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Topics in Category: Faecal sludge management (FSM) - SuSanA Forum Mon, 29 May 2017 17:22:09 +0200 Joomla! - Open Source Content Management /media/kunena/images/icons/rss.png Topics in Category: Faecal sludge management (FSM) - SuSanA Forum en-gb Key documents for the sub-category on faecal sludge management - by: muench For more information about why I am creating this new thread, please see here:


This thread is a "sticky thread" which means it will always remain at the top of this sub-category. It contains a recommendation and orientation for newcomers regarding the most important five documents and website links in this thematic area.

The selection of documents is based on the SuSanA library findings.
We are open to feedback if others think that another document should be selected here.

Recommended top 5 documents in the thematic area of "Faecal sludge management", in reverse chronological order:

Oxfam (2016). Septage Management Leader’s Guidebook - Philippines Edition. Oxfam, UK

The Septage Management Leader’s Guidebook, is a product of Oxfam through their program to improve sanitation in the super typhoon Haiyan devastation area of the central Philippines. The Manual presents a step-by-step strategy for scaling up septage management services more widely. The “Quick Start Guide” and the tools and checklists at the beginning of each step are designed to make the manual useful to anyone tasked with leading the effort to implement septage management programs for their city or municipality.

Peal, A., Evans, B., Blackett, I., Hawkins, P., Heymans, C. (2015). A Review of Fecal Sludge Management in 12 Cities - (Final Draft). World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program

The World Bank - Water and Sanitation Program commissioned this study to examine global trends in FSM using 12 city case studies as a basis. The objective was to start developing an analysis that can be used to assess FSM at the city level and identify appropriate operational interventions.The report is comprised of five sections. Section one, for example, introduces the report and provides the background as to why fecal sludge management is important.

WRC (2015). The Status of Faecal Sudge Management in Eight Southern and East African Countries. WRC Report No. KV 340/15 , prepared for the Sanitation Research Fund for Africa (SRFA) Project of the Water Research Commission (WRC), Pretoria, South Africa, ISBN 978-1-4312-0685-8

Twelve African institutions and organisations from eight Southern and East African countries were awarded research grants for faecal sludge management. The first task of the research teams was to research the baseline conditions of faecal sludge management in their respective countries. This report presents a consolidated review of their findings, which cover the sanitation policy environment and faecal sludge management practices in these eight Southern and East African countries.

Strande, L., Ronteltap, M., Brdjanovic, D. (Eds.) (2014). Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) book - Systems Approach for Implementation and Operation. IWA Publishing, UK (ISBN: 9781780404738)

Over a billion people in urban and peri-urban areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America are served by onsite sanitation technologies. Until now, the management of faecal sludge resulting from these onsite technologies has been grossly neglected. This is the first book dedicated to faecal sludge management. It compiles the current state of knowledge of this rapidly evolving field, and presents an integrated approach that includes technology, management and planning.

Diener et al. (2014). A value proposition - Resource recovery from faecal sludge — Can it be the driver for improved sanitation. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Elsevier

This study evaluated the potential for resource recovery from innovative faecal sludge treatment processes to generate a profit that could help sustain the sanitation service chain. A total of 242 interviews were conducted in Accra, Ghana; Dakar, Senegal; and Kampala, Uganda to compare markets in different cultural and regional contexts. Products identified to have potential market value include dry sludge as a fuel for combustion, biogas from anaerobic digestion, protein derived from sludge processing as animal feed, sludge as a component in building materials, and sludge as a soil conditioner.

(5b) - Possible alternative for number 5 - to be decided
WSUP (2011). Integrating faecal sludge management (FSM) into urban sanitation planning - Discussion paper. Water & sanitation for the urban poor (WSUP), London, UK

Municipal governments and utilities often accept responsibility only for sewerage, not for faecal sludge management (FSM). This paper argues that urban sanitation planning needs to consider sewerage and FSM in an integrated way: even when — as in many African cities — the long-term aim is to achieve sewerage of all densely populated districts, this aim is unlikely to be achieved for several decades, and in the meantime appropriate solutions are required for FSM.

You can find further important documents and website links dealing with this topic here: Please provide your feedback. What do you think of this selection? We can update it from time to time.

Faecal sludge management (FSM) Fri, 18 Mar 2016 02:40:19 +0100
Clearing trash from pit latrines-A new device - by: dandreatta
Their solution was to use two devices, one for the trash and one for the more liquid contents. I don't think their liquid content device is ready to share yet, but I really like their trash pickup device. They call it "the crabtrap" because it looks like something you could also use for fishing for crabs, and I suppose you could with the right bait. A link to a youtube video is below, and I attach a few still photos to get people interested.

This device picks up bottles and similar objects, as well as just about any other kind of trash. I would have to think that the current "fishing" devices used to clear trash from pits work well on bags and rags but have great difficulty in picking up certain types of trash, such as bottles. Reportedly, such fishing devices are very dirty, particularly when getting the trash off the hooks.

The device you see here is a prototype, the final device would need to be more rugged and have some other small design changes. A finer screen might be an improvement to keep the condoms and small trash in the crabtrap. I told the students to assume the smallest possible squatting hole, a keyhole of 10 by 18 cm. Squatting holes that were even a little larger would allow a larger device which would be easier and faster than seen in the video. The size of the device could be set to match the smallest squatting hole locally. Some recent postings from Chiposa, Holm, et. al, suggest that squatting holes are usually much larger than seen here, at least in Malawi.

The video is at:

Thank you,

Dale Andreatta, Ph.D., P.E.
Mechanical Engineer
Adjunct Professor, The Ohio State University]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Sun, 28 May 2017 17:30:56 +0200
Take it away: the need for designing fecal sludge disposal services for single-pit latrines - by: soumyahb Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Wed, 24 May 2017 07:34:44 +0200 New Fecal Sludge Management Toolbox now available for Investors, Planners and Consultants (Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand and partners) - by: susu
Thank you for your feedback!

We are delighted to answer your queries and share some of the key elements from our experience at FSM 4 - to you and other interested parties.

On February 21, 2017, AIT, CSTEP and CEPT University coordinated its effort to conduct workshop on Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) Toolbox, following the 4th International Conference on Fecal Sludge Management (FSM 4). The main aim of our workshop was to: a) Call forth FSM professionals, governmental and non-governmental representatives and tool developers to facilitate open discussion and brainstorm on potential solutions. b) Introduce Toolbox as a common platform for all FSM related resources. c) Determine the needs and assess the product and resources thoroughly. d) Establish FSM workflow as a complete one, if not, add more stages by working with the participants. e) Organize available resources effectively and invite developers to place new tools in program workflow. f) Decide on way forward for Toolbox by concocting a strategic plan with tool developers and FSM contributors.

Event Brief

The event was hosted by, Ms. Antoinette Kome from SNV Netherlands Development Organization. During the session, Dr. Thammarat Koottatep from AIT made the opening remark and drew attention towards the need of an open platform. He explained the objective of the session to synthesize fragmented and ham-handed information into “one platform” for ease of FSM practitioners. Moreover, he discussed the possible benefits of resources being translated across the national and international level in order to promote best practices; similarly, he gave a brief description of FSM Toolbox and its program workflow. During the session, our representative urged practitioners to help improve Toolbox’s program workflow and encouraged tool developers to make their resources available for overall personnel involved in the sector.

Following Dr. Koottatep’s remarks, Ms. Kome expressed her expectations as she emphasized FSM Toolbox to be in its infancy. She stressed that toolbox was created to assist practitioners and need to be contextualized to the specific context.

Various tools, not limited to the once presented in FSM Toolbox were discussed during the session. List of presenters (listed below) was asked to assess the tools and give necessary feedbacks on the session. The general response was encouraging as it urged developers to make the web-based platform more comprehensive, user-friendly and to introduce global and contextual perspective. Based on the review, attendees wanted to see more resources included in the FSM Toolbox.

On the basis of experience from workshop, following follow-up action are to be taken into consideration: 1) Incorporate suggestion from the attendees to expand program workflow. 2) Define workflow based on the specific context, for e.g. India, Bangladesh etc. 3) Invite tool developers to include their tools in the FSM Toolbox, expand the number of tools available in the Toolbox. 4) Map both international and context specific workflow with these tools. 5) Increase resources in the workflow; reach out to organizations, consultants, members involved in this sector to contribute in validating the resources, case studies, reports and know-how.

Join us in for more information.

FSM Toolbox Team


List of Attendees
• Dr. Christina Moe, Emory University presented Sanipath 

• Mr. Peter Hawkins, World Bank presented City Service Delivery Assessment Tool, Prognosis for Change, Service Delivery Action Framework, Urban
Sanitation Status Index 

• Ms. Upasana Yadav and Mr. Aasim Mansuri, CEPT University presented, SaniPlan 
and SANI Tab 

• Ms. Shramana Dey, CSTEP presented SANITECH 

• Mr. Suraj Kumar, IPE Global presented framework for spatial analyses as conducted in Rajasthan, India 

• Ms. Isha Basyal and Mr. Ashreya Shrestha, AIT, presented Situational Assessment 
Tool, Stakeholder Analysis Tool, Financial and Technical
Assessment Tool, Regulatory and Institutional Assessment Tool etc. from the FSM Toolbox 

We sincerely acknowledge CSTEP for providing us with the event report. Thus, information and list included were directly retrieved from the prepared report.
FSM Planning tools, toolboxes and guidelines Tue, 23 May 2017 04:43:47 +0200
Making single-pit emptying safer in rural Bangladesh - by: soumyahb
Abstract: Safe emptying and disposal of fecal sludge from pit latrines in rural areas has become a priority for the Government of Bangladesh. In this paper, we calculate the volume and characterize the hazards of managing sludge to identify technologies for safely emptying rural single pits. In Bhaluka subdistrict, an estimated 15,000 m3 of sludge is produced annually. Physical, chemical, and microbial analysis of samples of sludge taken from pit latrines indicate that the sludge has a high moisture content of around 90%, a C:N ration of 10:1, and a helminth presence of 41 eggs/g. In a field test of alternative emptying technologies, simple pumps such as the gulper emerged as feasible for use in rural areas, due to the liquid nature of the sludge, narrow roads, and limited incomes of rural households. The results suggest that current practices of emptying liquid sludge manually without
any protective equipment poses risks to those who handle sludge, and the process needs to be semimechanized with immediate effect. These results are being used by the Bangladesh government to design policy for sludge management. In the near future, an organized service that safely empties
single pits and transports sludge for treatment needs to be urgently designed.

The paper may be found at: ]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Thu, 18 May 2017 12:25:57 +0200
LaDePa is a faecal sludge pelletising machine in eThekwini (Durban) - by: jbr About the step where the solid garbage/detritus is separated from the fecal sludge (before the sludge is processed into pellets): What happens to the detritus separated out in the screw conveyor? Does it receive special treatment or go to a special landfill? I was concerned about those who work in informal sector waste recycling.

Thank you
John Brogan
Terre des hommes]]>
Faecal sludge treatment Fri, 12 May 2017 11:34:23 +0200
An Alternative to the Pit Latrine - by: dandreatta
This is an alternative to the simple pit latrine, It uses a barrel on its side, then the barrel is emptied by one of two means. The simplest version just has a spout, into which the contents of the barrel can be poured. The more complex version has a flexible tube attached to the barrel, which can server as part of a VIP style chimney, and as the barrel emptying method. Either method is neat and tidy.

The best way to show the system is the following video:

and I've attached a few still from the video below.

I expect this system will work well in places with a high water table or flooding, since it is a sealed container above ground level. I expect this will work well in places with loose soil, where an unlined pit latrine would collapse. I expect this would work well in places where sanitation must be set up in a hurry, and leftover barrels from some other task could be pressed into service. Perhaps a refugee camp? Of course, some organizational system must be in place to empty the barrel and transport the sludge away.

One person asked about the liquidity of the barrel contents. If it's a combination of urine and feces, it will be liquid enough to pour. Trash will flow easily through the large openings. Any flush water will make the content even more liquid. I would think this will not work with a composting or urine diverting toilet.


Dale Andreatta]]>
Faecal sludge management (FSM) Sun, 07 May 2017 18:44:07 +0200
How to deal with trash in pits - TRASH EXCLUSION - by: hajo

dear Francis,

I like the FLEXCREVATOR and the idea of trash exclusion, makes pit emptying easier (possible) and may serve educating people not using pits as solid waste dump.

I noted that the FLEX-X is a variation of the FLEXCREVATOR where it only serves as a 'trash excluder' while the pit emptying is done by a separate vacuum system.

I have a few questions:
1 have you made any progress in improving both systems as indicated in your presentation at FSM4 towards 'commercialisation'?
2 The problems of pit emptying are not only the trash but also the consistency of the sludge. Are you working on solutions for fluidisation when the sludge is too dense for vacuum pumping?
3 Is it necessary to have a (presumably more sophisticated) vacuum pump stationed near to the pit if it could be replaced with a 'simple' dewatering/sludge pump? Of course under the condition that trash is excluded and sludge be fluidised to the 'right' solid content. I like the 'simplicity' of the trash exclusion technique and like also to have a 'simple' pumping mechanism. If a 'dewatering' pump is placed near the pit, the 'pressure' distance from the pit to the sludge 'tanker/container' is more easy to handle with pressure than with suction. And if the pump is close to the pit, the atmospheric pressure may be sufficient to suck sludge from 3-4m depth.

looking forward to your comments,
ciao Hajo]]>
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Tue, 02 May 2017 10:30:36 +0200
Research partners for technology and low cost solutions in rural Vietnam (FSM) - by: muench
You said:

We just completed a landscape FSM study that covers these three areas in rural Vietnam.

Would you be able/willing to share this study here on the Forum? Could be useful for many people.

Secondly, I didn't quite understand this part:

We are now searching for research partners with technology and knowledge of low cost solutions for septic tank latrines that could be piloted at small scale for rural areas in Vietnam with average to high density.

What did you mean by "septic tank latrines"? Have you already found the research partners you were looking for?

Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Fri, 28 Apr 2017 01:08:13 +0200
Free online course in FSM - launch 1 May! - by: LindaStrande

Do you want learn how to apply concepts of sustainable faecal sludge management on a city-wide scale? Eawag-Sandec will launch the MOOC, “Introduction to Faecal Sludge Management” on May 1. The 5-week online course will be offered for free and run in English with French and Spanish subtitles. For further information and to sign up for the course, please go to:

Le cours en ligne “Introduction à la gestion des boues de vidange” commencera le 1er mai
Désirez-vous apprendre à mettre en œuvre les concepts de gestion durable des boues de vidange à l’échelle d’une ville? Eawag-Sandec lancera le quatrième MOOC de la série « Eau, Assainissement et Déchets Solides dans les Contextes du Développement » le 1er mai. Ce cours de 5 semaines est disponible gratuitement en anglais avec des sous-titres en français et en espagnol. Pour de plus amples informations et pour vous inscrire au cours, consultez la page suivante :

Curso en línea “Introducción al Manejo de los Lodos Fecales” comienza el 1 de mayo
¿Quieres aprender cómo aplicar los conceptos del manejo sostenible de los lodos fecales a nivel urbano? Eawag-Sandec va a dar inicio al cuarto curso MOOC de la serie “Saneamiento, Agua y Residuos Sólidos en el contexto del Desarrollo” el 1 de mayo. El curso en línea de 5 semanas de duración es gratuito y se ofrecerá en inglés con subtítulos en francés y español. Para obtener más información y para inscribirte en el curso, por fav]]>
Faecal sludge management (FSM) Mon, 24 Apr 2017 07:42:00 +0200
Request for Quotation Suppliers of FS Transfer Stations - by: hesselschuurman
Interested parties can contact This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. for the RFQ documents.]]>
Faecal sludge management (FSM) Fri, 21 Apr 2017 21:30:40 +0200
Modified treadle pump (pit pump) prototype - peddle powered gulper modification (Malawi) - by: rochelleholm Thank you for your great feedback on our recent paper 'Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi).' Trash is a big problem to fully empty latrines here in Mzuzu, Malawi. Households use pit latrines as a garbage can, even at my house.

About the keyhole (squat hole), please see our other recent paper 'Characterization of pit latrines to support design and selection of emptying tools in peri-urban Mzuzu, Malawi.' In this work you are correct that we suggest a maximum pit latrine emptying tool diameter of 10 cm to fit through the keyhole (squat hole). In Malawi, we do not have standardized latrine designs, and the only pit access is through the keyhole (squat hole) or to break the floor.

Hope this is helpful and please feel free to contact me if there is anything else.

Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Sat, 15 Apr 2017 09:44:05 +0200
Experience or related document to liquid waste treatment in emergencies - by: MRonteltap
My colleague Wini Adam is working on exactly what you are looking for - sustainable sanitation information for IDPs in Sudan. Can you please send us an email, then we can help you get connected and provided with helpful information.

m.ronteltap @ and weny1964 @ (just remove the spaces)

With best regards,
_____ Mariska Ronteltap
Senior Lecturer in Sanitary Engineering
Environmental Engineering and Water Technology Department
IHE Delft Institute for Water Education
Westvest 7, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands ]]>
Faecal sludge treatment Fri, 14 Apr 2017 05:34:00 +0200
Time taken for faecal sludge tankers to discharge? - by: muench
I was doing some work on the Wikipedia article on vacuum trucks today, so I added a section on emptying of the truck.

I have two dilemmas here:
  • I have no reference to cite (this forum thread doesn't count as a reference on Wikipedia)
  • I might have added more detail than what a layperson would need to know
But in any case, I have added it (=a bit like a summary of this thread), and let's see if it sticks. Perhaps someone will find a reference for this information in future, too.

So this is how I have written it, hopefully understandable for lay persons:

Emptying the tanker [edit | edit source]

Normally a tanker is emptied by gravity. There is a possibility to pressure up the vacuum tank in order to “pressure out” the liquid quicker or against a small difference in level. But that procedure is not good for the equipment and is therefore done only in special situations.

The regular discharge time for a tanker of 8 – 9 m³ is about 15 minutes (or 7-10 minutes to unload a tanker of 4000 liters). The outlet is typically 4 to 6 inches (10 to 15 cm) in diameter. The discharge time depends on the thickness of the sludge, the size of the outlet valve and hose, the amount of garbage in the fecal sludge and how often the driver has to stop to clean the dump screen.[citation needed]

Comments welcome, also feel free to modify it directly in the Wikipedia article itself.

Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Tue, 11 Apr 2017 23:26:54 +0200
GIS Analysis and Optimisation of Faecal Sludge Logistics at City-Wide Scale in Kampala, Uganda - by: JulyG
Thank you for your answer.
I am a MSc studient in WASH, so not for now but maybe in the future!

All the best,
Faecal sludge transport (including emptying of pits and septic tanks) Tue, 11 Apr 2017 08:36:12 +0200