SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Thu, 24 Apr 2014 13:57:31 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: ande1978 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8271 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8271
I am currently working with an organization in Nairobi/Kibera called KDI. One of there projects was a composting toilet system. They did a very good job on the design.

Are you working in Sub-saharan Africa, too? What is your location and any design considerations so far?

Greets,

Andreas]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Sun, 20 Apr 2014 18:45:28 +0000
Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: Juergen http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8250 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8250
you might get some -measured, quantified- results from a French NGO called "Solidarités"; this NGO was a project partner of me resp. my employer and built an operated covered latrines in a Rohingya refugee camp in south-eastern Bangladesh. They collected the gas and used it for fuel in the camp's kitchen with some success in 2011/2012. They might be able to give you some of their quantifications about volumes and quality of the gas.

Regards,

Jürgen]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Wed, 16 Apr 2014 08:39:47 +0000
Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: christoph http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8249 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8249 I was trying to remember. I have the impression we already had a specific exchange about greenhouse gas emissions of latrines and UDDT trying to calculate both, one comparing to the other. This was about 3-4 years ago, maybe still in Ecosanres. I tried to remember but I could not find it quickly so I just do this reminder to the others.

Yours
Christoph]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Wed, 16 Apr 2014 08:27:21 +0000
Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8238 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8238
If you can, please try to do at least some quick-and-dirty gas measurement, since the real world conditions can be complicated and unpredictable ... and a priori assumptions could lead the wrong way.

If in fact no one has done so, someone urgently needs to cap a pit latrine and measure the gases emitted within.

Here is some support for my assertion that soil microbes can consume Greenhouse Gases:
((Bacteria can consume GHGs))
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methanotroph
www.goucher.edu/Documents/verge/papers8/...balClimateChange.pdf
books.google.com.ec/books?id=ZKPxFINHDH4...thane%22&f=false
((Fungi play a role))
eco.confex.com/eco/2010/techprogram/P23645.HTM

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Tue, 15 Apr 2014 03:33:07 +0000
Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: saniman http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8235 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8235
Many thanks for your reply and interest in our work!

Yes, you understood our approach correctly and this is the main limitation of all our estimations (rather than calculations) as all of them are based on other peoples work. And still many things have never been analysed and are based upon assumptions (no one has covered a pit latrine and measured the gas emissions for example). In the recommendations we will spend some time on future research possibilities to fill these gaps but unfortunately we do neither have the time nor the finances to do it ourselves.

To your comments:

1) Yes, we meant UDDT while speaking of Ecosan and have changed that.

2) We will most likely not go into the intentionally intended depth of each system as to include different cover materials as the project is much more complex than we thought and we are running out of time – but for future work a very interesting point!

3) As the focus is on informal settlement in urban poor we did not include this option but again a very interesting one for future work.

4) We do not have a link in form of an URL to clean team chemicals but did analyse them in depth and include them into our spread-sheet as they play an important role and are questionable from my personal point of view (Lars Pelzer).

5) Yes, taking the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) approach we do include production, transport and operation of different materials.

My best,
Lars Pelzer (saniman)]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Mon, 14 Apr 2014 15:18:09 +0000
Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: saniman http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8231 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8231
Since we are considering high density urban poor settlements we’d like to include a central composting station for the UDDT (previously named Ecosan but thanks to Chris Canaday we’ve changed that).
Does anyone have construction specifications for a composting centre in Sub Saharan Africa? We’re assuming that it’ll be a paved ground and manual turning of compost as easiest form.

Many thanks in advance and
Cheers,
Lars Pelzer (saniman)]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Mon, 14 Apr 2014 14:56:56 +0000
Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: canaday http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8201 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8201
Congratulations on undertaking such important work.

Do I understand correctly that you will be estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions via published data and theoretical calculations? Given the complexity of the processes involved, it would be excellent for someone to measure these emissions empirically.

A few comments on your attached table:

1) EcoSan is a broad category of techniques to recycle nutrients and not treat excrement as waste. I believe you refer to the UDDT (Urine-diverting Dry Toilet).

2) Within the UDDT category, it would useful to analyze different cover materials, including sawdust and wood ash (which are commonly used), but also more biologically active substances, such as rich, organic soil (including compost from kitchen waste or recycled UDDT cover material after storage and/or treatment). Please take into account the potential for soil microbes to consume these gases before they are emitted into the air.

3) What would be the emissions from WC + Sub-surface-flow Constructed Wetland?

4) Please give us a link to a description of the CleanTeam Technique and the chemicals used. www.cleanteamtoilets.com/our-model/ does not give any useful detail.

5) Please include in your calculations the GHGs emitted during the production and operation of the vehicles used to transport materials.

Good luck with your work. I look forward to seeing the results.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Fri, 11 Apr 2014 10:28:32 +0000
Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: saniman http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8164 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/8164-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-sanitation-value-chain-in-urban-poor-settlements#8164
In the following two weeks we will post questions that occurred during the project and hope for input from experienced professionals in order to tackle this complex topic, starting with the first one today:


In order to calculate the GHGE emissions from option 7 and 8 in attached Table 1 we need a COD value for the effluent of a pour-flush squatting pan. We thought about taking the value of a pit latrine but since the excreta are diluted with water from flushing we are not sure and we unfortunately couldn’t find anything in recent literature. Can anyone provide values for that?

Many thanks in advance!]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Wed, 09 Apr 2014 10:31:34 +0000
Re: WWTP's have approximately 3% of total greenhouse-gas emissions world-wide? - by: AquaVerde http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/5296-wwtps-have-approximately-3-of-total-greenhouse-gas-emissions-world-wide#6254 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/5296-wwtps-have-approximately-3-of-total-greenhouse-gas-emissions-world-wide#6254 Greenhouse Gas Emission (GHG) made by wwtp's in China, 2013

see: forum.susana.org/media/kunena/attachment...missionfromthe7t.pdf]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Sun, 03 Nov 2013 07:46:14 +0000
Re: WG 3 renewable energies and climate change.... next steps - by: compost1 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/69-wg-3-renewable-energies-and-climate-change-next-steps?limit=12&start=12#6000 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/69-wg-3-renewable-energies-and-climate-change-next-steps?limit=12&start=12#6000 First of all thank you for accepting me in this group.
As certified waste manager with international status by ISWA, indeed it will be my pleasure to share our experiences and lessons learned in developing public private partnerships in the field of waste management in developing countries.

One such case study www.lahorecompost.com has been designed , developed and operated by me and is a registered CDM entity with UNFCCC.

Many such projects are in pipeline that you can see on our web site www.greentechnologies.com.pk

World Bank report on Energy Efficient Cities Initiative is enclosed

Lets share our experiences to develop such opportunities in developing countries .

All the best
Dr.Ata ul haq
Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Tue, 15 Oct 2013 06:55:24 +0000
Re: WWTP's have approximately 3% of total greenhouse-gas emissions world-wide? - by: AquaVerde http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/5296-wwtps-have-approximately-3-of-total-greenhouse-gas-emissions-world-wide#5531 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/5296-wwtps-have-approximately-3-of-total-greenhouse-gas-emissions-world-wide#5531 m.e. ist dieser Artikel sehr wichtig für kommende ökol. Betrachtungen und Vergleiche zum Methan-Ausstoß von kleinen CSB-ABRs (ohne Nutzung vom Biogas) und auch der vielen vorhandenen anaeroben Vorklärungen im KKA-Bereich unter unseren kalten Bedingungen.
Gruss
Detlef]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Tue, 03 Sep 2013 08:53:47 +0000
Re: WWTP's have approximately 3% of total greenhouse-gas emissions world-wide? - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/5296-wwtps-have-approximately-3-of-total-greenhouse-gas-emissions-world-wide#5527 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/5296-wwtps-have-approximately-3-of-total-greenhouse-gas-emissions-world-wide#5527 I just saw this new paper on the same topic, maybe you find it useful. I only read the abstract so far (thus I don't know how good it is) because I don't have a subscription with IWA Publishing. You could contact the author if they would send you the paper, or a pre-layouted version of it.

Water Science & Technology Vol 68 No 4 pp 887–893 © IWA Publishing 2013 doi:10.2166/wst.2013.318

Carbon footprints of Scandinavian wastewater treatment plants

D. J. I. Gustavsson and S. Tumlin

VA SYD, Box 191, SE-201 21 Malmö, Sweden E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Gryaab, Box 8984, SE-402 74 Gothenburg, Sweden

ABSTRACT
This study estimates the carbon footprints of 16 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), all situated in Scandinavian countries, by using a simple model. The carbon footprint calculations were based on operational data, literature emission factors (efs) and measurements of greenhouse gas emissions at some of the studied WWTPs. No carbon neutral WWTPs were found. The carbon footprints ranged between 7 and 108 kg CO2e P.E.−1 year−1. Generally, the major positive contributors to the carbon footprint were direct emissions of nitrous oxide from wastewater treatment. Whether heat pumps for effluents have high coefficient of performance or not is extremely important for the carbon footprint. The choice of efs largely influenced the carbon footprint. Increased biogas production, efficient biogas usage, and decreased addition of external fossil carbon source for denitrification are important activities to decrease the carbon footprint of a WWTP.

Keywords: carbon footprint; greenhouse gas emissions; methane; nitrous oxide; wastewater treatment plants
]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Mon, 02 Sep 2013 08:54:54 +0000
Re: WWTP's have approximately 3% of total greenhouse-gas emissions world-wide? - by: AquaVerde http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/5296-wwtps-have-approximately-3-of-total-greenhouse-gas-emissions-world-wide#5334 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/5296-wwtps-have-approximately-3-of-total-greenhouse-gas-emissions-world-wide#5334 This Australian paper is of great help.
Take Care
Detlef]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Sun, 18 Aug 2013 09:48:12 +0000
Re: WWTP's have approximately 3% of total greenhouse-gas emissions world-wide? - by: robhughes http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/5296-wwtps-have-approximately-3-of-total-greenhouse-gas-emissions-world-wide#5332 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/5296-wwtps-have-approximately-3-of-total-greenhouse-gas-emissions-world-wide#5332
This may be a starting point, or some of their references?:
www.wsaa.asn.au/WSAAPublications/Occasio...atment%20systems.pdf]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Sun, 18 Aug 2013 07:40:53 +0000
WWTP's have approximately 3% of total greenhouse-gas emissions world-wide? - by: AquaVerde http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/5296-wwtps-have-approximately-3-of-total-greenhouse-gas-emissions-world-wide#5296 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/56-wg-3-energy-climate/5296-wwtps-have-approximately-3-of-total-greenhouse-gas-emissions-world-wide#5296
In reference to TOPIC: Biogas from ABR I am searching for widely accepted total mass values for greenhouse-gas emissions of different types of sources and human wastes. In a lecturing by Prof. McCarty I learned our wwtp's have approximately 3% of total greenhouse-gas emissions world-wide. Is this correct and who is doing this kind of equations based on science facts?

natural activities:
e.g. composting of biomass in forests...
human activities:
e.g. septic tanks, activated sludge processes, composting, meat production, fracking...
US-Example:

Would anyone be able to indicate some good and accepted literature (free of politics!) for me to chase total greenhouse-gas emissions mass values up? so far I have not been successful..
Thanks in advance!

Best Regards,
Detlef SCHWAGER]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Wed, 14 Aug 2013 15:10:47 +0000