SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication http://forum.susana.org/ Thu, 31 Jul 2014 13:29:24 +0000 Kunena 1.6 http://forum.susana.org/components/com_kunena/template/default/images/icons/rss.png SuSanA - Forum http://forum.susana.org/ en-gb Re: Training sessions with pit emptiers in Mombasa, Kenya, using the Gulper: resources or educational materials we might use in our trainings? - by: rsklar http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9454-training-sessions-with-pit-emptiers-in-mombasa-kenya-using-the-gulper-training-materials-we-might-use-in-our-trainings-and-incentives#9572 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9454-training-sessions-with-pit-emptiers-in-mombasa-kenya-using-the-gulper-training-materials-we-might-use-in-our-trainings-and-incentives#9572
Here in Mombasa, emptiers are already using up to 100 gallons of water to remove deeper, drier, and more compacted sludge at the bottom of the latrine. Furthermore, much of the population is muslim washers, so the sludge is quite wet anyway.
We are working in collaboration with a municipal WWTP and our dewatering system is effective at removing solids from their incoming flows that are 0.1 % solid. It is unlikely that watered latrine sludge will be diluted to a level much higher than this so I don’t think water is going to be a particular issue for our operations.

Transporting sludge that has been excessively hydrated will be a major challenge in developing our business model as it will require additional and expensive resources such as more/larger containers, larger trucks, or more trips per empty. The goal of our initial sourcing trial is analyze the cost/benefit ratio of various combinations of sludge removal, hauling, and transportation schemes in delivering the quality and quantity of sludge necessary to drive net gains for our company and the emptiers.]]>
Faecal sludge management Thu, 31 Jul 2014 12:04:54 +0000
Re: Training sessions with pit emptiers in Mombasa, Kenya, using the Gulper: resources or educational materials we might use in our trainings? - by: rsklar http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9454-training-sessions-with-pit-emptiers-in-mombasa-kenya-using-the-gulper-training-materials-we-might-use-in-our-trainings-and-incentives#9571 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9454-training-sessions-with-pit-emptiers-in-mombasa-kenya-using-the-gulper-training-materials-we-might-use-in-our-trainings-and-incentives#9571
Thank you for the warm response. I am in touch with Sherina and her team in Kampala is helping us get a fully assembled gulper 2.0/rammer prototype to Mombasa.

The reasons we chose to go with the gulper 2.0/Rammer over the excravator are the following:

1.Capital cost- The Rammer has significantly lower capital costs ($300 USD for materials and manufacturing). The Excravator run from $1,000 to $3,000, not including the cost of fuel.

2. Accessibility and proximity of prototypes in Kampala and a relatively low shipping cost to our site Mombasa.

We should be receiving the equipment in the coming weeks so I will make sure to update the forum on our experience using the equipment.

Best,

Rachel Sklar]]>
Faecal sludge management Thu, 31 Jul 2014 11:47:03 +0000
Re: Training sessions with pit emptiers in Mombasa, Kenya, using the Gulper: resources or educational materials we might use in our trainings? - by: Bobbie http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9454-training-sessions-with-pit-emptiers-in-mombasa-kenya-using-the-gulper-training-materials-we-might-use-in-our-trainings-and-incentives#9565 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9454-training-sessions-with-pit-emptiers-in-mombasa-kenya-using-the-gulper-training-materials-we-might-use-in-our-trainings-and-incentives#9565
Regards

Bobbie]]>
Faecal sludge management Thu, 31 Jul 2014 08:23:26 +0000
Re: Training sessions with pit emptiers in Mombasa, Kenya, using the Gulper: resources or educational materials we might use in our trainings? - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9454-training-sessions-with-pit-emptiers-in-mombasa-kenya-using-the-gulper-training-materials-we-might-use-in-our-trainings-and-incentives#9532 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9454-training-sessions-with-pit-emptiers-in-mombasa-kenya-using-the-gulper-training-materials-we-might-use-in-our-trainings-and-incentives#9532 www.pid.co.za - Dave Still). Perhaps they have even uploaded some training guides on their website.

As a starting point, check out these 3 volumes by Dave and co. on "Tackling the challenges of full pit latrines":

Still, D., Foxon, K., O’Riordan, M. (2012). Tackling the challenges of full pit latrines - Volumes 1 to 3. WRC Report No. 1745/1/12, Water Research Commission, South Africa.
susana.org/lang-en/library?view=ccbktype...p;type=2&id=1712

I copy here something from the Appendix of volume 1 - the focus seems to be on protective equipment (could be quite difficult to enforce in hot climates!) and on health measures for the workers: vaccination and deworming.

Specification

Pit emptying workers must wear personal protective
equipment while engaged in pit emptying and sludge
transport. Minimum requirements are:
· Overalls
· Steel toe capped gumboots
· Heavy duty rubber gloves
· Gas masks

Pit emptying workers will be medically screened before
during and after employment, and will be treated with
deworming medication every six months and six months
after termination of employment. Those with highly
compromised immune systems should not be selected for
this work.

Even with the use of PPE, pit emptying workers are at a
high risk of infection and should be looked after.
Deworming medication should be administered to families
where pit emptying has taken place six months after
emptying.

Even if workers are careful it is hard to empty a pit
without making a mess. A course of deworming
medication taken six months after the exercise will deal
with possible infection.



Also, I would say take a look how Sanergy trains and protects its sanitation workers, who are emptying buckets from single vault urine diversion dehydration toilets in Nairobi.
See e.g. here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/52-mob...ry-loo-user-and-kiva
oer here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/52-mob...rgy-in-nairobi-kenya

Please don't forget if you do find good materials to post them here so that we can include them in the SuSanA library to that others can benefit, too. Thanks.

Oh and about the issue of incentives, perhaps this franchising concept from South Africa could be interesting for you:

Wall, K., Bhagwan, J., Ive, O. (2011). Piloting franchising O&M partnerships: connecting unrelated concepts, to create something innovative. 35th WEDC International Conference, UK.
susana.org/lang-en/library/library?view=...p;type=2&id=1573

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Faecal sludge management Tue, 29 Jul 2014 11:57:00 +0000
Re: Training sessions with pit emptiers in Mombasa, Kenya, using the Gulper: resources or educational materials we might use in our trainings? - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9454-training-sessions-with-pit-emptiers-in-mombasa-kenya-using-the-gulper-training-materials-we-might-use-in-our-trainings-and-incentives#9531 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9454-training-sessions-with-pit-emptiers-in-mombasa-kenya-using-the-gulper-training-materials-we-might-use-in-our-trainings-and-incentives#9531 As great as the gulper and rammer (now called gulper 2.0 as far as I know) are, they have the problem that you need to dilute most pit-latrine contents with quite a lot of water to be able to pump them.
Besides issues in getting the water it also poses a real problem with transport (the main bottleneck here in Kampala) later on, and last but not least with drying the sludge if you plan to use it as fuel.

The above Excravator is probably better in that regard, but I remain sceptical (unless proven otherwise) how well it will deal with real latrine sludges that contain much foreign objects and solid waste.

For now your best bet is probably to improve the manual pit emptying methods with better shovels etc., train the workers in workplace safety and provide them with protective gear.]]>
Faecal sludge management Tue, 29 Jul 2014 11:36:29 +0000
Re: Training sessions with pit emptiers in Mombasa, Kenya, using the Gulper: resources or educational materials we might use in our trainings? - by: muench http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9454-training-sessions-with-pit-emptiers-in-mombasa-kenya-using-the-gulper-training-materials-we-might-use-in-our-trainings-and-incentives#9530 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9454-training-sessions-with-pit-emptiers-in-mombasa-kenya-using-the-gulper-training-materials-we-might-use-in-our-trainings-and-incentives#9530
Great to see your first post on the forum, welcome! I have now moved it to this new thread with a dedicated title in order to attract a bit more attention to it, as it may be "lost" at the end of a very long thread (you had put it here before which also made sense: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-fae...-exhauster-operators).

To provide a bit more context to your question, I would like to draw the attention of the readers to a new thread where this project by Pivot Ltd., that you work for, was recently introduced:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-res...pivot-ltd-kenya#9401

By the way, did you see that Marijn asked a question in that thread to your project team, perhaps you could answer it? That would be great.

And I am wondering why you have decided to use the Gulper and not the newer version, the Rammer, which is now being promoted by the people who previously promoted the Gulper (e.g. Steve Sugden). Please see here on the forum:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-fae...per-for-pit-emptying

I would assume that the team of Water for People might have some training materials for you, I will alert Sherina Munyana to this thread (her project: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-ena...bolivia-peru-ecuador)

And have you considered trialling the Excravator (mind you, it might be hard to get your hands on a prototype, as they are not yet in production), see here:
forum.susana.org/forum/categories/99-fae...sa-now-field-testing

Good luck with your work and I hope others will contribute in this thread to help you find the information you are looking for.

Regards,
Elisabeth]]>
Faecal sludge management Tue, 29 Jul 2014 10:59:16 +0000
Re: A better name for manual emptiers in the UBSUP programme (in Kenya) - by: Doreen http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/8772-a-better-name-for-manual-emptiers-in-the-ubsup-programme-in-kenya#9472 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/8772-a-better-name-for-manual-emptiers-in-the-ubsup-programme-in-kenya#9472
Thank you so much for all the feedback! We have decided to call the emptiers the Sanitation team We found this to be a holistic name that covers all the work that they will do.

I am now finalising the concept on how we shall integrate the sanitation team within the UBSUP programme and I am excited to finish it quickly so that I can share it with all of you. If you like to learn a little bit about the current situation on manual emptiers, please follow the link below:

forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-fae...-exhauster-operators

NB: Thanks Hans for that video. That was shot last year in Nairobi and I had the opportunity to watch it online too as we do not get the programme Quarks and Co. here in Kenya.

If you would like more information on UBSUP, please check out the post below:

forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-ena...p-wstf-and-giz-Kenya

Best regards,

Doreen]]>
Faecal sludge management Thu, 24 Jul 2014 12:32:21 +0000
Training sessions with pit emptiers in Mombasa, Kenya, using the Gulper: training materials we might use in our trainings? - and incentives - by: rsklar http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9454-training-sessions-with-pit-emptiers-in-mombasa-kenya-using-the-gulper-training-materials-we-might-use-in-our-trainings-and-incentives#9454 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9454-training-sessions-with-pit-emptiers-in-mombasa-kenya-using-the-gulper-training-materials-we-might-use-in-our-trainings-and-incentives#9454 waste-enterprisers.com/)

My project is to develop strategies for maximizing sewage sourcing from informal communities. Most people rely on pit latrines, which are used by over 500,000 residents in Mombasa’s slums. When these latrines are full, manual pit emptiers called “Churas” remove the wastes then bury or dump them within the community – either on the owner’s property or a neighbor’s, space permitting. Our goal is to transport these wastes from the community to our waste-to-fuel facility.

Slum and low-income communities represent a critical stakeholder in Pivot’s business success. Without their waste, the volumes of fuel necessary to be profitable or to meet the volumetric expectations of potential customers will not be met.
As of now, we are working on building partnerships with the pit emptiers, known here as “Churas”, and optimizing sludge emptying and transportation schemes. We will use the gulper developed by Water for the People and 50 gallon drums to transport sludge in trucks that are rented on call from community members.

We also hope to do our part in protecting the occupational health of our partners and minimize their exposure to workplace hazards. As you mentioned, the emptiers we are working are poorly paid and exposed to toxic fumes and airborne pathogens and contaminants.

We are going to trial different incentive systems to maximize sourcing from these low-income communities. These incentive systems include 1) providing receptacles to the Churas for fecal sludge, and having a designated point within the community for Pivot to collect them when full. 2) Providing direct cash for emptiers that deliver sludge to the plant. In this latter scheme, vehicles owned by other community members hired for use in sludge transport.

Prior to starting our trial, we will conduct training sessions with the emptiers. I am wondering if you or anyone on this forum wishes to share any thoughts, resources, or educational materials we might use in our trainings. Please let me know if you have questions about our program.

Rachel Sklar
Pivot LTD
Supply Chain Analyst
This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it


www.pivotworks.co
www.waste-enterprisers.com]]>
Faecal sludge management Wed, 23 Jul 2014 15:33:07 +0000
Re: NEW WSUP PUBLICATION: FSM services in Lusaka - moving up the excreta management ladder - by: JKMakowka http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9450-new-wsup-publication-fsm-services-in-lusaka-moving-up-the-excreta-management-ladder#9453 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9450-new-wsup-publication-fsm-services-in-lusaka-moving-up-the-excreta-management-ladder#9453
As I am currently supporting a project here in Uganda which aims to setup something very similar but has yet to decide on a final design for the sludge drying beds, I was intrigued by the picture on the second page (a transparent roof would be really useful here in Uganda too).

Any chance you could share the design documents for constructing these roofed sludge drying facilities?]]>
Faecal sludge management Wed, 23 Jul 2014 12:39:26 +0000
New WSUP Publication: FSM services in Lusaka - moving up the excreta management ladder - by: gbastin http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9450-new-wsup-publication-fsm-services-in-lusaka-moving-up-the-excreta-management-ladder#9450 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9450-new-wsup-publication-fsm-services-in-lusaka-moving-up-the-excreta-management-ladder#9450 Faecal sludge management Wed, 23 Jul 2014 11:06:20 +0000 Re: Quantities of faecal sludge from pits, tanks etc - by: Dave http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/8967-quantities-of-faecal-sludge-from-pits-tanks-etc?limit=12&start=12#9407 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/8967-quantities-of-faecal-sludge-from-pits-tanks-etc?limit=12&start=12#9407
Yes, the figures are guideline average figures per user. If a toilet is used by a large number of people the accumulation rate per person is likely to be higher, simply because less time will pass before the pit is full. The longer the sludge is in the pit, the lower the accumulation rate on a per person per year basis.

From what I have seen, if sludge is dry and dense it is a waste of time to add water to it in order to facilitate vacuum pumping. Only if the sludge is borderline pumpable (or suckable) then it would be worthwhile adding some water, but not too much is needed (10 or 20% by volume max).

If sludge is too dry for pumping without the addition of large amounts of water, it will be much more cost effective to simply dig it out by hand.

Regards

Dave]]>
Faecal sludge management Sat, 19 Jul 2014 14:49:30 +0000
Re: Quantities of faecal sludge from pits, tanks etc - by: jonpar http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/8967-quantities-of-faecal-sludge-from-pits-tanks-etc?limit=12&start=12#9360 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/8967-quantities-of-faecal-sludge-from-pits-tanks-etc?limit=12&start=12#9360 Faecal sludge management Tue, 15 Jul 2014 13:24:46 +0000 Re: New FSM book available now! Free PDF download, or hardcover textbook - IWA Publishing - by: LindaStrande http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9300-new-fsm-book-available-now-free-pdf-download-or-hardcover-textbook-iwa-publishing#9356 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9300-new-fsm-book-available-now-free-pdf-download-or-hardcover-textbook-iwa-publishing#9356
I am happy to hear that you have successfully downloaded the book! We are currently researching options to make the file lower resolution, but still high enough quality. Also, each individual chapter can be downloaded as a separate file.

Unfortunately IWA is not able to make the hardcover book available for free.

Best regards and good reading,
Linda]]>
Faecal sludge management Tue, 15 Jul 2014 11:59:07 +0000
Re: Press Release and infographic: iDE Cambodia hits 100,000 latrine sales in 2 years - and the power of sanitation marketing - by: pkjha http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9056-use-of-lime-for-faecal-sludge-treatment-pilot-project-by-ide-in-cambodia-and-other-examples?limit=12&start=24#9333 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9056-use-of-lime-for-faecal-sludge-treatment-pilot-project-by-ide-in-cambodia-and-other-examples?limit=12&start=24#9333 Use of lime in pit toilets and septage management is being discussed/ recommended for killing pathogens in some recently released books/studies. Bacterial pathogens - mostly hydrolytic in nature- help degrade human wastes till they are stabilized in the form of manure.
By putting lime in pits and raising pH to 12, all pathogens will be eliminated and there would be no /little chance of degradation /stabilization of human wastes. Consequently total volume of wastes in a toilet pit would remain more or less unchanged, causing frequent filling of pits.
In case of septage management (from septic tanks)one may face same problem. Septage effluent, after sand filter or so, may have high pH. Consequently its biological treatment would be a great challenge.
Septage management has dual purpose- stabilisation of septage and killing of pathogens for its safe reuse. Application of lime can solve the second objective and not the first.
It may be suggested to use lime, if required, to kill pathogens after the human waste is fully degraded. However, precaution needs to be taken when such degraded human waste is used as manure in agriculture land as it may affect soil pH. Further, its socio-economic sustainability by the targeted community should also be taken into consideration.

regards
Pawan]]>
Faecal sludge management Sun, 13 Jul 2014 13:17:40 +0000
Re: New FSM book available now! Free PDF download, or hardcover textbook - IWA Publishing - by: F H Mughal http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9300-new-fsm-book-available-now-free-pdf-download-or-hardcover-textbook-iwa-publishing#9324 http://forum.susana.org/forum/categories/53-faecal-sludge-management/9300-new-fsm-book-available-now-free-pdf-download-or-hardcover-textbook-iwa-publishing#9324
I have downloaded the book - 36 MB - took quite a while in downloading, due to slow internet speed here. I haven't yet gone through it, but from the Table of Contents, I find that it is a very useful book.

Just 2 minor queries: One, have you discussed the policy options? I may add here that, in most cases in the rural areas (here in Pakistan) fecal sludge become a part and parcel of solid waste management. So, policy options would be in order.

Second: Could you kindly request IWA to make hard copies free to users in developing countries?

Thank you for producing such a valuable book.

Kind regards,

F H Mughal]]>
Faecal sludge management Sat, 12 Jul 2014 19:31:24 +0000