SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sat, 26 Jul 2014 15:09:52 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb SuSanA WG3 - SuSanA Meeting in Stockholm 2014 - by: rahulingle
I would like to raise your awareness regarding the upcoming SuSanA meeting taking place on Friday 5th and Saturday 6th September in Stockholm. Through the following link you can find the pre-meeting page:

I would like to organise a WG3 knowledge exchange meeting on 6th September at SEI or during the week in the SWWW venue.
I therefore kindly ask you:
1) If you are interested in attending?
2) What you would expect from such a meeting?
3) If you would like to share a special topic/issue (e.g. past/current work; ideas for working group activities; etc.) either during the WG meeting or with the whole SuSanA crowd during the plenary meeting.

Please also note that I am happy to feed in your inputs during the meeting in case you will not be personally present.

I look forward seeing some of you soon!

Kind regards,

Rahul Ingle Working group lead]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Thu, 10 Jul 2014 14:13:17 +0000
Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements (UDDTs versus latrines) - by: muench
How has your research progressed by now? I saw on Twitter that Alison mentioned a paper that is coming out soon, does that mean your research has already been concluded?

She said on twitter:
e.g. the @WSUPUK project illustrated the low carbon footprint of ecosan vs a sewered system or even a simple pit latrine #sanitation

@Ostella42 @WSUPUK We're working on a journal paper with the results so it should be in the public domain soon!

Otherwise, I just wanted to make sure you had seen this MSc thesis? (is it any good?) :;type=2&id=1596

Diafarou Ali, M. (2009). Carbon dioxide and methane emissions from different wastewater treatment scenarios. UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education, Delft, the Netherlands. MSc Thesis (MWI/SE 2009/39).

And I also followed the lead that Christoph Platzer gave us in his post above and searched the archive of the old Ecosanres Discussion Group for the topic of Greenhouse Gas Emissions ( (this group was closed when the forum started, but was active in the years 2002 to 2012)

I found various things there in the archive but the only thing really of relevance here, I think, is a post by Chris Canaday (our featured user of this month!) from 2009 where he wrote:


Dear David,

The message you mention may have been one of mine (which Ian kindly found and resent), in which I mention the conceptual reasons that EcoSan reduces Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions and encourage someone to work out precise numbers.

I would like to take this opportunity to complete a bit the list of reasons that UDDT toilets contribute to controlling the Greenhouse Effect:
(a) reduced methane emission by avoiding anaerobic fermentation of feces in water,
(b) increased CO2 sequestration via fertilization of plants and trees,
(c) increased carbon sequestration into the soil via integration of organic matter,
(d) reduced use and transport of chemical fertilizers (another source of GHGs),
(e) reduced use of petroleum for pumping and treating water.
(f) reduced demand for cement for building large sewers (since cement production is a big source of CO2).

I am convinced that the UDDT of one of the simplest and least painful ways we can reduce our "Carbon Footprint" and our "Ecological Footprint" in general ... and that this will be very evident to all interested parties once the numbers are worked out, especially taking into account all of these 6 factors. Most other options involve walking more, colder houses, not consuming whatever we like, etc., which impinge more on people's lifestyles ... but the psychological barrier of the UDDT has to be jumped.

There is a mention of this on page 126 of Ecological Sanitation (2004. Winblad et al.) It would be great if the corresponding bibliographic citations (and more recent articles) were available on-line.

UDDT advantages in adapting to Global Climate Disruption are very clear: (a) less demand for precious water and (b)improved water-holding capacity of soils.

For these reasons, we should be able to access various Global Climate funds for building UDDTs. One way would be to set up, or work with existing, villages in desertified areas and build UDDTs (thus reducing methane emissions of people who had previously been using flush toilets) and use the greywater and EcoSan fertilizers to cultivate fruit trees in the desert around the village (thus sequestering carbon into tree trunks and soils) ... and creating livelihoods and economies where previously none existed. Maybe we can collectively spark something.

One student member of this forum, Diafarou MOUMOUNI, responded that he is doing his master's thesis on a comparison GHG emissions from various wastewater treatment options, including the (non-wastewater-producing) UDDT. We can all look forward to seeing his results as they come out.

Best wishes from South America,
Chris Canaday


Hope this helps and I hope you will give us an update on your research?

WG 3 (energy, climate) Mon, 19 May 2014 08:53:44 +0000
Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: ande1978
I am currently working with an organization in Nairobi/Kibera called KDI. One of there projects was a composting toilet system. They did a very good job on the design.

Are you working in Sub-saharan Africa, too? What is your location and any design considerations so far?


WG 3 (energy, climate) Sun, 20 Apr 2014 18:45:28 +0000
Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: Juergen
you might get some -measured, quantified- results from a French NGO called "Solidarités"; this NGO was a project partner of me resp. my employer and built an operated covered latrines in a Rohingya refugee camp in south-eastern Bangladesh. They collected the gas and used it for fuel in the camp's kitchen with some success in 2011/2012. They might be able to give you some of their quantifications about volumes and quality of the gas.


WG 3 (energy, climate) Wed, 16 Apr 2014 08:39:47 +0000
Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: christoph I was trying to remember. I have the impression we already had a specific exchange about greenhouse gas emissions of latrines and UDDT trying to calculate both, one comparing to the other. This was about 3-4 years ago, maybe still in Ecosanres. I tried to remember but I could not find it quickly so I just do this reminder to the others.

WG 3 (energy, climate) Wed, 16 Apr 2014 08:27:21 +0000
Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: canaday
If you can, please try to do at least some quick-and-dirty gas measurement, since the real world conditions can be complicated and unpredictable ... and a priori assumptions could lead the wrong way.

If in fact no one has done so, someone urgently needs to cap a pit latrine and measure the gases emitted within.

Here is some support for my assertion that soil microbes can consume Greenhouse Gases:
((Bacteria can consume GHGs))
((Fungi play a role))

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Tue, 15 Apr 2014 03:33:07 +0000
Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: saniman
Many thanks for your reply and interest in our work!

Yes, you understood our approach correctly and this is the main limitation of all our estimations (rather than calculations) as all of them are based on other peoples work. And still many things have never been analysed and are based upon assumptions (no one has covered a pit latrine and measured the gas emissions for example). In the recommendations we will spend some time on future research possibilities to fill these gaps but unfortunately we do neither have the time nor the finances to do it ourselves.

To your comments:

1) Yes, we meant UDDT while speaking of Ecosan and have changed that.

2) We will most likely not go into the intentionally intended depth of each system as to include different cover materials as the project is much more complex than we thought and we are running out of time – but for future work a very interesting point!

3) As the focus is on informal settlement in urban poor we did not include this option but again a very interesting one for future work.

4) We do not have a link in form of an URL to clean team chemicals but did analyse them in depth and include them into our spread-sheet as they play an important role and are questionable from my personal point of view (Lars Pelzer).

5) Yes, taking the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) approach we do include production, transport and operation of different materials.

My best,
Lars Pelzer (saniman)]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Mon, 14 Apr 2014 15:18:09 +0000
Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: saniman
Since we are considering high density urban poor settlements we’d like to include a central composting station for the UDDT (previously named Ecosan but thanks to Chris Canaday we’ve changed that).
Does anyone have construction specifications for a composting centre in Sub Saharan Africa? We’re assuming that it’ll be a paved ground and manual turning of compost as easiest form.

Many thanks in advance and
Lars Pelzer (saniman)]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Mon, 14 Apr 2014 14:56:56 +0000
Re: Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: canaday
Congratulations on undertaking such important work.

Do I understand correctly that you will be estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions via published data and theoretical calculations? Given the complexity of the processes involved, it would be excellent for someone to measure these emissions empirically.

A few comments on your attached table:

1) EcoSan is a broad category of techniques to recycle nutrients and not treat excrement as waste. I believe you refer to the UDDT (Urine-diverting Dry Toilet).

2) Within the UDDT category, it would useful to analyze different cover materials, including sawdust and wood ash (which are commonly used), but also more biologically active substances, such as rich, organic soil (including compost from kitchen waste or recycled UDDT cover material after storage and/or treatment). Please take into account the potential for soil microbes to consume these gases before they are emitted into the air.

3) What would be the emissions from WC + Sub-surface-flow Constructed Wetland?

4) Please give us a link to a description of the CleanTeam Technique and the chemicals used. does not give any useful detail.

5) Please include in your calculations the GHGs emitted during the production and operation of the vehicles used to transport materials.

Good luck with your work. I look forward to seeing the results.

Best wishes,
Chris Canaday]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Fri, 11 Apr 2014 10:28:32 +0000
Greenhouse gas emissions from sanitation value chain in urban poor settlements - by: saniman
In the following two weeks we will post questions that occurred during the project and hope for input from experienced professionals in order to tackle this complex topic, starting with the first one today:

In order to calculate the GHGE emissions from option 7 and 8 in attached Table 1 we need a COD value for the effluent of a pour-flush squatting pan. We thought about taking the value of a pit latrine but since the excreta are diluted with water from flushing we are not sure and we unfortunately couldn’t find anything in recent literature. Can anyone provide values for that?

Many thanks in advance!]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Wed, 09 Apr 2014 10:31:34 +0000
Re: WWTP's have approximately 3% of total greenhouse-gas emissions world-wide? - by: AquaVerde Greenhouse Gas Emission (GHG) made by wwtp's in China, 2013

WG 3 (energy, climate) Sun, 03 Nov 2013 07:46:14 +0000
Re: WG 3 renewable energies and climate change.... next steps - by: compost1 First of all thank you for accepting me in this group.
As certified waste manager with international status by ISWA, indeed it will be my pleasure to share our experiences and lessons learned in developing public private partnerships in the field of waste management in developing countries.

One such case study has been designed , developed and operated by me and is a registered CDM entity with UNFCCC.

Many such projects are in pipeline that you can see on our web site

World Bank report on Energy Efficient Cities Initiative is enclosed

Lets share our experiences to develop such opportunities in developing countries .

All the best
Dr.Ata ul haq
Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ]]>
WG 3 (energy, climate) Tue, 15 Oct 2013 06:55:24 +0000
Re: WWTP's have approximately 3% of total greenhouse-gas emissions world-wide? - by: AquaVerde m.e. ist dieser Artikel sehr wichtig für kommende ökol. Betrachtungen und Vergleiche zum Methan-Ausstoß von kleinen CSB-ABRs (ohne Nutzung vom Biogas) und auch der vielen vorhandenen anaeroben Vorklärungen im KKA-Bereich unter unseren kalten Bedingungen.
WG 3 (energy, climate) Tue, 03 Sep 2013 08:53:47 +0000
Re: WWTP's have approximately 3% of total greenhouse-gas emissions world-wide? - by: muench I just saw this new paper on the same topic, maybe you find it useful. I only read the abstract so far (thus I don't know how good it is) because I don't have a subscription with IWA Publishing. You could contact the author if they would send you the paper, or a pre-layouted version of it.

Water Science & Technology Vol 68 No 4 pp 887–893 © IWA Publishing 2013 doi:10.2166/wst.2013.318

Carbon footprints of Scandinavian wastewater treatment plants

D. J. I. Gustavsson and S. Tumlin

VA SYD, Box 191, SE-201 21 Malmö, Sweden E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
Gryaab, Box 8984, SE-402 74 Gothenburg, Sweden

This study estimates the carbon footprints of 16 municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), all situated in Scandinavian countries, by using a simple model. The carbon footprint calculations were based on operational data, literature emission factors (efs) and measurements of greenhouse gas emissions at some of the studied WWTPs. No carbon neutral WWTPs were found. The carbon footprints ranged between 7 and 108 kg CO2e P.E.−1 year−1. Generally, the major positive contributors to the carbon footprint were direct emissions of nitrous oxide from wastewater treatment. Whether heat pumps for effluents have high coefficient of performance or not is extremely important for the carbon footprint. The choice of efs largely influenced the carbon footprint. Increased biogas production, efficient biogas usage, and decreased addition of external fossil carbon source for denitrification are important activities to decrease the carbon footprint of a WWTP.

Keywords: carbon footprint; greenhouse gas emissions; methane; nitrous oxide; wastewater treatment plants
WG 3 (energy, climate) Mon, 02 Sep 2013 08:54:54 +0000
Re: WWTP's have approximately 3% of total greenhouse-gas emissions world-wide? - by: AquaVerde This Australian paper is of great help.
Take Care
WG 3 (energy, climate) Sun, 18 Aug 2013 09:48:12 +0000