SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Sun, 29 Nov 2015 14:07:34 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Inauguration of FSTP (Fecal Sludge Treatment Plant) in Devanahalli, Bangalore - by: cddsociety
On occassion of World Toilet Day a first of its kind plant in India for safe treatment and disposal of sludge collected in septic tanks and pit latrines was launched in Devanahalli, Karnataka.

Devanahalli, like many other densely populated towns and cities in India, does not have an underground drainage (UGD) system. Most of the town’s households depend on on-site sanitation infrastructure such as septic tanks and pit latrines for sewage disposal which require periodic emptying. However, lack of designated places for disposing the faecal sludge leads to unsafe dumping on land and in water bodies. Therefore, the FSTP at Devanahalli provides a safe delivery point for the waste

It should be noted however, that an FSTP is only a first step in proper management of Faecal Sludge. Emptying of on-site systems and their maintenance is today largely unregulated. Vacuum suction vehicles – the so called “honey suckers” - operate in an unsafe and informal environment. A well designed ‘Faecal Sludge Management” system will address policy/regulatory issues and develop business models to sustain the entire system.]]>
Faecal sludge management Fri, 27 Nov 2015 09:47:47 +0000
Re: Draft Operative Guidelines - Septage/Facel Sludge Management - by: cddsociety
sorry for the delay in response, but better late than never.

The aim of developing the guidelines and the planned process was that the government owns it rather than it becoming just a set of recommendations from the project. Therefore the guidelines were developed in consultation with few actors (from the sector) working in the government or working to advise the government, lawyers, stakeholders from civil societies and organizations working in the sector. Once the draft was ready, it was reviewed intensely by few sector specialists. Following this, some of the actions that were carried out to ensure that the actors in State are aware of the importance of policy for faecal sludge management are listed below
1. A consultation meeting was conducted to take views, suggestions of all the stakeholders who are involved/responsible for providing sanitation facilities in the State. Mainly Water and Sewerage Board, Directorate of Municipal Administration-DMA(Head of all urban local bodies), institutes, NGOs and Law schools
2. Comments provided were validated and incorporated in the guidelines and submitted to Government (DMA) for approval
3. DMA suggested to implement the process recommended in the guidelines in one of the towns of Karnataka
4. Devanahali Town managed by a Town Municipal Council (TMC) is selected for pilot implementation of operational guidelines, as town is interested in sanitation and has been proactive in taking initiatives on earlier occasions
5. Efforts are on to share the learnings from the implementation process with other towns through field visits and workshops
6. The lessons learnt in the implementation process will be incorporated in the final version of the guidelines and then the Government will initiate the process of rolling it out for all towns
Some initial lessons learnt are that ‘champions’ in the government/town help significantly for FSM to be made effective, capacity building of ULBs as a parallel activity is helpful, survey (even if town is small) can be challenging, ‘informed’ assumptions will have to be made in the survey data analysis as it is almost impossible to get 100% actual data from field and an incremental approach to guideline implementation might be more realistic than an absolute implementation

Faecal sludge management Fri, 27 Nov 2015 03:07:12 +0000
Re: Stimulating Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) business through private sector engagement in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal (ENPHO) - by: Kiku
Thanks for the interest. The Kampala City Authority folks are in touch with the Forum's Community Manager (Elisabeth von Muench), and the BMGF/DFID brief and other relevant info about this project will be uploaded very soon.


Faecal sludge management Mon, 23 Nov 2015 10:18:32 +0000
Re: Stimulating Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) business through private sector engagement in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal (ENPHO) - by: bipin
Thank you for your thoughts. I would like to learn more about your experiences on FSM initiatives in Kampala. Please let me know if it is available online or you can directly share it in this forum.

All the best with your efforts!

Faecal sludge management Mon, 23 Nov 2015 06:41:36 +0000
FSM personnel in Johannesburg, SA - by: sharadaprasad
My research is focused on fecal sludge management in India. I am curious how sludge is currently managed in Johannesburg, South Africa. My interest in South Africa is just to understand the role of race in the management of human waste. As you may know, in India, human waste is managed exclusively by a specific social class. In Johannesburg,South Africa, do people of color mostly do the job of managing human waste? How are the working conditions of sanitation workers in Johannesburg related to those of in India?

Any links to studies or organizations working on this issue are highly appreciated.]]>
Faecal sludge management Sat, 21 Nov 2015 11:13:23 +0000
Re: Stimulating Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) business through private sector engagement in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal (ENPHO) - by: Kiku
Thanks for the comprehensive project update. It is refreshing to learn that FSM challenges are not limited to Kampala (or Uganda).

Kampala City also participated in the City Partnerships initiative and received a grant of $150,000 to profile the on-site sanitation market in the City. The analytical report from the 6-month study is available (I will seek guidance on how it could be availed to the Susana Library).

Even more exciting is that thanks to the aforesaid analytical work, BMGF/DFID has indicated that they might avail up to $2 million to implement some of the recommendations of the study, especially how to utilise SLAs to improve FSM service delivery. As I am not authorised to speak for either the City Authority or the BMGF/DFID team, I can only urge folks from respective agencies to be active on the forum -and share more wrt project details.


Faecal sludge management Wed, 18 Nov 2015 09:08:33 +0000
Stimulating Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) business through private sector engagement in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal (ENPHO) - by: bipin
Please kindly find below information on FSM project supported by BMGF and DFID here in Nepal. I have also added two pictures relevant to this project.

The attached pdf file contains the same information as this post but in a neater format.


Title of grant: Stimulating Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) business for effective service delivery in sustainable sanitation through private sector engagement in Kathmandu Valley

• Name of lead organization: Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO)
Primary contact at lead organization: Bipin Dangol
Grantee location: Kathmandu, Nepal
Developing country where the research is being tested: Nepal
Start and end date: March, 2014 – June, 2015
Grant type: City partnerships for Urban Sanitation delivery
Grant size: 145,629 (USD 25,629 from BMGF and USD 120,000 from DFID) (as per BMGF grant database)
Funding for this research currently ongoing: No

Short description of the project:

The Government of Nepal has set a target of achieving universal access to sanitation by 2017. Therefore many agencies are promoting various sanitation systems but proper planning of Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) is often neglected which is causing severe adverse impact in the environment. FS generated from on-site sanitation systems in urban areas are disposed of haphazardly into the environment and illegally dumped into the sewers due to lack of proper FS treatment systems. The Bagmati river, originating from Kathmandu Valley and flowing through Kathmandu and Lalitpur cities, is heavily polluted due to the discharge of untreated sewerage including unsafe disposal of solid waste and faecal/septage sludge. Faecal sludge (FS) collection/emptying, transportation and safe disposal are still a critical issue in Kathmandu Valley. Haphazard FS disposal, lack of formal partnership between private FS extraction and transportation service providers and cities, limited capacity of private operators to promote & expand FS business and inadequate research data on technical, economical and institutional aspects of FSM are major problems identified in the context of Kathmandu Valley. To recognize the current status of FSM in Kathmandu Valley, ENPHO with support from The Bill Gates and Melinda Foundation (BMGF) and DfID, UK has conducted a study in Kathmandu Valley.


The main goal of the project is to create enabling environment in providing population of Kathmandu Valley with safe and improved access to sustainable sanitation through private sector engagement and regulation of key policies related to FSM in the city.


Following are specific objectives of the project:
• To develop comprehensive FSM strategy and business model for Kathmandu Valley by assessing current status, institutional arrangements, potential partners, policies, guidelines and associated problems;
• To identify best model of partnership between city and private sectors on delivering city-wide sanitation services and present effective implementation framework of such model;
• To perform research on FS characteristics and fractionation for designing simple, cost effective FS treatment/Co-treatment systems including resource recovery and re-use;
• To recommend effective mechanism for efficient resource mobilization for FSM, particularly for FS treatment system with involvement of city, private sectors including development banks;

Research or implementation partners:
Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitian City - Lalitpur is one of the municipalities in Kathmandu Valley. The study was also intended to identify institutional framework of local government body to manage FS at local level. The role of Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City was to support the study by providing relevant information and documents related to sanitation activities within the municipality.
One Planet Solutions Pvt. Ltd. (The role of One Planet Solutions was to prepare business plan on FSM.)

Results to date:

1. The household survey was conducted at 1428 households having on-site sanitation systems within Kathmandu Valley. Following are the major findings of this survey:
  • The results showed that 86% of households are using septic tanks while 14% are using pit latrines as sanitation system. However, it was found that the households are not using the septic tanks with standard design as about 50% HHs are using single chambered septic tanks which merely is a holding tank;
  • About 50% of septic tanks have been constructed more than 10 years ago while 45.6% of pit latrines were constructed 5-10 years ago.
  • Most of the households are getting emptying services from private operators as 65% and 42% of households having septic tanks and pit latrines respectively call private operators for emptying facilities. Nearly 34.6% households with pit latrines are emptying the pit manually by themselves and 23.4% households are calling manual emptier to get this service.
  • Nearly 63% of households with septic tanks and 44% of households with pit latrines have never emptied their tanks and pits.
  • Almost 52% households are paying NRs. 2000 – 3000 (USD 20 – 30) for emptying services. This amount is not high compared to household income. On average the household empties the pits every 5 years. Nearly 29% households are paying more than NRs. 3000 (USD 30) for the emptying services. Most of the households (78%) are satisfied with the emptying services and mostly they are satisfied with efficient cleaning services and quick response of the service providers.
  • Nearly 78% respondents are concerned about illegal disposal of untreated faecal sludge into the environment whilst only 67% showed willingness to pay more for better services and faecal sludge treatment system. About 43.5% respondents are ready to pay less than NRs. 500 as an additional charge if the faecal sludge goes to the treatment plant, whereas only 2.2% respondents are willing to pay more than NRs. 1,000 for the treatment facilities.
  • On average about 170,000 m3 of faecal sludge is generated per annum in Kathmandu Valley.

2. Assessment of Private Operators engaged in FS desludging services:
  • Altogether there are 11 private operators (6 individuals and 5 in partnership) running FSM business with 12 FS vehicles in Kathmandu Valley;
  • The industry is unregulated, unorganized and competitive; suppliers under-cut each other’s prices to capture a small piece of the pie;
  • The current disconnection between the private sector and the government policies and action hampers the industry. Operators primarily operate as unregistered or minimally registered companies who don’t pay taxes. The government has paid minimal attention to faecal sludge management and the few efforts have been haphazard, uncoordinated and discontinued after a short time;
  • Service providers face their own challenges by traffic police on the road who inhibit their passage because no valid certificate of operation can be provided. Proper registration and public-private partnerships are essential to address these challenges and the faecal sludge management problems and market in Kathmandu;
  • Private operators are concerned about lack of FS treatment system, due to which they are forced to dump the FS indiscriminately on the open environment including river bodies. They often face opposition from local people for dumping FS openly and have to frequently look for the new dumping places. There is no FS treatment system in Kathmandu valley, so all FS are being dumped directly into the environment. Some of the farmers doing manually emptying are applying untreated FS for agricultural reuse which could be threat to public health.
  • Private operators still face social stigma as general public consider the desludging services as disrespectful job.

3. Analysis of FS

The analysis was done for pH, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Volatile Suspended Soilds (VSS), Nitrogen-Ammonia, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Altogether 50 samples were collected from 47 septic tanks and 3 pit latrines from different locations around Kathmandu Valley (samples were collected from the FS collection vehicle and the information on on-site sanitation systems were interviewed with household). The age of on-site sanitation systems ranged from 6 months to 21 years. The summary of the results of laboratory analysis is presented below in the table (or see attached pdf file for a clearer table format):

pH TSS (mg/l) VSS (mg/L) Nitrogen-Ammonia (mg/L) Total Phosphorous (mg/L) TKN (mg/L) BOD (mg/L) COD (mg/L)
Average: 7.4 55,927 35,005 942 792 7,350 13,690 31,174
Maximum: 8.1 166,400 89,696 6,045 5,375 15,232 40,500 120,640
Minimum: 6.7 2,362 1,220 101 20 761 1,025 1,850

4. Formulation of FSM business plan for Shreekhandapur Wastewater Management System

The Shreekhandapur Wastewater Treatment Plant was constructed in 2008 to treat the sewage generated from ward 8 & 9 of the Dhulikhel Municipality. This place was selected because unregulated FS is being dumped into the manhole connected to this treatment plant. The user’s committee requested us to prepare FSM business plan to regulate the FS treatment within this treatment plant. - Approximately 120 houses are connected to the existing sewer which is diverted into the DEWATS for the treatment prior to discharge into the river. The study was conducted to gather detailed data regarding the current situational analysis of sanitation practices, challenges and opportunities to sector stakeholders engaged in this sector, for the purpose of informing more in-depth empirical research to provide modest business plan Shreekhandapur Waste Water Treatment Plant.

The FSM business plan for integrating FS treatment facilities onto the existing wastewater treatment system in Shreekhandapur. The FSM business plan included:
o Operational, marketing, financial, organization management plans;
o FSM market segment analysis, assessment of business environment and competitive analysis;
o Demand and willingness to pay for FSM services;
o Realistic business and partnership model to operate and manage wastewater treatment system with integration of FS treatment;

Links and further readings:

• Documents in SuSanA library (contains a presentation from January 2015 so far):
• Awaiting final approval from BMGF to share the relevant documents and reports

Current state of affairs:

Although the project has been officially closed, ENPHO has been continuously coordinating with concerned stakeholders to formulate policies and strategies in FSM. This activity is not being funded now. We are doing this ourselves as not much fund is required for coordination.

Biggest successes so far:

1. Identified current status of FSM in Kathmandu Valley which is very useful in formulating FSM policies, plan, guidelines and strategies;
2. Department of Water Supply and Sewerage (DWSS) has taken initiatives to address FSM problems in Nepal by organizing first National Workshop on FSM with support from BMGF and ADB. The key recommendations and findings from this project were shared during the workshop resulting in devising way forwards on effective FSM;
3. This study has built capacity of ENPHO. As a result, a study, supported by USAID Nepal, on FSM in small towns in Nepal was conducted and strategic recommendations were provided for effective FSM (I have request approval from USAID to share this study). More agencies are approaching to ENPHO

Main challenges / frustration:

• No clear policies, guidelines and by-laws on FSM;
• Inadequate policy regulation and monitoring.

• Lack of appropriate, locally-suited technology - There is no successful project in Nepal that demonstrates effective FS treatment. One of the reasons is lack of appropriate FS treatment technologies. Previously there was one FS treatment system in Kathmandu, but it failed due to technical and management issues.
• Technology requiring high O&M cost may not work – I am referring to high-tech systems demanding high energy requirements such as activated sludge treatment plant;
• Inadequate technical capabilities to design, operate & maintain the system

Social acceptance:
• Lack of public awareness;
• Public opposition due to failure of previous/existing systems (Wastewater and FS treatment systems) - There used to be five wastewater treatment systems in Kathmandu valley, but currently only one system is in partial operation. And one FS treatment system also failed due to technical and management issues. So people don’t have big trust towards these systems. So more public engagement is required to build their trust towards these systems.

Questions? Comments? Please put them into this thread.


Bipin Dangol
Programme Manager
Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO)
110/25 Adarsha Marg, New Baneshwor
G.P.O Box 4102, Kathmandu, Nepal
Winner of the 4th Kyoto World Water Grand Prize 2015
Winner of the Humanitarian Water and Food (WAF) Award 2015
Faecal sludge management Tue, 17 Nov 2015 06:54:05 +0000
Fecal sludge management platform - Maputo, Mozambique - by: AndreMA
I am very happy to finally post this message here. TU Delft and the Erasmus University Rotterdam have teamed-up and submitted a proposal to the Dutch fund ViaWater for the development and implementation of a fecal sludge management platform in Mozambique. The teaser was well received and we are working on a full proposal together with WSUP, BoP InC and the local branch of WSP. We are currently looking for a private or non-profit partner, who is able to support us with the technical implementation of the digital platform.

Ideally, the platform consists of an SMS service, a website, a call-centre and includes mobile payment systems. The idea is quite similar to the work of ONAS in Dakar and will eventually act as the mediator between households and companies emptying septic tanks and pit latrines. It generates discharge and user fees necessary for the operation of a fecal sludge treatment plant.

If you are interested in this and want more information, please don't hesitate contacting me ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ), my colleague Johanna ( This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ) or simply reply to this message.]]>
Faecal sludge management Mon, 09 Nov 2015 14:09:20 +0000
New Video - Dumaguete Philippines Septage Management Program - by: dmrobbins10
The Dumaguete City Septage Management Program has been operating for six years and is one of the country's first using the model of scheduled desludging. It is frequently the destination for international study tours so some of you may have seen it. We are producing these videos in conjunction with Oxfam for their on-going mission of promoting septage management, especially in the typhoon Haiyan development zone.

This is still a work in progress, so any comments would be appreciated.

Thanks, and here is the link:

Faecal sludge management Tue, 20 Oct 2015 18:20:25 +0000
Operations Manual on the Rules and Regulations Governing Domestic Sludge and Septage (Philippines and beyond) - by: dmrobbins10
- Roles and responsibilities for local governments and service providers;
- Vehicle and transport truck maintenance;
- Dealing with accidental spills during septage transportation;
- Technologies for the treatment, dispersal and reuse of treated biosolids;
- Manifesting system for waste tracking; and
- Training guidelines for service providers and personnel.

It even includes a sample local government ordinance on septage management.

I hope you find the information interesting and useful.]]>
Faecal sludge management Mon, 05 Oct 2015 08:42:35 +0000
Re: Implementer's Guide to Lime Stabilization for Septage Management in the Philippines - by: alabasterg regards
Faecal sludge management Mon, 28 Sep 2015 08:07:33 +0000
Re: Implementer's Guide to Lime Stabilization for Septage Management in the Philippines - by: F H Mughal
F H Mughal]]>
Faecal sludge management Mon, 28 Sep 2015 03:24:17 +0000
Re: Implementer's Guide to Lime Stabilization for Septage Management in the Philippines - by: dmrobbins10 full scale lime stabilization programs. At least one program (Tacloban City) will be starting up this year but real data will not be available for some time.]]> Faecal sludge management Sun, 27 Sep 2015 21:43:21 +0000 Re: Implementer's Guide to Lime Stabilization for Septage Management in the Philippines - by: F H Mughal
F H Mughal]]>
Faecal sludge management Sun, 27 Sep 2015 16:47:12 +0000
Re: Implementer's Guide to Lime Stabilization for Septage Management in the Philippines - by: dmrobbins10
- Cost of the plant (depreciated over 5 years);
- Labor to operate the plant;
- The cost of the lime; and
- Administration.

After year 5 when the plant is paid off, the cost for the treatment per cubic meter drops to about $6.80.

For this costing example, the target community has 10,500 homes and the desludging frequency is every 5 years. The tariff comes out to just under $1 per family per month, all in, including collection and treatment.

The cost estimates are still a bit hypothetical in the Philippines as up until now systems utilizing the lime stabilization technology have been subsidized by donors and the collection and treatment has been erratic. The larger scale system under construction in Tacloban City will provide some better numbers, and lots of lessons learned to be sure, so please stay posted for those.]]>
Faecal sludge management Thu, 24 Sep 2015 08:01:10 +0000