't wait - by: muench
Here is the link to the blog where I have copied it from ( (I hope it is allowed to do so)

Dennis @ The Poverty Pit • a month ago
Hello Giacomo,

Congrats on the new blog and your new challenge.

As an "off grid" thinker, I like innovations that don't rely on expensive, hard to maintain, prone-to-failure systems, whether in power (infra: centralised grids, power stations; negative impacts: high costs, high maintenance, transmission loss and blackouts - instead think energy efficiency, local power generation through renewables, etc) or in sanitation (sewered systems, waste treatment plants, loss of nutrients etc).

In rural, low density population areas, I see how a change of thinking, and more understanding, by communities and authorities can lead to installation of technology options such as UDDT's on a widespread basis.
In rural and low density settings, the transport of the nutrients (ie urine) can be used in direct benefit to the local community through agri land application, and the faeces can be safely managed through pathogen kill drying and storage.

But - I have to admit to struggling with solutions in urban and particularly peri-urban settings (particularly as the % of the overall population in cities grows).

My question to you, Giacomo, as you research this subject is, how can we systemise the nutrient separation and re-use in these city settings as a city wide alternative? It will require effective separation technologies that cater for all sorts of dwellings (highrise, commercial, landed properties, squatter homes, etc) and even more effective collection, processing, management and distribution systems (not even counting the government and public awareness and acceptance of such re-use).

Just a few thoughts to leave you with....

Galli-IRC Mod Dennis @ The Poverty Pit • a month ago
Dear Dennis,

Thank you for your comment. Interesting thoughts indeed. I must say that I am also a proponent of nutrient separation and re-use. However, I see even among my own friends how many city dwellers (unfortunately not all) even snub the idea of solid waste separation.
I think that innovation in separation technologies that cater for all sort of dwellings is important, but this innovation (at scale!) will come only when there is a sufficient institutional 'space' and funding available. This is why I focus so much in turning the attention towards reform of the public sanitation sector.
So in my view it is more fruitful to turn your question around: how do we ensure government and public awareness and acceptance of such re-use of nutrients?

Dennis @ The Poverty Pit Galli-IRC • a month ago
Nice re-framing!

Maybe can turn into an economic argument and discussion "How many $$ did you flush down the toilet this year?" style approach?

If there is a claimed economic value (as there is), then it can be quantified and maybe a consumer incentivisation scheme can be created (whether financial or social), just like local government - and even private providers - incentivise recycling and waste management in some countries

let me think further.....

dietvorst • a month ago
Giacomo, thanks for taking up the task of analysing the systemic change needed to provide sanitation for all in cities. In the annex you list several tools that could help bring about this change. Which of the new ones do you think holds most promise?

Galli-IRC Mod dietvorst • a month ago
Cor, thanks for your comment. I think all planning approaches have their strong points, it really depends on what the emphasis a municipality or service provider chooses to give. I do think that planning approaches alone are not enough. As shown in the diagram above, planning is only part of the first phase. There is really a need to also experiment, test and scale up initiatives that work in an iterative way while investing in the human capital of a service authority and service provider.

P.S. Mughal, I didn't get what you were trying to say in your post above on 23 November?
if I take secondary treatment of wastewater as a yardstick (effluent BOD and SS, say, 40 mg/l), then the percentage of wastewater treated in megacity of Karachi is zero!!

I guess yes, the level of secondary treatment of wastewater in Karachi would then be zero. Is that surprising?]]>
WG 6 (Cities) Tue, 23 Dec 2014 15:42:14 +0000
Re: World Toilet Day: cities can't wait - by: F H Mughal
Just a quick response to your Dhaka figures, if I take secondary treatment of wastewater as a yardstick (effluent BOD and SS, say, 40 mg/l), then the percentage of wastewater treated in megacity of Karachi is zero!!


F H Mughal]]>
WG 6 (Cities) Sun, 23 Nov 2014 16:05:11 +0000
New publication: Towards Systemic Change in Urban Sanitation (by IRC) - by: dietvorst
While more people in cities have access to toilets than in villages, both wastewater and solid waste remains largely untreated. Take Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh: 99 percent of the population use toilets but according to Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) a staggering 98 percent of their waste is dumped untreated in the enviroment [1].

On World Toilet Day, IRC presents its ideas how to tackle sanitation in cities. A new working paper “Towards Systemic Change in Urban Sanitation“ [2], marks one of the first steps in finding answers on how to reform a sanitation sector, which is failing a large part of the urban population. The problems in urban sanitation range from lack of facilities to lack of public funding and messy politics in urban governance.The root causes are systemic and technology alone is not the solution.

In the paper IRC argues that sanitation is a public good and is therefore a public responsibility. This does not exempt households from their responsibilities, or exclude private businesses. However, there is a strong need for governmental agencies to lead a reform in urban sanitation. At the same time, IRC proposes a process of change leading to a sector that is self-reliant, trusted by citizens and private parties, and able to respond to current and upcoming challenges.

You can join the discussion on urban sanitation with Giacomo Galli, the author of the working paper, on his blog post.

World Toilet Day is a global campaigning day where many organisations in the water, sanitation and hygiene sector collectively call to take action. Jointly they raise awareness on the 2.5 billion people who lack access to sanitation, the 1 billion people who have to defecate in the open and the women and girls who are particularly at risk because of this situation.

[1] Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., and Heymans, C., 2014. The missing link in sanitation service delivery : a review of fecal sludge management in 12 cities. (Research brief / WSP). Washington, DC, USA, Water and Sanitation Program (WSP)

[2] Galli, G., 2014. Towards systemic change in urban sanitation. (IRC working paper). The Hague, The Netherlands, IRC]]>
WG 6 (Cities) Wed, 19 Nov 2014 14:52:01 +0000
Re: Revised Sanitation 21 Planning Framework - draft for comment - by: samuel
The final version of Sanitation 21 is now available as a free download here.

Or can be found in the SuSanA library here.

Enjoy and comment!]]>
WG 6 (Cities) Wed, 12 Nov 2014 16:55:50 +0000
Re: Urbanisation, water resources and public health - your thoughts & experience - by: JKMakowka Drainage is pretty bad in many parts of the city, and especially the informal settlements low income housing areas get regularly flooded after heavy rainfalls (not in the sense that water stagnates for days, but everything turns into a big muddy mess). That combined with non-suitable pit-latrines that overflow and are often "emptied" by flooding them, ongoing destruction of wetland areas that had been acting as filters to some extend, and road construction works that further impede drainage and you get a pretty unhealthy situation for many people. In addition some of the former wetland areas (where all the untreated waste ends up) are used for urban agriculture with pretty negative effects on the worker's health and possibly also the consumers.]]> WG 6 (Cities) Tue, 04 Nov 2014 15:25:00 +0000 Re: Urbanisation, water resources and public health - your thoughts & experience - by: mcomparet WG 6 (Cities) Tue, 04 Nov 2014 13:39:03 +0000 Re: Urbanisation, water resources and public health - your thoughts & experience - by: JKMakowka
The theme you are mentioning is certainly a topic in Kampala (where I lived the last two years) for example, with some interesting studies going on. But so far it seems to be more at the "yes we have realized that it is a problem" stage.]]>
WG 6 (Cities) Tue, 04 Nov 2014 12:01:50 +0000
Urbanisation, water resources and public health - your thoughts & experience - by: mcomparet WG 6 (Cities) Tue, 04 Nov 2014 10:22:58 +0000 Re: sanitation 21 - by: jonpar
Thanks very for your message.

I agree the document could be longer (although initially we were trying to produce something quite a bit shorter that what is available. It could in fact be a full book but there are two reasons why it isn't

Firstly, although it would provide more comprehensive technical guidance, we didn't set out to prepare a book on the topic as we wanted a document that was more accessible.

Secondly, even if we had wanted to produce a book, it would have taken alot more time to prepare and we didn't have this time available.

It would however be great if it could be expanded with a SuSanA/IWA working group taking this on board.

Maybe I am not understanding your point but I am a bit confused by your comment in reference to Box 1 which describes the experiences from Dschang, Cameroon. The information is from PS-Eau. The predominant type of sanitation in the city is on-site not sewerage and therefore it would be of less relevance to cities which are predominantly covered by sewerage

best regards,

WG 6 (Cities) Wed, 22 Oct 2014 21:47:47 +0000
Re: sanitation 21 - by: F H Mughal
The publication is interesting, though it is too short (38 pp) for such an important topic. Kindly help me out on an aspect that is bothering me. The document is meant for urban sanitation services (pp. 11). Urban centers (for example, in Pakistan – cities like Karachi, Lahore, and Hyderabad) have sewer system laid and managed by the municipal authorities. We don’t have to undergo any headache. Domestic and industrial wastewaters flow in the sewer system, conveyed to wastewater treatment plants and onwards for disposal.

Box 1 says: “Install systems for safe management of pit latrine faecal sludge and septage from septic tanks.” This would pertain to the sanitary conditions in rural areas here, where households have pit latrines, or septic tank-soak pit systems. This is not quite clear to me, perhaps, you can help me out.

Or, is it that the publication was written for sanitation systems in developed countries?


F H Mughal]]>
WG 6 (Cities) Wed, 22 Oct 2014 17:02:06 +0000
Re: sanitation 21 - by: muench
Relationship to the previous Sanitation21

In 2006, an IWA Task Group produced a framework for
city sanitation planning entitled Sanitation21 – Simple
Approaches to Complex Sanitation: A Draft Framework for
Analysis. This document was based on the realization that
improving the quality and effectiveness of sanitation services
requires a much broader range of considerations other than
those related to the type of technology employed. The Task
Force recognised that successful sanitation planning activities
need to be based on a sound understanding of the existing
situation and respond to demand from an improved sanitation
service at different levels – from the household level to the
municipal authorities (IWA, 2006).

This new publication encapsulates experiences in sanitation
planning, particularly from those from India and Indonesia, to
ground the conceptual framework into reality. It also draws
from other relevant documentation such as Effective Strategic
Planning for Urban Sanitation Service - Fundamentals
of Good Practice produced by GHK, Urban Sanitation: A
Guide to Strategic Planning published by Practical Action
Publishing, and documentation from
Eawag-Sandec related to the Household-Centre Environmental
Sanitation Approach and, more recently, the Community-Led
Urban Environmental Sanitation (CLUES) planning guidelines.

Readers familiar with the original Sanitation21 planning
framework will see that the fundamentals of Sanitation21
presented below are essentially the same. This new document
builds on the previous document, but places stronger emphasis
on the planning process and activities to strengthen planning
to ensure that the outcomes from investments to improve
sanitation service delivery are sustainable.

And about the target group:

Who should read this document?

This document is for those who are concerned about the quality
of urban sanitation services and are looking for guidance to
improve these services. Therefore, it will be of interest to those
who work for local authorities, utilities or non-governmental
organizations as well as consultants providing advice about
ways to improve sanitation service delivery. Box 1 provides a
good example of how efforts put into the planning process can
pay off in terms of attracting investment for implementation.
This can be used to illustrate to institutional stakeholders the
benefit of planning.

I assume but haven't checked that some of the comments made in this thread were also taken into consideration in one way or another. I might check with Christoph Lüthi as well if he can say something about that.

In case you are wondering why I am talking about this document right now, it's because when I recently edited the Wikipedia page on sustainable sanitation ( I added a section on planning systems and thought it's an important reference to cite. If anyone wants to improve the Wikipedia article further, or tell me what I should do to improve it further please be my guest.

I think good thorough planning is paramount for achieving sustainable sanitation systems.

WG 6 (Cities) Tue, 21 Oct 2014 09:29:55 +0000
Re: sanitation 21 - by: jonpar WG 6 (Cities) Fri, 19 Sep 2014 13:44:33 +0000 Re: Water and sanitation access in France. | Accès à l'eau et à le sanitaire en France - by: ben
Here is an article on rom campsites that might interest you, from aquaterre (Strasbourg)

WG 6 (Cities) Fri, 19 Sep 2014 12:04:56 +0000
Introduction: GIZ programme on Urban Sanitation in India ("Support to National Urban Sanitation Policy”) - by: dirkwalther
I am managing a Urban Sanitation Programme in India on behalf of GIZ. The name of the programme is “Support to National Urban Sanitation Policy” (SNUSP).

Under the backdrop of bilateral cooperation between the Government of India and Germany, the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD), government of India has requested GIZ for support at national, state and city level in implementing the National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP).
The National Urban Sanitation Policy adopted by the MoUD in 2008 was the crucial political step for improving the urban sanitation sector in India.

The vision of this policy is that “All Indian cities and towns become totally sanitized, healthy, livable”.

Under the Programme “Support to the National Urban Sanitation Policy” (SNUSP) GIZ provides technical support and work to improve the capacities and knowledge for implementing the NUSP in a improved and sustainable way. This support covers technical advise based on evidence, testing of sanitation solutions on the ground and development of the NUSP instruments, State Sanitation Strategies and City Sanitation Plans.

The SNUSP programme has successfully completed its 3 years of work which included support of all three goverment tiers at national, state and city level.

As part of the GIZ -SNUSP Programme, 6 Indian cities were supported in the preparation of their City Sanitation Plans (Cochin, Nashik, Raipur, Shimla, Tirupati and Varanasi).

Cities have been hand-held in implementing CSP activities like:
• Rehabilitation of sewerage system
• Hydraulic assessment of trunk sewer to avoid wastewater discharge in holy river Godavari
• Capacity building of plumbers associated with Municipalities in the cities
• Decentralised on-site waste water treatment system in areas where centralised conventional treatment systems are not viable i.e. coastal region and hilly ares
• Improved public toilet facilities in densely populated areas
• Improved sanitation condition in schools located in underserved areas

The objective is to capacitate Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) in how to use CSPs to improve citywide sanitation and to promote working models, which later can feed into the preparation of the State Sanitation Strategies (SSS) for upscaling and to guide other cities in the replication of the same.

Relevant experiences, learnings and insights from the state, city and pilot level interventions by GIZ with its partners are fed into the national level policy dialogue. SNUSP made use of a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) comprising of highly recognised international and national experts and developed national advisories on Septage Management and Indian Water Utility. The roadmap on how to implement septage management in an integrated manner was acknowledged by MoUD. The ministry will use this with other states to guide the preparation of State Sanitation Strategy.

The planning, implementation and monitoring processes and tools, a wide selection of technical options and the main lessons learnt from the cities and states have been compiled in a manager’s handbook (CSP Primer) and a Self-Review Checklist. Those, together with the five pilot cities’ CSP and factsheets have been made available at the MoUD’s website to guide cities in the preparation of City Sanitation Plans.

Till date the programme after 3 years has been able to demonstrate some significant outputs and outcomes including on-ground projects, policy advocacy to many knowledge products. In India, cities are emerging as the main economic centres and very soon more than half of its population will live in the cities putting immense pressure on basic services like sanitation, drinking water and others. To cope with the situation the country needs further support in infrastructure development, management, operation and maintenance. GIZ SNUSP will continue working hand in hand with the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India until 2017 to make the vision of NUSP that is “100% clean, hygienic and safe cities” a reality.

For more information visit our work at:


Dirk Walther
Senior Advisor
Support to the National Urban Sanitation Policy (SNUSP)
Sustainable Urban Habitat
Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, India]]>
WG 6 (Cities) Thu, 07 Aug 2014 07:16:48 +0000
Fact-sheets on some initiatives of GIZ “Support to the National Urban Sanitation Policy” (SNUSP), India - by: Soma Hydraulic assessment of trunk sewer to avoid wastewater discharge in holy river Godavari; Improved public toilet facilities in densely populated areas.

For more information on the GIZ SNUSP programme visit]]>
WG 6 (Cities) Mon, 04 Aug 2014 07:09:24 +0000