SuSanA - Forum Kunena Site Syndication Thu, 24 Jul 2014 10:41:03 +0000 Kunena 1.6 SuSanA - Forum en-gb Re: Health guidelines and standards for pit emptiers and exhauster operators - by: rsklar

My project is to develop strategies for maximizing sewage sourcing from informal communities. Most people rely on pit latrines, which are used by over 500,000 residents in Mombasa’s slums. When these latrines are full, manual pit emptiers called “Churas” remove the wastes then bury or dump them within the community – either on the owner’s property or a neighbor’s, space permitting. Our goal is to transport these wastes from the community to our waste-to-fuel facility.

Slum and low-income communities represent a critical stakeholder in Pivot’s business success. Without their waste, the volumes of fuel necessary to be profitable or to meet the volumetric expectations of potential customers will not be met.
As of now, we are working on building partnerships with the pit emptiers, known here as “Churas”, and optimizing sludge emptying and transportation schemes. We will use the gulper developed by Water for the People and 50 gallon drums to transport sludge in trucks that are rented on call from community members.

We also hope to do our part in protecting the occupational health of our partners and minimize their exposure to workplace hazards. As you mentioned, the emptiers we are working are poorly paid and exposed to toxic fumes and airborne pathogens and contaminants.

We are going to trial different incentive systems to maximize sourcing from these low-income communities. These incentive systems include 1) providing receptacles to the Churas for fecal sludge, and having a designated point within the community for Pivot to collect them when full. 2) Providing direct cash for emptiers that deliver sludge to the plant. In this latter scheme, vehicles owned by other community members hired for use in sludge transport.

Prior to starting our trial, we will conduct training sessions with the emptiers. I am wondering if you or anyone on this forum wishes to share any thoughts, resources, or educational materials we might use in our trainings. Please let me know if you have questions about our program.

Rachel Sklar
Pivot LTD
Supply Chain Analyst
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Faecal sludge management Wed, 23 Jul 2014 15:33:07 +0000
Re: Quantities of faecal sludge from pits, tanks etc - by: Dave
Yes, the figures are guideline average figures per user. If a toilet is used by a large number of people the accumulation rate per person is likely to be higher, simply because less time will pass before the pit is full. The longer the sludge is in the pit, the lower the accumulation rate on a per person per year basis.

From what I have seen, if sludge is dry and dense it is a waste of time to add water to it in order to facilitate vacuum pumping. Only if the sludge is borderline pumpable (or suckable) then it would be worthwhile adding some water, but not too much is needed (10 or 20% by volume max).

If sludge is too dry for pumping without the addition of large amounts of water, it will be much more cost effective to simply dig it out by hand.


Faecal sludge management Sat, 19 Jul 2014 14:49:30 +0000
Re: Quantities of faecal sludge from pits, tanks etc - by: jonpar Faecal sludge management Tue, 15 Jul 2014 13:24:46 +0000 Re: New FSM book available now! Free PDF download, or hardcover textbook - IWA Publishing - by: LindaStrande
I am happy to hear that you have successfully downloaded the book! We are currently researching options to make the file lower resolution, but still high enough quality. Also, each individual chapter can be downloaded as a separate file.

Unfortunately IWA is not able to make the hardcover book available for free.

Best regards and good reading,
Faecal sludge management Tue, 15 Jul 2014 11:59:07 +0000
Re: Press Release and infographic: iDE Cambodia hits 100,000 latrine sales in 2 years - and the power of sanitation marketing - by: pkjha Use of lime in pit toilets and septage management is being discussed/ recommended for killing pathogens in some recently released books/studies. Bacterial pathogens - mostly hydrolytic in nature- help degrade human wastes till they are stabilized in the form of manure.
By putting lime in pits and raising pH to 12, all pathogens will be eliminated and there would be no /little chance of degradation /stabilization of human wastes. Consequently total volume of wastes in a toilet pit would remain more or less unchanged, causing frequent filling of pits.
In case of septage management (from septic tanks)one may face same problem. Septage effluent, after sand filter or so, may have high pH. Consequently its biological treatment would be a great challenge.
Septage management has dual purpose- stabilisation of septage and killing of pathogens for its safe reuse. Application of lime can solve the second objective and not the first.
It may be suggested to use lime, if required, to kill pathogens after the human waste is fully degraded. However, precaution needs to be taken when such degraded human waste is used as manure in agriculture land as it may affect soil pH. Further, its socio-economic sustainability by the targeted community should also be taken into consideration.

Faecal sludge management Sun, 13 Jul 2014 13:17:40 +0000
Re: New FSM book available now! Free PDF download, or hardcover textbook - IWA Publishing - by: F H Mughal
I have downloaded the book - 36 MB - took quite a while in downloading, due to slow internet speed here. I haven't yet gone through it, but from the Table of Contents, I find that it is a very useful book.

Just 2 minor queries: One, have you discussed the policy options? I may add here that, in most cases in the rural areas (here in Pakistan) fecal sludge become a part and parcel of solid waste management. So, policy options would be in order.

Second: Could you kindly request IWA to make hard copies free to users in developing countries?

Thank you for producing such a valuable book.

Kind regards,

F H Mughal]]>
Faecal sludge management Sat, 12 Jul 2014 19:31:24 +0000
Faecal waste: the next sanitation challenge – Water21 article - by: LindaStrande
FSM made the cover of this month’s edition of the IWA magazine Water21, surely a sign of the growing recognition of our field and the need for FSM!

The edition can be downloaded for free at this link, and is also attached. The article can be found starting on page 16.

Faecal waste: the next sanitation challenge
The management of faecal sludge from onsite sanitation systems in many areas of the world has yet to be properly addressed, with subsequent impacts on human health and the environment. LINDA STRANDE, an editor and author of the new IWA Publishing book ‘Faecal Sludge Management – Systems Approach to Implementation and Operation’, explains how the importance of faecal sludge management is finally being acknowledged, introduces some of the unique challenges of working in the field, and looks at the steps required for sanitation to move forward.

Best regards,
Faecal sludge management Thu, 10 Jul 2014 13:28:48 +0000
New article – calorific value of faecal sludge - by: LindaStrande
Our recent publication in the Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development (WASHDEV) is now available for download at the WASHDEV and Sandec websites, and is also attached here.

Fuel potential of faecal sludge: calorific value results from Uganda, Ghana and Senegal
A. Murray Muspratt, T. Nakato, C. Niwagaba, H. Dione, J. Kang, L. Stupin, J. Regulinski, M. Mbéguéré and L. Strande

The article is open source, so please feel free to share and disseminate it widely

The research was conducted as part of the FaME project -

Best regards,
Faecal sludge management Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:28:32 +0000
New FSM book available now! Free PDF download, or hardcover textbook - IWA Publishing - by: LindaStrande
The first book dedicated entirely to faecal sludge management (FSM) in low- and middle-income countries is now available. The book is published by IWA, co-edited by Sandec/Eawag and UNESCO-IHE, and co-funded by the Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF).

The book is available FREE OF CHARGE as a PDF DOWNLOAD on the Sandec/Eawag and UNESCO-IHE websites:

It is also available for purchase as a hardcover textbook from IWA, and soon as a free e-book download:

Cover text:
Over a billion people in urban and peri-urban areas of Africa, Asia, and Latin America are served by onsite sanitation technologies. Until now, the management of faecal sludge resulting from these onsite technologies has been grossly neglected. Financial resources are often lacking, and onsite sanitation systems tend to be regarded as temporary solutions until sewer-based systems can be implemented. However, the reality is that onsite sanitation is here to stay, either as an intermediate or permanent standalone solution, or in combination with sewer-based systems. The appropriate and adequate management of faecal sludge deriving from onsite technologies is imperative for the protection of human and environmental health.

This is the first book dedicated to faecal sludge management. It compiles the current state of knowledge of this rapidly evolving field, and presents an integrated approach that includes technology, management and planning. It addresses the planning and organization of the entire faecal sludge management service chain, from the collection and transport of sludge and treatment options, to the final en d use or disposal of treated sludge. In addition to providing fundamentals and an overview of technologies, the book goes into details of operational, institutional and financial aspects, and provides guidance on how to plan a city-level faecal sludge management project with the involvement of all the stakeholders.

Best regards, and hope you enjoy!

Linda Strande]]>
Faecal sludge management Thu, 10 Jul 2014 11:13:10 +0000
Re: New Article on Resource Recovery from Faecal Sludge — Can It Be the Driver for Improved Sanitation? - by: ThomasHoffmann
thanks for the nice discussion.
The topic about bio gas generation from septage or FS from pit latrines as well as bio gas potentials of substrate is a topic that is a crucial topic if we try to generalize it.
To get some practical experiences in this discussion I will try to clarify in the name of BORDA on the questions raised about sufficiant biogas productiion and economic viablity of FSM Services that use biogas for additional income generation.

1. Biogas production from septage or FS:
Yes, there is still "sufficiant" biogas that can be generated from FS or septage. Please find attached the report of a monitoring project which BORDA conducted for a FS Treatment plant in Lusaka, Zambia. 15m³biogas per 1m3 FS. With a input of approx. 1.6m3/day. Sludge samples form that region (high water table) show that sludge average TS and TVS are: TS=15% , TVS=37% (270l Gas/kgTVS). The TVS is quite low compared to sludge samples from Antananarivo, Madagascar (TVS>60%), where we are working with WSUP on two FSM projects. However TS in Antananarivo Region is at TS:10%. This evens out TS/TVS ratios (Lusaka:5.6 and Tana: 6.0).
The high TS in Lusaka is achieved, because pit latrine construction is majorely done over ground, because of the high water table. That creates a very dry FS.

The first point I would like to make is that even though sludge conditions are quite different and might indicate at first that it is fully digested they still produce biogas. How much is a question of the operator and how it is fed. The FS or septage are great for the stabalization of the anaerbobic food chain. If we look at biogas plants in Germany each biogas plant fermentation is considred to be unique. Still constriction parts are standardized. Therefore the essential part is the operation. A biogas plant need lot's of attention if we want to maximize resource recovery, This should be the same if we look at biogas generation from anaerobic treatment in FSM.

2. The projects Mr. Schwagerer brings up especially in Mojekerto BORDA faced problems in terms of operation. With 30m3/d it is quite big compared to the plant in Lusaka. For bigger treatment plants infrastructure becomes even more essential. Mojokerto handed over to the Municipality in 2010 and by now it is only receiving 3-6m3/day FS from septic tanks. This is not sufficient for a proper treatment process. I have no gas values but I can assume that it is as well not sufficient. Again this brings up point of economic viability... or the question why is there no operator who is interested to get the treatment plant running to generate more income from resource recovery. The question is probably more difficult than I state it now, but we are missing the management model and the support of governmental structures to support the development of such systems.

The amount of risks for the planning process is quite high, so many unknowns (nothing new:). However, the operator and the management model and how it is introduced into the public private context is essential. We need more show cases that can convince other municipalities and we need trainings for operators that help them understand impact of substrates and other O&M procedures.

A lot of gas can be produced from FS if the management system motivates the operator.

Faecal sludge management Thu, 10 Jul 2014 09:53:33 +0000
Re: Options for treatment of Septage - by: PeterHo Many thanks for the assistance. I was not sure if I needed to seek approval from the BMG Foundation before release of the document.

Faecal sludge management Thu, 10 Jul 2014 04:10:47 +0000
Re: Quantities of faecal sludge from pits, tanks etc - by: Dave
Alan Wright produced some guidelines for septic tanks. He quotes 1987 data from de Villiers (see Tables 12 and 13) which puts the sludge accumulation rate at 30 litres/c/yr after 8 years. For shorter periods the rate is higher, and it will also be higher depending on anal cleansing materials.]]>
Faecal sludge management Wed, 09 Jul 2014 13:49:40 +0000
Re: Options for treatment of Septage - by: muench;type=2&id=1670

Ho, P. Y. C., Teh, T. H., Zakaria, M. Y., Lean, C. L., Tan, S. H., Sasidharan, V. (2011). Landscape analysis and business model assessment in faecal sludge management: extraction and transportation model in Malaysia - Final report. Consultancy report by ERE Consulting Group in collaboration with INDAH Water Konsortium (IWK) commissioned by Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA.

Faecal sludge management Wed, 09 Jul 2014 10:32:41 +0000
Re: Options for treatment of Septage - by: PeterHo The bags are made of geosynthetic material not unlike those used in landfill construction. Trails on the material type is best done to determine the appropriate pore size for the bag.
The bags are used once and after sufficient drying out (between 20-30% solids), the whole bag can be disposed or cut and sludge removed for disposal or possibly composting.
No, the bags are not made of biodegradable fibres but is a useful consideration for future trials.]]>
Faecal sludge management Wed, 09 Jul 2014 10:21:04 +0000
Re: Options for treatment of Septage - by: PeterHo a) The sludge was that from on-site sanitation systems (OSS) such as septic tanks and pour flush systems. In a way these are partly stabilised due to the period over which they accumulate in the systems. Yes, I believe the inner part of the bag will be anaerobic but odour was not an issue from the bag.
b) Overall operational cost using the bag was estimated to be reduced by some 37% and this included disposal cost to a landfill.
c) Sludge collected by vacuum trucks was directly pumped from the truck into an acceptance hose connected to the bag. The bags are porous of geosynthetic material and the normal pressure during pumping is not an issue.]]>
Faecal sludge management Wed, 09 Jul 2014 10:12:55 +0000